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MEDICINAL PLANTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND ADJACENT HERBAL REGIONS Michael Moore (Part 1 - Abies to Crataegus)

* Special Note - The following work of Michael Moore was not written by Michael himself. It is a work of several individual's which have been noted below.  Before his death, the principal author John Dunne-Brady, sent out several copies to friends for safe keeping and eventual editing and publishing ... 

This is an unfinished, unedited and far from complete work ... one day !!!!!

 

 

MEDICINAL PLANTS
OF NORTH AMERICA
AND ADJACENT HERBAL REGIONS

Michael Moore

COMPILED AND EDITED BY JOHN DUNNE- BRADY FROM CLASS NOTES AND AUDIO TAPES (WRITTEN BY, OR RECORDED BY, TED KRUEGER OR JOHN DUNNE-BRADY) DURING

TWO OF MICHAEL MOORE’S FIVE MONTH TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND ON NUMEROUS ASSOCIATED FIELD TRIPS. TED’S TAPES WERE TRANSCRIBED BY SANDRA KISHNAP

 

Michael Moore in Southern Colorado, early 1990's

 

Michael Moore and Yucca Root - 1980's, Southern Arizona

VOLUME TWO MATERIA MEDICA — Abies to Hyssopus

Abies concolor FIR / WESTERN WHITE FIR
#[Family] Pinaceae, pine family. #[Genus] 50 species; north temperate and arctic zones, especially cold damp high mountains. #[Species] í Abies amabilis [amabilis fir, cascades fir, pacific silver fir], central Yukon, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon mountains; í Abies concolor [concolor fir, fir, silver fir, western white fir, white fir]; mountains, southern Oregon to southern California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, northern Mexico, usually above 5, 500 feet; í Abies grandis [giant fir, grand fir, lowland fir, lowland white fir, white fir], coastal northern California to British Columbia; Idaho and Montana; í Abies lasiocarpa [alpine fir, rocky mountain fir, sub-alpine fir,], Alaska, western Canada, Rocky Mountains to northern New Mexico, Arizona and Oregon, usually above 8,000 feet; í Abies magnifica [california red fir, red fir, silver tip fir], mountains in central and northern California and southern Oregon; í Abies procera [noble fir, red fir, white fir] = Abies nobilis, northern California to Washington. #[Editor] species of Tsuga or hemlock spruce were formerly included in this genus and are still called, abies, as a common name. #[Appearance] Firs are tall, ever green, conifer trees; the largest species growing to about 270 feet tall. Leaves are solitary, stemless, linear needles; usually flat with a groove above and keeled below, with no sheaths surrounding the needle bases (as in the genus Pinus [pines]); usually spirally arranged on branches and upward curving. Male cones are small, drooping, borne below the branches on the upper half of the tree. Female cones are large, erect, borne above the branches at the top of the tree; with numerous, over-lapping scales; and two seeds on upper surface of each scale. Seeds have a large thin wing. #[Herbal Properties] aromatic, astringent, disinfectant, diuretic, expectorant, and stimulant. #[Class] Fir is used externally as a disinfectant and astringent wash, and internally as a stimulating astringent for the gastro-intestinal system, lungs, skin and mucosa deficiencies. The pitch is used like Populus [poplar] bud oil. A tea made from dried needles is diuretic and expectorant. The dried needles also make a pleasant smudge or incense. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried bark, weak decoction, used externally as wash; dried bark, weak decoction, used internally, 1-3 fluid ounces, up to five times a day; dried bark tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5- 20 drops, up to five times a day; dried pitch, as salve, method B; dried needles, strong decoction, internally, one cup, up to three times a day; essential oil, 2-5 drops, in capsule. NOTE – same dosages as for Tsuga canadensis [hemlock spruce]. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 289, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition): 4. #[Other References] Dunmire + Tierney: 102, Moerman: 2, Mayes + Lacy: 37, Willard: 34.

Abronia fragrans SAND VERBENA / LECHUGUILLA
#[Family] Nyctaginaceae, four-o’ clock family. #[Genus] 33 species; western United States and northern Mexico. #[Species] í Abronia fragrans [fragrant sand verbena, lechuguilla, sand verbena, snow ball, sweet sand verbena], eastern Montana, western North Dakota, western South Dakota, Wyoming, eastern Utah, Colorado, northeastern Arizona, New Mexico, western and central Texas, Chihuahua. #[Editor] common name: lechuguilla, also applied to Agave lechuguilla [century plant] = lechuguilla, and Apocynum androsaemifolium [dog bane] = lechuguilla. #[Appearance] This species of sand verbena is a branching, perennial herb; some other species are annual; with finely-haired, sticky stems; growing up to about two feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, dark-green,

triangular to wedge-shaped to lanceolate, and short-stemmed; with smooth wavy margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, numerous, fragrant, trumpet-shaped, pink to white; grouped together in terminal, spherical heads above the upper leaves; with thin, white, leaf-like bracts beneath each flower, which appear to be petals. #[Herbal Properties] galactagogue, laxative, and stomachic. #[Class] In the New Mexico herbal traditions, nursing mothers made a tea of the flowers to stimulate milk production. Several plains tribes of Native Americans used the roots and flowers as a mild laxative for stomach and bowel problems. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] whole dried plant, strong decoction, 2-4 fluid ounces, frequent small doses, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 53, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 111, Kindscher: 224, Moerman: 4.

Acacia greggii CAT CLAW / WHITE THORN / HUISACHE
#[Family] Fabaceae [/Leguminosae], pea-bean-legume family, ~Mimosaceae, mimosa family. #[Genus] 1,200 species; tropics and sub-tropics; about 900 in Australia; splitters separate about 60 species into Acaciella, about 10 species into Acaciopsis, about 140 species into Senegalia, about 100 species into Vachellia, etc. #[Species] í Acacia angustissima [fern acacia, prairie Acacia, white-ball acacia], = Mimosa angustissima, = Acaciella angustissima, = Senegalia filicina, southern Florida, Missouri to Louisiana, west to Arizona, Mexico, Central America, and Venezuela; í Acacia constricta [mescat acacia, timbe, vinorama, white thorn, white thorn acacia], = Acaciopsis constricta, = Vachellia constricta, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico; í Acacia cymbispina [guinole (Baja California), vinorama (Spanish), hollow-spined acacia] = Acacia cochliacantha, northwestern Mexico; í Acacia farnesiana [binorama, cassie, farnes acacia, guisache, huisache, sweet acacia, vinorama, wattle], = Vachellia farnesiana, tropics and sub-tropics; southern California, southern Arizona, Sonora, southern Texas to Florida, south to Argentina; í Acacia greggii [acacia, cat claw, cat claw acacia, devil claw acacia, gregg acacia, gregg cat claw, uña de gato (cat claw), white thorn], = Senegalia greggii, southern Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona, southern California, northern Mexico; #[Editor] common name: white, also applied to: Ilex opaca [american holly, white holly], Juglans cinerea [butter nut, white walnut], Melilotus alba [white sweet clover], Nymphaea odorata [white pond lily], Polygala alba [white milk wort], Salvia apiana [white sage, salvia blanca], Santalum album [white sandal wood, santal],and Sinapis alba [white mustard]; common name: uña de gato (cat claw), also applied to: Uncaria [gambir]; common name: mescal = Lophophora; mescat = Acacia; see also: Acacia senegal [gum arabic, african acacia] in next entry. #[Appearance] Acacias are large shrubs or small trees, deciduous, usually spiny, with compound bipinnate leaves, usually with an even number of tiny opposite leaflets, and with many tiny yellow flowers which form spherical puff-like heads or spikes. #[Herbal Properties] anti-biotic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, cooling, emollient, mucilaginous, sedative, vaso-constrictive. #[Class] Our acacias resemble Prosopis julifera [mesquite] but their spines are smaller, more like rose barbs. The plant contains tryptamine and tyramine, which are moderate vaso- constrictive amino acid alkaloids. Their effect may linger for up to three hours, longer than a simple astringent. Acacia greggii [cat claw] is cooling, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and sedative. It is a good eyewash, douche, enema and gargle. It’s an astringent but soothing for inflamed and irritated body orifices, and for ulcers and gastritis. It makes a good enema for bleeding hemorrhoids, piles, and

diverticulitis. It has adequate astringency and gives a certain amount of mucilaginous protection. The pods are used for conjunctivitis in the same manner as Prosopis [mesquite] pods, and the gum is used in the same manner as mesquite gum. The pods are also powdered and applied moistened as a poultice for muscle pain, bruises and spasms. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 7,3',4'-tri- hydroxy-flavan-3,4-diol, anis-aldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, butyric acid, coumarin, cresol, eugenol, gum (same as Prosopis [mesquite] gum), leuco- antho-cyanidin, methyl-eugenol, methyl-salicylate, N-methyl-B-phen-ethyl- amine, N-methyl-penta-thylamine, N-methyl-tyramine, tannins, terpineol, tryptamine, tyramine. Acacia cymbispina – anti-biotic against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried powdered leaves, stems and pods, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, taken internally, every three hours; or as topical dust application; roots, standard infusion or cold infusion, for topical application, or gargled, as needed; gum mucilage, one ounce, dissolved in three ounces of water, for topical application, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 11, Los Remedios: 80, Pacific West: 289, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition): 4. #[Other References] Alvarez: 120, Curtin: 193, Duke + Ayensu: 442, Jain + DeFilipps: 421, Kay: 81, Manandhar: 66, Martinez: 381, 505, Morton: 269, Woodward: 158, Wyk + Wink: 29.

Acacia senegal GUM ARABIC / AFRICAN ACACIA
#[Family] Fabaceae [/Leguminosae], pea-bean-legume family, ~Mimosaceae, mimosa family. #[Genus] 1,200 species; tropics and sub-tropics; about 900 in Australia. #[Species] í Acacia senegal [acacia gum, acacia resin, african acacia, gum acacia, gum arabic, senegal acacia] = Mimosa senegal, = Senegalia senegal, arid regions of Africa. #[Editor] common name: gum, also applied to: Bursera micro-phylla [elephant tree gum], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh gum], Eucalyptus globulus [blue gum], Grindelia squarrosa [gum weed], Liquidambar styraciflua [sweet gum], Prosopis julifera [gum mesquite], and Styrax officinalis [benzoin gum]; see also: Acacia greggii [cat claw, white thorn, huisache] in previous entry. #[Appearance] –. #[Herbal Properties] anti-inflammatory, demulcent, emollient, hygroscopic, mucilaginous, and spermacidal. #[Class] Acacia gum or acacia resin comes from Africa. Gum arabic pieces were used thousands of years ago as vaginal suppositories to acidify the vagina and act as a spermicide. Prosopis julifera [mesquite], a member of the same family, produces a water soluble gum which will serve the same purposes as gum arabic. Both are hygroscopic (absorbing moisture from the air). Gum arabic forms a useful mucilage for gastric ulcers, dysentery, and shigellosis infection. It will supplant mucus, and it can be used by itself or with Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow] root or stem. It can be used almost interchangeably with Ulmus rubra [slippery elm]. The gum is also a useful adhesive for making pills. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] arabic acid (C12H22O11) = arabin, arabin (= arabic acid) (C12H22O11), arabinose, calcium salt, D-glucuronic acid, galactose, L-rhamnose, magnesium salt, potassium salt. #[Physiology] One of the oldest forms of birth control was Acacia senegal [gum arabic] which was used back in the first and second dynasties of Egypt. Women used the gum as a vaginal suppository which broke down and formed an acid environment. Sperm needs an alkaline environment. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Gum mucilage, one tablespoon, dissolved in four fluid ounces of water, flavored with vanilla or cinnamon; or gum mucilage without water, 2 teaspoons, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West

Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition): 4. #[Other References] Felter: 113, Grieve: 3, 4, Jain + DeFilipps: 424, Kadans: 17, Lust: 87 (#1), Millspaugh: 183, Meyer: 5, Potter: 1-2, Stuart: 142, Wyk + Wink: 29.

Acalypha phleoides COPPER LEAF / YERBA DEL CANCER
#[Family] Euphorbiaceae, spurge family. #[Genus] 430 species, usually shrubs; tropics and subtropics. #[Species] í Acalypha californica [california copper leaf], San Diego county and Baja California; í Acalypha phleoides [copper leaf, crimson-flowered copper leaf, lindheimer copper leaf, yerba del cancer], = Acalypha lindheimeri, western Texas, New Mexico, southern Arizona, and northern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] These two species are shrubs; some other species are herbs. These have simple alternate short-stemmed leaves, with small rounded teeth around the margins. The leaves turn red-orange in the fall. The flowers are grouped together in bright red spikes about four inches long. Male spikes are usually longer than the female spikes. #[Herbal Properties] anti- inflammatory, anti-microbial, astringent. #[Class] Acalypha californica is used externally as an anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, astringent for rashes, bites, burns, skin infections and infected gums. Some Native American internal uses have been reported. Acalypha phleoides is used internally to treat stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers and colitis; this second species has very little toxicity. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION: other Euphorbiaceae members are quite toxic; the two species listed here may be used with care. [a] Acalypha californica – whole dried plant, powdered and applied directly to skin, or made into a simple tea as topical wash. [b] Acalypha phleoides – dried leaves and flowers, simple tea, Ω cup, up to five times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 81, Pacific West: 289, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Martinez: 401, 431.

Achillea millefolium YARROW / MIL FOIL / PLUMAJILLO
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 115 species; north temperate zone, especially Europe and Asia. #[Species] í Achillea lanulosa [western yarrow, woolly yarrow], western United States and western Canada. í Achillea millefolium [achillea, blood wort, carpenter weed, common yarrow, dog daisy, gordo lobo (fat wolf), herbe militaris, hundred leaf, knight’s mil foil, mil foil, military herb, mille foil, millefolium, mountain camomile, nose bleed, old man, old man’s pepper, plumajillo, sneeze weed, sneeze wort, soldier grass, soldier herb, soldier wound wort, staunch blood, staunch weed, staunch wort, thousand-leaf, wild tansy, wound wort, yarrow], north temperate zone. #[Editor] Generic name honors Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan war, who killed Hector, and was killed by Paris (by an arrow to his heel, his only imperfection; hence the phrase: Achilles’ heel – a physical or moral weakness). Legend said his mother immersed him in a yarrow tea bath at birth which made him invincible, except for his heels by which she held him. Supposedly, Achilles used yarrow at Troy to make salves to stop soldier’s wounds from bleeding. #[Appearance] Yarrow is a perennial herb, about two to three feet tall, with leaves dissected into numerous tiny pieces. The flowers are composite; each apparent flower actually consists of several small white petal- like ray florets which surround numerous tiny yellowish stamen-like central disc florets; one such group is called a head, and the composite heads are grouped together in a corymb at the top of the stems. #[Herbal Properties] anti-arthritic,

anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-pyretic, anti-spasmodic, aromatic, astringent, bitter, carminative, cholagogue, cytotoxic, dermatological, diaphoretic, diuretic, hemo-static, hypo-tensive, spasmolytic, stimulant, and tonic. #[Class] Achillea millefolium is by far the most prevalent yarrow species in the world. The cold tea may be taken for chills and ague. The hot tea is used to break fevers by inducing sweating. The hot tea is brewed with Mentha arvensis [poleo] to treat dizziness, spots in front of the eyes and bilious-ness. The hot tea is also good for stomach problems, including nausea and poor digestion. Fresh leaves act as a hemo-static for cuts and scratches. The dried herb, brewed as a tea, helps control abnormal menstrual bleeding. The root tincture is used to treat sore gums. G The constituent azulenes and sequiterpene lactones have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer and cytotoxic properties; they also help stabilize membranes by reducing edema and swelling. The flavonoids have anti-spasmodic activity. Achilleine acts as a hemo-static agent; on the other hand, coumarin promotes bleeding. Camphor, menthol, sterols, tannins, and terpinenes can explain many of the dermatological effects. The salicylic acid derivatives: menthol and eugenol, have analgesic effects. Anti-pyretic properties come from the salicylic acid derivative: chamazulene. The volatile oil seems to provide expectorant, analgesic, and diaphoretic tendencies. In very large or too frequent doses, yarrow can sometimes cause allergic reactions, and the thujone can act as a toxin or abortifacient. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 1,8-cineole (=eucalyptol; leaf 960 ppm), acetone, acetylenes, achiceine, achilleic acid (=aconite acid), achillein (C20H38N2O15), achilleine (=betonicine), achilletine, achillicin, achillin, aconite acid (=achilleic acid), aldehydes, allo-ocimene (leaf 140 ppm), alpha-pinene, apigenin, artemetin, asparagin, azulene (leaf 7,140 ppm), azulenic compounds, balchanolide, beta-pinene, betonicine (=achilleine), bitter glycoside, borneol (leaf 275 ppm), bornyl acetate, butyric acid, calcium salts, camphene (leaf 600 ppm), camphor (leaf 1,780 ppm), caryophellen, caryophyllene (leaf 160 ppm), casticin, chamazulene (achillea azulene; plant 2,800 ppm), cineol, cyclitols, essential oil (flower 5,000 ppm; leaf 14,000 ppm), ethyl alcohol, eucalyptol (=1,8-cineole; leaf 960 ppm), eugenol, farnesene, flavonoids, formaldehyde, formic acid, furfurol, glucosides, glyco-protein, guajazulene, hydroxy-achillin, inuline, iso-artemisin ketone, leucodin, limonene (leaf 170 ppm), luteolin, menthol, methyl alcohol, millifin, millifolide, moscatine, moschatine, myrcene, nitrate, nopinene, P-cymene (leaf 370 ppm), pinene, pinene (plant 1,720 ppm), potassium salts, pyrroline alkaloids, quercetin, resin, rutin, sabinene (leaf 1,225 ppm), salicylic acid, sequiterpene lactones, stachydrine, sterols, tannic acid, tannins (plant 28,000 ppm), terpinenes (leaf 850 ppm), terpineol, thiophenes (flower 167 ppm; leaf 167 ppm), thujone, trigonelline, tri- terpenes, valeric acid, volatile oil (bluish). #[Physiology] Eupatorium perfoliatum [bone set] and Achillea millefolium [yarrow] work well together to stimulate mast cell and basophil response. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Use in moderation for menstrual bleeding and during pregnancy. Whole fresh flowering plant tincture, 1:2, 10-40 drops; dried whole flowering plant tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-40 drops; dried whole flowering plant, standard infusion, 2- 4 fluid ounces; all forms, up to three time a day; also, fresh root tincture, 1:2, applied topically to gums, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 164, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 65, Pacific West: 272, Mountain West Revision: 269, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 301, 350, Battaglia: 276, Christopher: 213, Curtin: 158-159, Duke + Ayensu: 143, Dastur: 6 (#8), Dunmire + Tierney: 221-222, Felter: 117, Grieve: 863, Gilmore: 82, Hutchins: 313, Hoffmann: 231, Holmes: 280, Jain + DeFilipps: 152, Kloss: 332, Kindscher: 17, Kay: 84, Lust: 271 (#278), Millspaugh: 335 (#85), Moerman: 7, 8, Meyer: 82,

Mayes + Lacy: 137-138, Mabey: 40, Martinez: 223, Potter: 290, Quisumbing: 955, Rodale: 516, Sturtevant: 22, Stuart: 143, Tierra (1): 162, Tierra (2): 161, Wyk + Wink: 30, 395.

Achlys triphylla VANILLA LEAF / DEER FOOT
#[Family] Berberidaceae, bar berry family. #[Genus] 3 species; as below. #[Species] í Achlys californica [california vanilla leaf], = Achlys triphylla var. californica, = Achlys triphylla subsp. californica, northern California; í Achlys japonica [japanese vanilla leaf], = Achlys triphylla var. japonica, = Achlys triphylla subsp. japonica, Japan; í Achlys triphylla [common vanilla leaf, deer foot, three-leaved vanilla leaf, vanilla leaf], = Leontice triphylla, = Achlys triphylla var. triphylla, = Achlys triphylla subsp. triphylla, northern California to British Columbia. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Vanilla leaf is a small perennial herb with distinct long-stemmed three-part leaves which smell like vanilla when crushed. Numerous tiny white flowers form into a dainty spike about four to five inches long. #[Herbal Properties] anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, emmenagogue. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Seattle] Dried leaves of the Japanese species are mixed with water and used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory topical poultice for soft tissue swellings, abdominal swelling, breast swelling, lipoma, bruises, and bee stings. The typical American species, Achlys triphylla, is a very strong internal anti-coagulant due to its coumarin content. Too much in the blood stream might make one bleed to death. Drinking a lot of the tea would also induce heavy bleeding during menstruation. Salix [willow] bark and Populus [aspen] bark would be better herbs to use as anti-coagulants. A small amount of the crushed dried leaves can be used as a vanilla-scented flavoring agent. #[Chemical Constituents] coumarin (nothing else listed). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – probably best to avoid during pregnancy; for occasional use only. Otherwise, whole dried leaves, simple tea. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 250, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Moerman: 12.

Aconitum carmichaeli CHINESE MONKS HOOD / FU TZE
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 300 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Aconitum carmichaeli [carmichael fu tze, carmichael monks hood, chinese aconite, chinese monks hood, cured monks hood, fu tze, radix carmichaeli], eastern Asia; í Aconitum fisheri [fisher fu tze], eastern Asia. #[Editor] other uncured non-Chinese species are covered in following entry. #[Appearance] This is a perennial herb, a type of monks hood, with typical dark blue to purplish hooded flowers. #[Herbal Properties] stimulant. #[Class] Most Aconitum species are poisonous. However, fu-tze should never to be confused with an uncured species like Aconitum columbianum or Aconitum napellus. Fu-tze is a handy first aid. It is a potent adrenergic medicine which can give one an adrenalin rush. It can turn around allergies and abort serious asthma attacks (like hives or diarrhea) induced by an allergic response. It will provide a bridge across an adrenal valley for someone trying to get off cocaine, speed or coffee. It works endogenously; it gives one a sympathetic adrenergic kick. It is strong, speedy, and hard-edged. It does not lend itself well to tincturing. Fu-tze is used to modify simple fevers with pain and inflamed, irritated, and engorged mucosa. It is used in conjunction with Leonurus cardiaca [mother wort] for herpes zoster or shingles. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] see Aconitum napellus constituents in next entry. These are probably modified by

curing processes. #[Physiology] Cured roots of Aconitum carmichaeli and Aconitum fisheri are sometimes called radix carmichaeli. They are semi- transparent with concave centers. When processed or cured, Aconitum carmichaeli doesn’t act at all like regular uncured species, which in excess can permanently depress body functions, especially the heart beat, and basically paralyze a person to death. Cured roots are the closest substance we have to a sympatho-mimetic or adrenalin mimic. After being cured, the biological effect of the herb is reversed from that of the raw plant. The long curing process leaches out the primary poisonous alkaloids, but many secondary alkaloids remain. The end result is a hot herb made from the coldest herb in existence. In small doses, cured Chinese monks hood can act as a tonic for people whose cardio-vascular deficiency has gone to the point of bradycardia and shows up as poor reactivity. The person has cold hands, a cold body, rapid, shallow breathing, and tends to not compensate blood pressure very well. Cured chinese monks hood is a sympathetic stimulant. It works on the spinal cord and thoracic functions. It deepens respiration and mimics sympathetic functions. It is best when eaten plain, but it can be made into a tea, or used with other herbs in a tea. G Aconitum carmichaeli and Aconitum fisheri are cardio-pulmonary stimulants, used for wet lungs and poor breathing, to decrease secretions and to increase blood supply. They work well with Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Cured root slices, o to one slice, eaten plain, or boiled in water as a tea, up to two times a day; dangerous in larger doses. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 282, 428, 431, Duke + Ayensu: 526, Lu: 138, Moerman: 13, Potter: 2, Reid: 115 (#91), Shih-Chen: 7, 8, Tierra (1): 172, Wyk + Wink: 31, 396.

Aconitum columbianum MONKS HOOD / WOLF BANE
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 300 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Aconitum columbianum [aconite, american monks hood, columbia river monks hood, monks hood, uncured monks hood, western monks hood, wolf bane], California mountains and Rocky Mountains to northern British Columbia; í Aconitum napellus [european aconite, european monks hood, european wolf bane] western and central Europe. #[Editor] cured Chinese species are covered in the previous entry; common name: wolf bane, also applied to species of Arnica [arnica]. #[Appearance] Perennial herbs with erect stems which can reach up to six feet in height, but they are usually about three to four feet. Leaves are single, alternate, and palmate, with deep clefts between the lobes. Flowers are dark blue to purplish, with the uppermost sepal forming a typical hood over the upper petals. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anti- neuralgic, anti-rheumatic, cardio-tonic, febrifuge, hypo-tensive, poisonous, sedative. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Seattle] Almost all Aconitum species are poisonous. Aconitum columbianum is an American version of Aconitum napellus or european monks hood. The fresh leaf tincture and fresh root tincture are used for medicinal purposes. Monks hood decreases sensory irritability. The basic symptoms it addresses are bounding pulse, an inability to sleep on the stomach because it feels as though it is pressing up against ones neck, inflammation, and pain. Everything hurts; the face hurts, and the eyes are pink with conjunctival irritability. However, taking too much tincture will cause one to forget how to swallow or breathe. Monks hood works predictably in small doses. It modifies peripatetic fevers with sensory excitability where the brain has too much blood.

Gelsemium [yellow jasmine] can also be used to modify that condition. In some respects, monks hood is an alterative. It treats diseased states, not the diseases themselves. #[Chemical Constituents] Aconitum napellus – aconine, aconitic acid, aconitine (C34H47O11N), benzaconine, benzoylaconine, diterpenoid alkaloids, ephedrine (trace), hypaconitine, iso-benzoyl-aconitine, itaconic acid, malonic acid, napelline, neopelline, picraconitine, pseudo-benzoyl-aconitine, sparteine (trace), starch, succinic acid, sugars, terpenoid alkaloids. #[Physiology] Monks hood seriously sedates respiration and cardio-vascular functions while stimulating the upper GI, para-sympathetic, and mucosa. Too much monks hood acts as a sedative, muscle relaxant, and sensory depressant which will cause one to get tingly fingers, tingly mouth, tingly legs, tingly everything, and then you die, because you stop breathing. Dried uncured monks hood roots depress all the functions which are stimulated by the cured roots of Aconitum carmichaeli, the Chinese species. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; poisonous in larger doses; use with extreme care. Fresh flowering herb (leaves) tincture, 1:4, used topically, in moderation; or used internally, 1-5 drops, up to four times a day; Dried roots, tincture, 1:10, 70% alcohol, for topical use only. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 34, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Felter: 148, Grieve: 6, Kadans: 20, Lust: 281 (#292), Meyer: 83, Potter: 2, Rodale: 1, Sturtevant: 23, Stuart: 143, Tierra (2): 246, Wyk + Wink: 31, 396.

Acorus calamus SWEET FLAG / CALAMUS
#[Family] Araceae, arum family, ~Acoraceae, sweet flag family. #[Genus] 2 species; northern hemisphere, south to India and New Guinea, in wetlands. #[Species] í Acorus calamus [acorus, bee wort, calamus, common sweet flag, gladdon, myrtle flag, myrtle grass, myrtle sedge, pine root, sea sedge, sweet calomel, sweet cane, sweet cinnamon, sweet flag, sweet myrtle, sweet root, sweet rush, sweet sage, sweet sedge], as above; í Acorus gramineus [asian sweet flag], eastern Asia. #[Editor] common name: sweet, also applied to: Filipendula ulmaria [meadow sweet, meadow queen], Glycyrrhiza glabra [european licorice, sweet root], Glycyrrhiza lepidota [american licorice, sweet root], Laurus nobilis [laurel, sweet bay], Liquidambar styraciflua [sweet gum, storax], Melilotus alba [white sweet clover], Melilotus officinalis [yellow sweet clover], Osmorhiza occidentalis [sweet root], Polypodium glycyrrhiza [licorice fern, sweet fern], and Solanum dulcamara [bitter sweet]; common name: flag, also applied to: Iris missouriensis [blue flag]. #[Appearance] The aromatic roots are thick, branching, and they creep horizontally along the ground. The leaves are long, flat, and two- ranked like iris leaves. Tiny greenish-yellow flowers grow on a pointed spike-like spadix about four inches long. #[Herbal Properties] anthelmintic, anti-histamine, anti-spasmodic, aromatic, bitter, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, emetic, emmenagogue, excitant, febrifuge, sedative, sialogogue, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] Sweet flag is a lovely plant which grows in bogs where it is very difficult to reach. The reed-like leaves of the plant make a pleasant, spicy tea. The root [rhizome] is used in medicine. Sweet flag is a good anti- spasmodic, aromatic, bitter tonic, and stimulant. It is used to relieve stomach cramps, gas pains, colon cramps, hiatus hernia pain, menstrual cramps, and also flatulence. It has an anti-histamine effect for head colds and hay fevers. The dried leaves are also used to flavor other teas and for smudging. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] [a] Acorus calamus – 2,6-di-epi -shyobunone, 6-epi - shyobunone, acolamone, acoragermacrone, acorenone, acorenone, acoric acid,

acorin (C36H60O6), acorone, acorones, asar-aldehyde, azulene, calamendiols, calamene, calameon, calamerol, calamine-A, calamol (C12H18O3), camphene, camphor, choline, essential oil, eugenol, farnesene, geranyl-acetate, guaiane sesqui-terpene ketones, iso-acolamone, iso-acorone, l-cadala-1,4,9-triene, linalool, methyl-eugenol, methyl-iso-eugenol, mono-terpene hydro-carbons, mono-terpenoids, p-cymene, phenyl-propanoids, pinene, resin, sesqui-terpene hydro-carbons, sesqui-terpene ketones, sesqui-terpenes, sesqui-terpenoids, shyobunone, volatile oil. [b] Acorus gramineus – cis-iso-asarone (=beta-asarone; =iso-asarone), beta-asarone (=cis-iso-asarone; =iso-asarone), iso-asarone (=beta- asarone; =cis-iso-asarone); this chemical in the volatile oil is carcinogenic, but it is absent in the Acorus calamus volatile oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh rhizome/root tincture, 1:2, 15-45 drops; dried rhizome/root tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 15-45 drops; either form, up to four times a day; also, dried leaves as tasty simple tea. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 290, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Angier (1): 224, Angier (2): 258, Allen + Hatfield: 320, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 594, Battaglia: 317, Duke + Ayensu: 104, 105, Dastur: 8 (#10), Felter: 259, Grieve: 726, Gilmore: 17, Hutchins: 273, Hoffmann: 177, Holmes: 272, Jain + DeFilipps: 134, Kloss: 212, Kindscher: 23, Lust: 373 (#445), Lad + Frawley: 106, Moerman: 13-17, Meyer: 124, Manandhar: 70, Mabey: 28, Potter: 56, Quisumbing: 137, Reid: 119 (#99), Rodale: 475, Shih-Chen: 12, 221, Sturtevant: 23, Stuart: 143, Schultes: 73, Tucker + Debaggio: 122, Tierra (1): 113, Tierra (2): 363, Wyk + Wink: 32, 396.

Actaea rubra BANE BERRY / RED COHOSH
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 8 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Actaea alba [white bane berry, white cohosh], Florida to Oklahoma, north to Quebec and British Columbia; í Actaea arguta [toothed bane berry, toothed cohosh, yerba del peco], mountains in New Mexico, Arizona and California, north to South Dakota and Alaska; í Actaea pachypoda [white bane berry, white cohosh, doll eyes], eastern north america; í Actaea rubra [actea, bane berry, cohosh, neck lace weed, red bane berry, red cohosh, snake berry, yerba del peco (herb of the freckle?)], Canada, northern United States; í Actaea spicata [spiked bane berry, spiked cohosh, herb christopher], Europe. #[Editor] common name: bane, also applied to: Apocynum [dog bane, canadian hemp], Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh, bug bane], Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane, horse weed], Hyoscyamus niger [hen bane, fetid night shade], and Pluchea camphorata [marsh flea bane]; common name: cohosh, also applied to Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], and to Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh]. #[Appearance] Bane berry is an erect perennial almost shrub-like herb about three feet tall. The serrate [saw-toothed] leaves are compound; they are divided two or three times into opposite groups of three to five leaflets. The flowers are small, white, and grouped together in dense pointed terminal racemes. #[Herbal Properties] anesthetic, anodyne, nervine, sedative, vaso-dilator. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Montana] Actaea [bane berry] is a bit stronger than Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh], but it has essentially the same medicinal properties. It is a topical vaso-dilator and anesthetic. The chopped, dried root of Actaea mixed with Nicotiana trigonophylla [wild tobacco, punche], Capsicum annuum [cayenne] and rubbing alcohol can be made into a liniment with vaso-dilating and sedative properties which will numb the nerves and decrease the pain of swelling. Internally, the dried root can be used to relieve dull, aching, rheumatoid-like pain, dull ache in the head, or dull uterine cramps. It is

for cold pain, not for red, hot, sharp pain. #[Chemical Constituents] albumen, cimicifugin, cimigenol, glucosides, gum, resins, starch, sugar. Some constituents also found in Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh]; otherwise, little information is available. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Do not use internally during pregnancy. Excess use can create head aches behind the eyes. Internally, too large a dose can be poisonous, depress vagus nerve function, and cause cardiac arrest. External excess can cause blistering. Fresh root tincture, 1:2, 10-20 drops; Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 80% alcohol, 10- 20 drops; either form, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 30, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 86, Pacific West: 58, Mountain West Revision: 44, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Felter: 154, Curtin: 210, Grieve: 81, Jain + DeFilipps: 501, Kindscher: 266, Millspaugh: 34 (#10), Moerman: 17, 18, Meyer: 59, Shih-Chen: 13, 431, Willard: 89.

Adiantum capillus-veneris MAIDEN HAIR FERN/LADY FERN
#[Family] Pteridaceae, brake fern family, ~Adiantaceae, maiden hair fern family. #[Genus] 150 species; nearly world wide. #[Species] í Adiantum capillus-veneris [culantrillo, five-finger fern, ladies fern, lady fern, lady’s fern, maiden hair fern, venus maiden hair fern], nearly world wide; í Adiantum pedatum [cleft maiden hair fern], North America, eastern Asia. #[Editor] common name: maiden hair, also applied to: Ginkgo biloba [ginkgo] = maiden hair tree; common name: fern, also applied to: Dryopteris filix-mas [male fern, aspidium], and Polypodium glycyrrhiza [licorice fern, sweet fern]; similar common name: male fern, applied to: Dryopteris filix-mas. #[Appearance] –. #[Herbal Properties] anti-tussive, aperitive, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge, hemo-static, refrigerant, stimulant (mild), tonic. #[Class] Maiden hair fern is a beautiful flowerless plant commonly found in warm canyons in Arizona and New Mexico where there is ample moisture. All Adiantum species have shiny black stems and fan-shaped, individual leaflets. The dried herb is water soluble and can be made into a tea. Constituents in the herb are excreted through the body membranes which exert vascular control. Its effect is not on organs of synthesis or excretion, but on membranes that absorb, reorganize, and send blood back to the heart. Maiden hair fern is a refrigerant, expectorant, tonic, and sub-astringent. It makes an elegant refrigerant for febrile diseases. It is used for chronic coughs, influenza, asthma, pleurisy, chronic catarrh and jaundice. It is a mild bronchial expectorant and recuperative tonic, especially effective for sore throats and infectious lung conditions. Drinking the tea is soothing and seems to speed up the recuperation time from bronchitis. It may be used either as a preventative or as a strengthening tonic. Maiden hair fern has a long history of use in stimulating the uterus, and to induce and clarify menses, although that is a corollary function. These plants are highly valued by some practitioners for treating jaundice and they deserve further investigation. The herb is also used as a hair rinse to make the hair soft and shiny. Ginkgo biloba [ginkgo] is called maiden hair tree because its leaves have a very similar shape as maiden hair fern leaves. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Adiantum pedatum or maiden hair fern is a ubiquitous plant found nearly world wide wherever there is enough moisture and some shade. Almost every native or indigenous use involved strengthening vascular membranes. The dried leaves as a tea make the best medicine, and they don’t cause a drug reaction. The plant acts as a mucous membrane tonic. It strengthens lung and kidney tissues, especially in chronic kidney diseases, nephritis and early renal failure, where the connective tissue in the nephrons have started to break down. Adiantum has distinctly

astringent characteristics which separate it from Equisetum [horse tail]. It is a more complex herb than Equisetum. As an astringent to the lungs, Adiantum is good for treating infections which occur after hospitalization, such as pneumonia, bronchitis and bronchorrhea. It would be preferred over Equisetum for lung conditions where there is profuse milky-green or viscous discharge from degenerative mucosa which has a strong taste. I would use Equisetum when you have bronchiectasis or emphysema and the discharge is just mucus. Adiantum is also good for pelvic congestion and chronic uterine bogginess where the uterus has poor tone, poor enervation, and poor blood supply. The herb is incorporated into the connective tissue and helps strengthen the uterine lining. It is tonic to the structure, which makes it a good synergist with Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh] and Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand]. #[Chemical Constituents] 3- alpha-epoxy-filicane (leaf), 3,7-di-glucoside, 4-alpha-epoxy-filicane (leaf), 7- fernene (leaf), 7,9 (11) -fernadiene (leaf), adiantone, (plant), adiantoxide (plant), adiantulanostene (plant), adipedifol (=hopane triterpene), astragalin (leaf), b- sitosterol, campesterol (=phytosterol), fernene, filicinal, filicine, flavonoids, glycosides, hopane triterpene (=adipedifol), hydroxycinnamic acid (leaf), isoquercetin (leaf), kaempferol, kaempferol-3-sulphate (leaf), kaempferol-3,7- diglucoside (plant), mucilage (plant), phytosterol (=campesterol), quinic acid (plant), rutin (leaf), shikimic acid (plant), silicon (plant 12,000 to 20,000 ppm), stigmasterol, sulphate esters, tannin (plant), terpenoids, triterpenes. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried herb, standard infusion; for acute conditions, 1-3 fluid ounces, up to three times a day; for chronic conditions, 4 fluid ounces, once a day; or, 8 fluid ounces, as a hair rinse. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 100, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 40, Pacific West: 174, Mountain West Revision: 153, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Abbe: 8, 13, Allen + Hatfield: 58, Boulos: 23, Duke + Ayensu: 511, Grieve: 303, Hutchins: 190, Jain + DeFilipps: 94, Lust: 262 (#264), Moerman: 18, 19, Morton: 9, Manandhar: 72, Martinez: 98, Potter: 181, Quisumbing: 60, Sturtevant: 25, Stuart: 143, Wyk + Wink: 396.

Adonis vernalis PHEASANT EYE / FALSE HELLEBORE
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 26 species, temperate Europe and Asia. #[Species] í Adonis annua [adonis, annual pheasant eye, autumn pheasant eye, annual false hellebore, false hellebore, red morocco, red pheasant eye], = Adonis autumnalis, southern Europe, southwestern Asia; í Adonis vernalis [adonis, false hellebore, perennial false hellebore, perennial pheasant eye, pheasant eye, spring pheasant eye, yellow morocco, yellow pheasant eye], Europe. #[Editor] see also: Digitalis [fox glove]. #[Appearance] These plants are annual or perennial erect herbs about two feet tall. The leaves are alternate and pinnately dissected into numerous linear segments. The flowers are solitary, terminal, and brightly colored, either red or yellow. #[Herbal Properties] cardiac, diuretic, emmenagogue, irritant, poisonous, stimulant, tonic, venotonic, vesicant. #[Class] Adonis species contain cardiac glycosides which have the same effect as the digitalin found in Digitalis purpurea [fox glove]. In reality, the plants offer no advantage over synthesized pharmaceutical drugs obtained from fox glove, or from an equivalent drug plant called Strophanthus (tropical vines in the Apocynaceae or dogbane family, not covered here). The effects go beyond our area of expertise. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 16- hydroxystrophanthidin, 2,6-dimethoxybenzo-quinone, acids, adonidin, adonitogenin, adonitoxigenin, adonitoxin, aglycones, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, cymarin, D-cymarose, flavone-C-glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides,

k-strophantidin, L-rhamnose. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use concurrently with any other drugs; poisonous in larger doses; use with extreme care, if at all. Recently dried herb, 1-2 grains {about 1/480 ounce to about 1/240 ounce}, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Felter: 156, Grieve: 389, Kadans:129, Mabberley: 13, Meyer: 41, Potter: kl141, Stuart: 144, Wyk + Wink: 33, 396.

Aesculus californica CALIFORNIA BUCK EYE
#[Family] Sapindaceae, soap berry family, ~Hippocastanaceae, horse-chest nut family. #[Genus] 13 species; southeastern Europe (1), India and eastern Asia (5), North America (7). #[Species] í Aesculus californica [california buck eye, california horse-chest nut], California foot hills and mountains; usually below 4,000 feet. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] California buck eye is a small, deciduous tree; growing to about forty feet tall. Leaves are opposite, compound (oddly- palmate), long-stemmed, and without stipules (leafy appendages) at the bases; leaflets (5 or 7) are narrowly elliptical to lanceolate, and short-stemmed, with finely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips; each leaflet about six inches long. Flowers are small, white or pinkish, and asymmetrical; with five, unequal sepals, forming a bell-shaped calyx; five, unequal petals; five to seven stamens; grouped together in showy, upright, terminal panicles. Fruits are large, not spiny, one-seeded, spherical to somewhat three-lobed capsules. Seeds are large, brown, and shiny. #[Herbal Properties] veno-tonic (venous or portal system circulatory stimulant). #[Class] California buck eye strengthens the capillaries by decreasing their permeability and lessening edema, especially in the intestinal tract. It is used for hemorrhoids, for sub-clinical congestion in the portal blood system that drains intestinal blood into the liver, for varicose veins in the inner thighs with dull ache on urination, and for dull pain in the prostate or uterus. For short-term food congestion, it would be better to use Ocotillo splendens [ocotillo]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] aesculin (=esculin; C15H16O9), epi- catechin, esculin (=aesculin; C15H16O9), flavonoids, hydroquinone. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; poisonous in larger doses; use with care. Dried bark and dried fruit tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-15 drops, once a day; or, dried leaves, as a salve, method A, for varicose veins, applied at night; same dosages as for Aesculus glabra. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 104, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 4. #[Other References] Moerman: 20, Sturtevant: 26.

Aesculus glabra OHIO BUCK EYE
#[Family] Sapindaceae, soap berry family, ~Hippocastanaceae, horse-chest nut family. #[Genus] 13 species; southeastern Europe (1), India and eastern Asia (5), North America (7). #[Species] í Aesculus glabra [fetid buck eye, ohio buck eye, smooth buck eye], eastern and central United States. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Ohio buck eye is a small, deciduous tree; with smooth bark; growing to about seventy-five feet tall. Leaves are opposite, compound (oddly-palmate), long- stemmed, and without stipules (leafy appendages) at the bases; leaflets (5) are usually broadly elliptical, and short-stemmed; with finely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips; each leaflet about six inches long. Flowers are small, yellow to yellow-green, and asymmetrical; with five sepals, forming a bell-shaped

calyx; four petals; five to eight stamens; flowers grouped together in loose, showy, upright, terminal panicles. Fruits are large, pale, tan, spherical capsules; spiny when young and smoother with age; with one to three seeds. Seeds are large and glossy. #[Herbal Properties] irritant, veno-tonic (venous or portal system circulatory stimulant). #[Class] As a medicine, Ohio buck eye is more irritating and less predictable than Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut]. The bark and fruit are used medicinally. Some people are so conditioned to using their breath as an emotional control system to disperse distress, their abdomen gets over-tense, they become sexually guarded, and their diaphragm is tight and pressing in on the viscera. Ohio buck eye would help relax the condition. It is distinctly useful in solar plexus pericardium distress with cramping pain and anxiety attacks, especially in people who have respiratory problems, difficulty breathing, excessive mucus, and coughing. It will also be helpful for hiatal hernia. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] aesculin (=esculin; C15H16O9), aesculetin (C9H6O4), esculin (=aesculin; C15H16O9), starch, yellow oil. #[Physiology] For chronic, boggy hemorrhoids due to poor tone, Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut] or Aesculus glabra [ohio buck eye] will stimulate nerves and muscles for better secretions. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; poisonous in larger doses; use with care. Dried bark and dried fruit tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-15 drops, once a day; dried leaves, as a salve, method A, for varicose veins, applied at night; same dosages as for Aesculus californica. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Felter: 156, Holmes: 561, Millspaugh: 171 (#44), Moerman: 20, Wyk + Wink: 34.

Aesculus hippocastanum HORSE CHEST NUT
#[Family] Sapindaceae, soap berry family, ~Hippocastanaceae, horse-chest nut family. #[Genus] 13 species; southeastern Europe (1), India and eastern Asia (5), North America (7). #[Species] í Aesculus hippocastanum [common horse chest nut, horse chest nut], southeastern Europe to Himalayas, introduced in eastern North America. #[Editor] Common name: horse, also applied to: Agastache [giant hyssop] = horse mint, Armoracia rusticana [horse radish], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] = horse fly weed, Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] = horse balm, Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane] = horse weed, Mentha x rotundifolia [apple mint] = horse mint, species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm] = horse mint, and Solanum carolinense [horse nettle]; common name: chest nut, usually applied to: Castanea sativa. #[Appearance] Horse chest nut is a large, showy, deciduous tree. Leaves are opposite, palmately compound, usually with seven leaflets, but sometimes five (as in other Aesculus species). Leaflets are elliptical, with irregularly serrated (saw-toothed) margins, widest near the abrupt tip, and about ten inches long. Flowers are showy, white with red and yellow spots near the base; grouped together in upright, terminal panicles. Fruits are large, spiny, and contain one or two seeds. #[Herbal Properties] anti-edema, anti- inflammatory, astringent, expectorant, febrifuge, veno-tonic (venous or portal system circulatory stimulant). #[Class] As a medicine, horse chest nut is a complex plant. It’s less erratic than Aesculus glabra [ohio buck eye]. The fruits are rough and abrasive, while Ohio buck eye fruits are scratchy and bristly. The fully mature green fruits are best. After picking them, allow them to dry, hit them with a hammer, hull them, crush the inner seeds, and put the whole mess in a blender. A tincture of the dried fruit and seeds is used medicinally. The tincture is a peripheral vaso-constrictor which makes blood vessels less permeable. It does

not act by stimulating contraction of the blood vessels. It’s used for venous congestion, purplish edema, and sub-acute inflammation. It’s especially good for portal congestion and deficient, sluggish, engorged intestinal tract dysfunction. An excited adrenalin-stress person can be hyper-tonic, so water goes out through the kidneys, and blood from the GI is used to feed the rest of the system. You have a hot person with a cold GI. Horse chest nut is for a person who isn't hot anywhere, but whose upper and lower GI and liver are just sluggish. They are not centrally suppressed via adrenalin stress. Horse chest nut is for a problem in sympathetic and para-sympathetic enervation in general, where the person has sluggish autonomies. He is GI deficient, generally has poor intestinal tract function, is hypo-tonic rather than hyper-tonic, doesn't digest food well, and tends to have steatorrhea or excess fat in his stools, because everything is slow. Horse chest nut is an endothelial tonic which increases the strength and decreases the permeability of capillary beds. It is good for hemorrhoids, varicose veins, dull ache on urination, portal congestion, and hypo-tonic intestinal function. This is basically for tired, exhausted people who have eaten too much imitation pasturized processed cheese. They have poor visceral tone, with overly permeable mucous membrane tissues, and they are basically hypo-thyroidal, or they may have been sick for a long time. Taking too much horse chest nut would cause symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure. In large quantities, horse chest nut is a para-sympatho-mimetic, and it affects the vagus nerve. In a way, horse chest nut acts in a manner opposite to Capsicum annuum [cayenne] and Zingiber officinale [ginger]. Cayenne and ginger dilate capillaries and make them more permeable. They get blood out to the tissues when the tissues aren't being fed very well, and they act as a carrier to get medicine to the mucosa and skin. On the other hand, horse chest nut gives tone to congested and leaking tissues. This property is very important in the intestinal tract, particularly in the ileum and colon. Horse chest nut stimulates the non-sympathetic, para-sympathetic enervated muscle coat membranes of the large and small intestines. There is a section of the lower small intestine which doesn't have any sympathetic or para- sympathetic enervation. It works almost totally autonomically on local nerve plexuses. Horse chest nut acts as a tonic for those inner muscle coat membranes which are under local control. The capillaries are less likely to throw poor quality proteins out into the interstitial fluids. Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] would also provide a structural tonic for the portal veins, although it wouldn't help hyper-tonic hemorrhoids. Aesculus would be a tonic for the peripheral circulation. Aesculus tends to diminish and disperse sympathetic vaso-constriction and hyper- tonicity in the rectum when the colon is being suppressed under sympathetic stress and physical activity. G Aesculus glabra [ohio buck eye] is a para- sympatho-mimetic. Most small intestinal tract functions are under local myenteric or peripheral ganglia control, outside of central nervous system or autonomic control. Aesculus [buck eye, horse chest nut] is one of the few herbs which will increase the tone of the small intestine, stimulate peristalsis, and excite transport movement by stimulating the inner muscle coats of the small intestine and colon. It tends to loosen up and oppose sympathetic dominance in the descending colon. The inner sphincter is the cause for hemorrhoids due to chronic sympathetic over- stimulation. Aesculus [buck eye, horse chest nut] is almost a specific for the person with sympathetic tightness or hyper-tonicity of the gut who is very physically active, under adrenalin stress, and throwing out energy. You could retread a tire with his intestinal tract tone. In a sense, it works in a manner opposite to Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] which provides structural tone for the portal veins, but wouldn't help with hyper-tonic hemorrhoids. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] acetic acid, acylated glycosides, aescigenin, aescin, aescinic acid, aesculetin (C9H6O4), aesculetinic acid, aesculin (C21H24O13 + H2O),

angelic acid, aphrodaescin (=saponin; C32H54O28), argyraescin, barringtogenol-C, catechol, epicatechol, fraxin (=paviin; C32H36O20), glucoside, hippocaesculin, oil of aesculus, oligomers, paviin (=fraxin; C32H36O20), proanthocyanodins, procyanidin-B2, protoaesigenin, quercitrin (C33H30O7), sapogenin, saponin (=aphrodaescin; C32H54O28), sternutatory, tiglic acid, triterpene saponins. #[Physiology] For chronic, boggy hemorrhoids from poor tone, Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut] or Aesculus glabra [ohio buck eye] will stimulate nerves and muscle coats for better secretions. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; poisonous in larger doses; use with care. Dried bark and dried fruit tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 3-10 drops, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 89, Bremness: 34, Felter: 406, Grieve: 192, Hoffmann: 195, Holmes: 561, Jain + DeFilipps: 359, Lust: 232 (#217), Millspaugh: 165 (#43), Moerman: 20, Mabey: 61, Potter: 147, Sturtevant: 26, Stuart: 144, Tierra (2): 337, Wyk + Wink: 34, 396.

Agastache pallidiflora GIANT HYSSOP / HORSE MINT
#[Family] Lamiaceae [/Labiatae], mint family. #[Genus] 22 species; central and eastern Asia, North America into Mexico. #[Species] í Agastache breviflora [short-flowered giant hyssop] southern New Mexico, Arizona and northern Mexico; í Agastache mexicana [mexican giant hyssop, toronjil (Baja California)], northwestern Mexico; í Agastache micrantha [small-flowered giant hyssop] western Texas, southern New Mexico, eastern Arizona and northern Mexico; í Agastache pallidiflora [giant hyssop, horse mint, new mexico giant hyssop, pale-flowered giant hyssop] = Agastache pallidiflora var. neomexicana, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas; í Agastache urticifolia [nettle- leaved giant hyssop] California mountains and Rocky Mountains to British Columbia. #[Editor] common name: hyssop, usually applied to: Hyssopus officinalis; common name: horse mint, also applied to species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm]; common name: horse, also applied to: Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut], Armoracia rusticana [horse radish], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] = horse fly weed, Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] = horse balm, Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane] = horse weed, Mentha x rotundifolia [apple mint] = horse mint, species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm] = horse mint, and Solanum carolinense [horse nettle]. #[Appearance] Giant hyssop is a perennial herb. Leaves are simple, opposite, and ovate, with usually serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are pale pink to red; grouped together in tapering terminal spikes. #[Herbal Properties] astringent, diaphoretic, sedative. #[Class] Giant hyssop is astringent and diaphoretic. It also has a moderate sedative property very similar to Stachys [hedge nettles, wound wort]. It’s used for stomach disorders, including poor digestion, nausea, vomiting, and gastritis. In Mexico, it is also used to soothe various nervous conditions, emotional upsets, and hysteria. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] acacetin, aglycones, anis-aldehyde, apigenin, flavonoid glucosides, luteolin, methyl-eugenol, pulegone. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Whole dried plant, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 290, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Kay: 85.

Agathosma betulina BUCHU / SHORT BUCHU
#[Family] Rutaceae, citrus-rue family. #[Genus] 135 species; southern Africa. #[Species] í Agathosma betulina [agothasma [sic], barosma, buchu, common buchu, diosma, round-leaved buchu, short buchu, short-leaved buchu], = Barosma betulina, = Barosma serratifolia, = Diosma betulina, southern Africa; í Agathosma crenulata [buchu, long buchu, long-leaved buchu, oval-leaved buchu], = Barosma crenulata, southern Africa. #[Editor] former generic names: barosma and diosma, and also misspelled variants like agothasma, now used correctly only as common names. #[Appearance] Buchu is a small shrub. Leaves are simple, opposite, glossy, gland dotted, and rounded to ovate; with serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and backward curved tips. Flowers are small, symmetrical, star-shaped, white or pink to pale purple; with five petals. Fruit are ovate capsules. #[Herbal Properties] anti-inflammatory, aromatic, bitter, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, disinfectant, diuretic, stimulant, tonic. #[Class] Buchu is an exotic, foul-smelling herb. The leaves are used medicinally. It’s main function is a urinary tract disinfectant and diuretic. It is used for abnormally high acid in the urine and acutely acid cystitis (bladder inflammations), usually the result of a sexually transmitted disease. Some local herbs like Eriodictyon [yerba santa], Anemopsis [yerba mansa], and Berberis [bar berry] could perform most of its functions. Buchu seems to work better for men and women for whom cran berry juice has no effect. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 8-mercapto-p- meth-ane-3-one, barosma camphor (= buchu camphor; = diosphenol; C14H22O3), buchu camphor (= barosma camphor; = diosphenol; C14H22O3), diosmin, diosphenol (= barosma camphor; = buchu camphor; C14H22O3), essential oil, flavonoids, isomenthone, limonene, monoterpenes, mucilage, resins, sulphur compounds, terpinen-4-ol, volatile oil (pepper mint scented). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried leaves, cold infusion (reheated), 1-3 fluid ounces; dried leaves, tincture, 1:5, 80% alcohol, 30-60 drops, taken in water; either form, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Battaglia: 317, Christopher: 270, Felter: 253, Grieve: 133, Hoffmann: 175, Holmes: 296, Kloss: 209, Kadans: 76, Lust: 136 (#70), Mabey: 109, Stuart: 145, Tierra (1): 111, Tierra (2): 219, Wyk + Wink: 35, 396.

Agave parryi CENTURY PLANT / AMERICAN ALOE
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Agavaceae, agave family. #[Genus] 100 species; southern and southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, West Indies, tropical South America. #[Species] í Agave deserti [desert century plant], southern California, Arizona, Baja California; í Agave lechuguilla [common century plant, lechuguilla, maguey], Texas, New Mexico, Chihuahua; í Agave palmeri [palmer century plant], New Mexico, southern Arizona, Sonora; í Agave parryi [american aloe, century plant, false aloe, lechuguilla, maguey, mescal, parry agave, parry century plant], New Mexico, Arizona, northern Mexico; í Agave schottii [schott century plant], southwestern New Mexico, southern Arizona, northern Sonora; í Agave utahensis [utah century plant], southern Utah, northern Arizona, southeastern California; í Agave virginica [appalachian century plant, virginia century plant], southern and central United States. #[Editor] Abronia fragrans [sand verbena] and Apocynum androsaemifolium [dog bane] also known as: lechuguilla; common name: aloe, usually applied to genus Aloe. #[Appearance] Agaves are distinctive, perennial plants. You can’t really call them “herbs,” or shrubs, or trees. You wouldn’t want to accidentally fall on one. Agave parryi leaves are simple, basal (all in a single

rosette), over-lapping, thick, stiff and leathery outside, juicy and succulent inside; with small, sharp, curved spines on serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and very sharply pointed tips. With no stem to speak of, the plants are nearly spherical in shape; growing to about three feet in diameter. They live for about thirty to fifty years without flowering – not one-hundred years as the common name implies. Near the end of their life, they send up a single, very tall, woody, flowering stalk, produce seeds, and then die; the stalks sometimes reach straight up to about twenty feet tall. Flowers are bright yellow, with bright red markings; tubular to funnel-shaped; with three petal-like sepals; three sepal-like petals; and six stamens; grouped together in many-flowered, elliptical, lateral, horizontally branched panicles; these in turn grouped together in terminal racemes. Fruits are oblong, woody capsules; with three compart-ments; opening at maturity along vertical slits. Seeds are black, oval, flattened, stacked closely together in two vertical columns in each compartment #[Herbal Properties] anti-arthritic, anti- biotic, anti-fungal, anti-scorbutic, anti-spasmodic, anti-viral, bacterio-cidal, digestive, diuretic, fungicidal, stomachic, and vulnerary. #[Class] There are several ways Agave can be prepared and used. Fresh leaves, juice/sap, one teaspoon; fresh leaves, tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops (about o teaspoon), taken in water; dried leaves, powdered, o ounce, boiled as a tea; above three forms used internally for indigestion, gas, stomach fermentation, colic, and chronic constipation, up to four times a day. Fresh leaves, juice/sap, used externally for burns, cuts, abrasions and shallow wounds – much like Aloe juice is used – but the sap can sometimes cause a rash. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, up to four times a day, as an anti-spasmodic. Like Yucca, dried roots, powdered, Ω teaspoon, in tea, twice a day, morning and evening, used for arthritis. Also, the roots, either fresh or dried, make a good soap; fibers of dried leaves used to make rope, itchy cloth, and paper; roasted hearts used to make various types of alcohol: pulque, mescal, and tequila. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] agavosides (plant), barbour-genin (plant), chloro-genin (flower 5,000 ppm), delta-9-11-heco-genin, dios-genin (plant), gentro-genin (plant), gito-genin (plant), glorio-fenin, hainan-genin (plant), heco-genin (plant 20,000 to 30,000 ppm), kaempferols (plant), L-arabinose (resin, exudate, sap), neo-tigo-genin, pectin, poly-saccharides, roco-genin (plant), sapo-genins, saponins, sarsapo-genin (plant), sisala-genin (plant), sisalo-genin, smila-genin (plant), tigo-genin (plant), vitamin C, yamo-genin (plant). #[Physiology] Agave is also used as a fluid extract in rheumatoid arthritis conditions. #[Medical Usage] see above. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – for some people, fresh leaf juice can induce a rash; test carefully on wrist or arm before using. For short term use only, up to one week; prolonged use internally for arthritis may interfere with oil- soluble vitamin absorption in the small intestine. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 19, Desert and Canyon West: 12, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 290, Mountain West Revision: 19, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Kay: 87, Moerman: 21, Sturtevant: 27, 28.

Agrimonia striata AGRIMONY / STICKLE WORT
#[Family] Rosaceae, rose family. #[Genus] 15 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Agrimonia eupatoria [agrimony, common agrimony, common stickle wort, cockle bur, stickle wort], north temperate zone, Europe, eastern United States; í Agrimonia gryposepala [american agrimony, hooked-sepaled agrimony, hairy agrimony, hairy stickle wort, stickle wort], eastern and central North America, southern British Columbia to California mountains, Mexico; í Agrimonia parviflora [small-flowered agrimony] eastern and central North

America; í Agrimonia striata [agrimony, stickle wort, striped agrimony, striped stickle wort] Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to West Virginia, New Mexico and Arizona. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Agrimony is a perennial herb, about three feet tall, with hairy basal leaves that look like mustard greens. They are pinnately compound, with three terminal leaflets that are larger than the variously sized inner leaflets; the stem leaves are smaller, irregular, and three parted. Yellow, rose-like flowers with five-petals are grouped together in thin, terminal, one-foot long racemes. The fruits are round little burs. #[Herbal Properties] anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anti-lithic, anti-viral, astringent, cholagogue, diuretic, tonic, vulnerary. #[Class] Agrimony is a typical rose family astringent, diuretic and anti-inflammatory. It is variously used, internally for GI irritations, diarrhea, irritated gall bladder or bile duct, mild urethra or bladder inflammations (especially when accompanied by dull flank or lower back pains), and acid urine. It is used externally for mild hives, moist skin eruptions, diaper rashes and chafing in infants, and as an eye wash. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] agrimonolide [plant], apigenin, apigenin glucoside [plant], catechins [plant 26,000 ppm], catechol tannins, coumarins [plant], ellagin tannin [leaves], flavonoids, gallotannins, glucosides, luteolin, luteolin glucoside [plant], luteolin-7-glucoside, polysaccharides, quercetin, quercetin glucoside [plant], quercitrin [leaves], tannins [leaves 50,000 to 80,000 ppm], triterpenes [plant 15,000 ppm], ursolic acid [plant 6,000 ppm], volatile oil. #[Physiology] Agrimonia [agrimony] works well as a fluid extract. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Whole dried plant (roots and herb), standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; dried plant tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, o to one teaspoon; fresh plant tincture, 1:2, o to one teaspoon; all forms, as needed. Also, the tea in an isotonic solution (Ω teaspoon salt to one pint water) as an eye wash. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 20, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 290, Mountain West Revision: 20, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 146, 350, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 85, Boulos: 153, Felter: 170, Grieve: 12, Hutchins: 2, Hoffmann: 165, Holmes: 522, Jain + DeFilipps: 508, Kadans: 25, Lust: 368 (#436), Moerman: 22, Meyer: 121, Mabey: 101, Potter: 5, Rodale: 3, Sturtevant: 28, Tierra (1): 101, Tierra (2): 264, Wyk + Wink: 36, 397.

Agropyron repens COUCH GRASS / QUACK GRASS
#[Family] Poaceae [/Gramineae], grass family. #[Genus] 23 species; Europe, Asia, Africa, naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Agropyron repens [couch grass, cough grass, creeping couch grass, cutch, cutch grass, dog grass, durfa, durfa grass, quack grass, quick grass, quitch, quitch grass, triticum, wheat grass, witch grass], = Elymus repens, = Triticum repens, Europe, Asia, North America, Mexico. #[Editor] common name: grass, also applied to: Cymbopogon citratus [lemon grass], Cynodon dactylon [bermuda grass], and non-grasses: Aletris farinosa [star grass], Cannabis sativa [marijuana] = grass, Galium aparine [cleavers] = goose grass, Hypericum gentianoides [saint johns wort] = orange grass, Plantago lanceolata [plantain] = rib grass, Potentilla [cinque foil] = five- fingered grass; other medicinal grasses: Avena fatua [oats] and Zea mays [corn silk]. #[Appearance] Couch grass is a perennial herb; with yellow-green, scaly, creeping rhizomes; erect, smooth, hollow stem segments, separated by small, solid nodes; growing to about three feet tall. Leaves are simple, mostly basal and some opposite; with thin, flat, very narrow, elongated, bright green, stemless, blades; clasping and surrounding the main stalks at the bases; with rough or downy upper surfaces, parallel veins, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are tiny, hidden inside sheaths, and symmetrical; sepals and petals both absent;

several flowers grouped together in small, pale green, stemless, side spikelets, with purplish tinges; spikelets in turn grouped together in erect, terminal spikes, and connected at the sides of each spike at its nodes. Fruits are small structures; each is called a caryopsis. Seeds are numerous. #[Herbal Properties] anti-biotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholesteraemic, aperient, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, laxative, sedative, tonic. #[Class] Couch grass contains constituents which act as a sodium and water leacher for use in kidney excess. It is a simple diuretic which increases the volume of urine flow by stimulating sodium excretion. Some recent tests have shown various constituents producing other minor effects in rats and mice, but the plant is essentially a diuretic. In effect, the rhizomes act like a grass version of Arctium lappa [burdock], Taraxacum officinale [dandelion], Cichorium intybus [chicory], or Inula helenium [elecampane]. Cynodon dactylon [bermuda grass] is another type of grass which has similar constituents in the roots. Agropyron repens has virtually no liver effects, which sometimes make it advantageous over dandelion and burdock. It is appropriate for essential hyper- tension and for anabolic grease-ball people. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 1-phenyl-2,4-hexadiyne [=agropyrene], acid malates, agropyrene [=1-phenyl-2,4-hexadiyne], carbohydrates, carvacrol, carvone, essential oil, fixed oil, fructans, fructosan polysaccharide, inositol, iron, laevulose, mannitol, minerals, mucilage, polyfructosans, polysaccharides, saponins, silica, sugar alcohols, thymol, triticin, vanillin glucoside, vitamin A, vitamin B, volatile oil. #[Physiology] Agropyron repens is stronger as a fluid extract than as a tincture. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried lateral rhizomes (superior) and stems (inferior), cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; dried rhizome and stems fluid extract, 1:1, 50% alcohol, 10-30 drops; dried rhizomes and stems tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops; all forms, up to five times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 290, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 2, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 58, Boulos: 94, 199, Felter: 682, Grieve: 370, Hutchins: 97, Hoffmann: 183, Holmes: 148, Jain + DeFilipps: 479, Kadans: 104, Lust: 405 (#491), Moerman: 23, Meyer: 139, Mabey: 60, Potter: 93, Sturtevant: 28, Tierra (2): 222, Wyk + Wink: 133, 409.

Ailanthus altissima TREE OF HEAVEN / VARNISH TREE
#[Family] Simaroubaceae, quassia family. #[Genus] 5 species; Asia, Australia, widely introduced and naturalized. #[Species] í Ailanthus altissima [ailanthus, chinese sumac, chinese varnish tree, copal tree, japanese varnish tree, tree of heaven, tree of the gods, varnish tree], China, naturalized in Europe and North America. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Ailanthus is a tall, quickly growing deciduous tree; spreading roots send up numerous nearby shoots, which sprout and often form dense thickets of under-developed saplings; growing to about sixty feet tall. Leaves are alternate, compound (oddly pinnate), large and long- stemmed; leaflets (11-25) are oblong to lanceolate, nearly opposite, short- stemmed; with a single terminal leaflet, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, greenish, symmetrical; with five, over-lapping sepals; five, spreading petals; and ten stamens; grouped together in large terminal panicles. Fruits are linear to oblong samaras (similar to maple tree fruits of the genus Acer), except they have a single wing (rather than two), and they turn reddish- orange in the autumn (rather than tan). #[Herbal Properties] amebicidal, anthelminthic, anti-protozoic, anti-spasmodic, anti-viral, astringent, cardiac depressant, febrifuge. #[Class] Ailanthus is an effective anti-protozoa agent for amebiasis and giardiasis (amoeba and giardia food poisoning). It also inhibits pin

worms, and it has some anti-viral effectiveness against pulmonary echo-viruses. Ailanthus is in the same family (Simaroubaceae) as Castela emoryi [chaparro amargosa] and Picrasma excelsa [quassia], and it has similar medicinal properties. Thus, it is useful when traveling in foreign countries. The further from home you get, the more alien the bugs on your food can get. Ailanthus has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, and these trees were probably imported from China by immigrants who worked on the transcontinental railroad. I can imagine they might have needed a medicine to counteract “barbarian’s revenge,” in the same way we use Castela in Mexico to counteract “Montezuma’s revenge.” #[Field Notes] –. #[Chem-ical Constituents] 1-methoxycanthin-6-one, 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, acetyl-amarolide, ailanthinone, ailanthone, alkaloids, amarolide, canthin-6-one, fixed oil, flavonols, gum, indole alkaloids, methyl-6-methoxy-beta-carboline-1-carboxylate, oxalic acid, quassinoids, resin, shinjulactone-B, starch, sugars, tannins, triterpenoids, volatile oil, wax. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – larger amounts can cause dizziness. Dried bark and/or dried fruits (samaras), cold infusion, one to two fluid ounces, up to five times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 290, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Duke + Ayensu: 603, Grieve: 821, Jain + DeFilipps: 561, Millspaugh: 132 (#35), Potter: 269, Shih-Chen: 20, 100, Sturtevant: 28, Wyk + Wink: 71, 397.

Alcea rosea HOLLY HOCK / ROSE MALLOW
#[Family] Malvaceae, mallow family. #[Genus] 50 species; Europe, northern Africa, western and central Asia, some species widely introduced and naturalized. #[Species] í Alcea rosea [alcea, common holly hock, holly hock, malva, malva rosea, rose mallow], = Althaea rosea, Europe, western Asia to India, introduced in North America. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Holly hock is usually a biennial in the southwest or a short-lived perennial further north. It has a single unbranched hairy stem which can reach up to eight feet in height. The leaves grow all along the main stem; they are simple and rounded, with 5-7 lobes, and long petioles (stems). Cultivation has produced numerous flower colors. Flowers are usually solitary and have five large rounded unfused petals; they usually grow from the leaf axils all along the central and upper parts of the main stem. #[Herbal Properties] demulcent, diuretic, emollient, immuno-stimulant. #[Class] Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Alcea rosea [holly hock], Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], Cupressus arizonica [arizona cypress], and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] help to stimulate phagocytosis by creating more macrophages and neutrophils. ~ Mallow family plants act as soothing catabolic stimulants; they are basic immuno-tonic and immuno-stimulant herbs for lymph, lungs, the GI tract, general immune deficiency, and to stimulate phagocytosis. G The plant is emollient and demulcent for all internal membranes, and it makes a soothing poultice for external surfaces. G Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Gossypium thurberi [cotton root], Hibiscus syriacus [hibiscus], Malva neglecta [common mallow], and Sphaeralcea coccinea [globe mallow] are all closely related members of the mallow family with nearly the same constituents. They all contain long-chained, mucilaginous starches which act as soothing catabolic stimulants to help break down metabolic wastes. ~ These herbs will soothe urethra and urinary tract irritations; they can be used for chronic cystitis resulting from metabolic imbalance and immuno-depression. ~ Cooling synergists to soothe the stomach, which are taken with Angelica sinensis [dong quai], include Symphytum officinale [comfrey] leaves or roots tea, Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Alcea rosea

[holly hock], and Ulmus rubra [slippery elm]. ~ If you take too much Alcea rosea [holly hock], the urine becomes more viscous. For more than a mere irritation of the urinary tract membrane, it is good to combine holly hock with Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] antho-cyanidins, arabinose, asparagine, di-oxybenzoic acid, esterone-like compound, fatty acid esters, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucosans, mucilage, muco-poly-saccharides, poly-saccharides, rhamnose, xylan. #[Physiology] An appropriate length of time after being given Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow] and Alcea rosea [holly hock], increased neutrophylic activity has been found in bladder scrapings. #[Medical Usage] Traditionally used for sore throats, stomach or duodenal ulcers, intestinal tract infections, vomiting or diarrhea, kidney and urinary tract infections, as a douche for vaginal inflammations, and as a poultice for skin infections. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, cold infusion; fresh root tincture, 1:2; dried herb, cold infusion; all forms, as needed; also, dried herb, powdered, moistened with water, for a poultice. NOTE – Same dosages as for Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow]. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 58, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 291, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Christopher: 333, 356, Duke + Ayensu: 424, Grieve: 409, Jain + DeFilipps: 78, 398, Lust: 230 (#214), Moerman: 30, Meyer: 60, Morton: 517, Potter: 144, Shih-Chen: 33, Sturtevant: 42, Wyk + Wink: 44.

Alchemilla occidentalis WESTERN LADIES MANTLE
#[Family] Rosaceae, rose family. #[Genus] 10 species (250 by splitters); north temperate zone, tropical mountains. #[Species] í Alchemilla occidentalis [annual ladies mantle, ladies mantle, lady’s mantle, western ladies mantle], = Aphanes arvensis, Washington to California, Baja California; í Alchemilla vulgaris [common ladies mantle, european ladies mantle, ladies mantle, lady’s mantle, perennial ladies mantle], Europe. #[Editor] common name: ladies, also applied to: Adiantum pedatum [maiden hair fern] = ladies fern, Alchemilla [ladies mantle], Cypripedium [ladies slipper], Galium [cleavers] = ladies bed straw, Pseudognaphalium californicum [false cud weed] = ladies tobacco, Simmondsia chinensis [jojoba] = ladies jojoba. #[Appearance] Ladies mantle is an annual or perennial herb, with stems from 4-18 inches tall, which turn reddish-brown. Leaves are simple, mostly basal, then alternate on the stem; with finely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and 7-9 rounded palmate lobes. Flowers are small, green, and symmetrical; grouped together in loose cymes or panicles. #[Herbal Properties] anti-hemorrhagic, anti-spasmodic, anti-spasmodic, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, tonic, stimulant, styptic, stomachic, and tonic. #[Class] This is a sweet little plant which was once part of the pseudo-occultism of the twentieth century. It was considered semi-magical because it lived in habitats suitable for fairies. Ladies mantle is a good, sensible urinary tract and mucous membrane stimulant. Its slightly stronger than Rubus strigosus [rasp berry] leaves, Fragaria [straw berry] leaves, Rosa [rose] petals, Agrimonia [agrimony], and Geum [avens] – all more common and serving somewhat the same purposes. It is a simple rose family astringent used for gastric inflamation, diarrhea, and heavy menses; or as a douche, enemy or eye-wash. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] agrimoniin, ellagic acid, ellagi-tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, laevigatin F, pedunculagin, quercetin glucuronide, salicylic acid, and tannins. #[Physiology] Alchemilla [ladies mantle] makes a good fluid extract. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] whole dried plant, standard infusion, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 291, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition):

3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 149, 350, Grieve: 462, Hoffmann: 199, Holmes: 513, Lust: 248 (#243), Meyer: 70, Mabey: 104, Potter: 166, Tierra (2): 344, Wyk + Wink: 37, 397.

Aletris farinosa STAR GRASS / COLIC ROOT
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Melanthiaceae, bunch flower family. #[Genus] 10 species; eastern and southeast-ern Asia, North America. #[Species] í Aletris farinosa [ague root, colic root, common star grass, false unicorn root, star grass, true unicorn root, unicorn root, white colic root], Ontario, eastern United States to Texas and Oklahoma. #[Editor] common name: colic root, also applied to Dioscorea villosa [wild yam]. #[Appear-ance] Star grass is a somewhat prostrate or spreading, perennial herb; with cylindrical, horizontal tubers, and numerous thin wiry roots; leaves growing to about one foot tall. Leaves are simple, basal (in rosettes), stemless, spreading, narrow-linear to lanceolate, somewhat leathery; with smooth surfaces, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous, small, white to cream-colored, very short- stemmed, and symmetrical; with three, over-lapping, petal-like sepals (calyx); three, over-lapping, sepal-like petals (corolla); together forming a tubular to bell- shaped perianth; flowers grouped together in wand-like, crowded, terminal, spike- like racemes; at the end of leafless stalks. Fruits are ovoid capsules; with many, small, oblong, ribbed seeds. #[Herbal Properties] bitter, carminative, estrogenic, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] Despite it’s name, this plant isn’t a grass. It’s been called true unicorn root, and sold under false pretenses as a substitute for Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand], which was called false unicorn root, but Chamaelirium produced a much better medicine. Go figure. G The roots of Chamaelirium look like chunky little horns. The roots of Aletris look like a wiry jumble of thin hairs; they resemble the roots of Cynodon dactylon [bermuda grass]; they look nothing like Chamaelirium roots, so the common name true unicorn root is totally misleading. G Star grass is an aromatic bitter tonic, and a very boring herb. It is used for colic, flatulence, chronic dyspepsia, and other digestive problems. It has sometimes been recommended for menstrual problems like dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, but its reproductive effect is basically minimal. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] diosgenin, saponins, volatile oil, resins, steroids. Very little research. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried rhizome tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, up to three times a day; dried rhizome, cold infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Pacific West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Christopher: 287, Felter: 175, Grieve: 824, Hutchins: 260, Hoffmann: 226, Lust: 367 (#435), Millspaugh: 690 (#172), Moerman: 23, Meyer: 120, Potter: 272, Sturtevant: 30, Wyk + Wink: 397.

Allium cepa ONION / CEBOLLA
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Alliaceae, garlic-onion family. #[Genus] 700 species; Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. #[Species] í Allium cepa [cebolla, common onion, onion], widely cultivated since at least 3000 B.C. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] An onion is an onion. #[Herbal Properties] anti- biotic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, cholesterol-lowering, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, lipid-lowering, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] Many species in this genus are used medicinally. Onion is a reliable remedy, used nearly worldwide, for lung problems, colds, coughs, congestion, stomach gas, and flatulence. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical

Constituents] allicin, alliin, allyl disulphide, allyl-propyl-di-sulphide, allyl- propyl-sulphide, alpha-sulfinyl-disulphides, ash (0.3%), carbohydrates (6%), cepaenes, cyanidin, cycloalliin, dimethylsulphide, enzymes, essential oils, fat (0.1%), flavonoids, flavones, inulin, kaempferol, methylalliin, methylpropyldisulphide, mono-sulphuride (C6H12S2), paeonodin glycosides, phenolic acids, protein (2.4%), quercetin, quercetrin, S-methylcysteine, sterols, sugars, sulphides, thiopropanol-S-oxide, trans-S-(1-propenyl)-cysteine- sulphoxide, trans-S-(1-propenyl)-L-(+)-cysteine-sulphoxide, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, vitamin D, volatile oil. Many components also found in Allium sativa [garlic] see below. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Cut an onion into thin slices, cover slices with honey, and steep for one hour in a covered container. Eat a few slices, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 29, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 114, Alvarez: 103, Boulos: 23, Curtin: 54-55, Dastur: 14 (#20), Felter: 176, Grieve: 599, Hutchins: 210, Jain + DeFilipps: 77, 383, Kadans: 159, Kay: 89, Lust: 298 (#320), Moerman: 24, Morton: 75, Manandhar: 81, Martinez: 65, Oliver-Bever: 44, 135, 255, Potter: 204, Quisumbing: 155, Rodale: 399, Shih-Chen: 26, Sturtevant: 32, Wyk + Wink: 38, 397.

Allium sativum GARLIC / AJO
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Alliaceae, garlic-onion family. #[Genus] 700 species; Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. #[Species] í Allium sativum [ajo, common garlic, garlic], widely cultivated since at least 3000 B.C. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] A garlic bulb is a garlic bulb. #[Herbal Properties] anthelminthic, anti-arteriosclerosis, anti-bacterial, anti-biotic, anti- diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, anti-thrombotic, anti-viral, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypo-tensive, irritant, lipid-lowering, rubefacient, stimulant, vermifuge. #[Class] A lot has been published about Allium sativum. I will give you three basic parameters for using garlic medicinally – it is a vaso-dilator, a liver coolant, and an anti-viral agent. G First of all, garlic acts as a vaso-dilator to decrease peripheral resistance in essential hyper-tension and facilitate the flow of blood through the peripheral capillaries. The blood vessels will have slightly less resistance and less vaso-constriction. In certain respects, garlic is a mild vascular, skin, and mucous membrane stimulant. It is subtle; it lacks the hot overt vaso- dilating effect of Capsicum annuum [cayenne] or Zingiber officinale [ginger]. It distinctly decreases the back pressure on the left ventricle of the heart. In this regard, it acts as a good long term heart tonic. G The second parameter is that over a period of time garlic tends to cool the liver, resulting in a moderate reduction of low density lipids. This is good for anyone with anabolic or adreno- cortical stress, as well as for essential hyper-tension. Prescription anti-lipid agents lower all blood fats and cholesterol. Garlic works as a tonic to slightly decrease peripheral resistance and slightly decrease the main agents of blood viscosity. Thus, garlic works synergistically and indirectly to facilitate heart function. G The third parameter is that garlic is a mild anti-viral agent. It works reasonably well in the lungs and sinuses for things such as rhino-viruses and echo-viruses. It isn't quite as effective as an anti-viral agent in the rest of the body. G The active constituents in garlic have all been traced to compounds loosely called lysines, which are relatively heat sensitive. Cooked garlic loses most of its medicinal potency. You need to consume garlic raw, but raw garlic exudes well-known sulfur-like aromatics. If you simply swallow a clove of garlic, it will pass mostly

undigested through the intestines. You have to chew the garlic, or crush it onto a cold sandwich, and that has certain disadvantages, especially if you work around other people – and you continue breathing. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, 4,5,9-tri-thiododeca-1,611-triene-9-oxide (=ajoene), ajoene (=4,5,9-tri-thiododeca-1,611-triene-9-oxide), allicin (=S-allyl- 2-propenthio-sulphinate), alliin, alliinase, allinase, allisin, allistatin, allyl-di- sulphide, allyl-propyl-di-sulphide, allyl-methyl-tri-sulphide, alpha-phellandrene, beta-phellandrene, choline, diallyl-di-sulphide, diallyl-sulphide, diallyl-tetra- sulphide, diallyl-tri-sulphide, enzymes, essential oils, flavonoids, geraniol, inulin, linalool, minerals, myrosinase, nicotinamide, S-allyl-2-propenthio-sulphinate (=allicin), vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B complex, volatile oils. Many components also found in Allium cepa [onion] see above. #[Physiology] To increase arterial elasticity, Allium sativum [garlic] works nicely and is quite devoid of side effects. G Allium sativum [garlic], Ceanothus [red root], and Populus [aspen-poplar-cotton wood] bark all decrease blood viscosity. G Zingiber officinale [ginger] mixes well with Allium sativum [garlic] to get a whole body of blood vessels dilated. G For essential hyper-tension, garlic is a cholesterol-lowering agent which dilates, thins, and decreases cholesterol excess. Powdered garlic can be put in capsules. The tincture of garlic is pretty grim. Garlic pearls are available in commerce. Garlic shouldn’t be irritating, unless one is allergic to it. In that case, one would want prepared capsules. G Ceanothus [red root], Allium sativum [garlic], Populus [poplar], and Salix [willow] modify blood charge. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh bulb, juice, o to one teaspoon; fresh bulb, tincture, 1:2, 15-40 drops; either form, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 10, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 114, Alvarez: 39, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 631, Boulos: 23, Christopher: 98-104, Curtin: 17-19, Duke + Ayensu: 394, Dastur: 15 (#21), Felter: 176, Grieve: 342, Hoffmann: 191, Holmes: 673, Jain + DeFilipps: 383, Kadans: 118, Kay: 89, Lust: 204 (#168), Lad + Frawley: 119, Moerman: 25, Morton: 76, Mabey: 80, Martinez: 32, 557, Oliver-Bever: 44, 135, 255, Potter: 124, Quisumbing: 158, Reid: 159 (#200), Rodale: 215, Shih-Chen: 27, Sturtevant: 38, Tucker + Debaggio: 132, Tierra (1): 92, Tierra (2): 305, 399, Wyk + Wink: 39, 397.

Alnus oblongifolia NEW MEXICAN ALDER
#[Family] Betulaceae, birch-alder family. #[Genus] 25 species; north temperate zone, southeastern Asia, Andes. #[Species] í Alnus oblongifolia [alder, arizona alder, mexican alder, new mexican alder, oblong-leaved alder], New Mexico, Arizona, northern Mexico; í Alnus serrulata [black alder, common alder, eastern alder, hazel alder, red alder, smooth alder, tag alder], Nova Scotia to northern Florida, Illinois to eastern Texas. #[Editor] Ilex verticillata [holly] is also called: black alder. #[Appearance] Alders are tall, deciduous trees, with scaly dark gray or brown bark (not shedding or papery like birches), monoecious (male and female cones located on same tree, but at separate sites, and with different structures). Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, stemmed, ovate to elliptical or triangular leaves, with doubly serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers in are tiny, inconspicuous, and greenish; male flowers, with sepals and no petals, grouped together in drooping, cylindrical, catkins; female flowers, with no sepals or petals, grouped together in erect, spreading catkins; both types in turn grouped together in racemes, and appearing in spring before or with the first leaves. Fruits are small and compressed, with two narrow-winged nutlets, and one seed. #[Herbal Properties] astringent, bitter, digestive, emetic, hemo-static, tonic.

#[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [McMillan] Alnus serrulata grows back east. Alnus oblongifolia grows right here in New Mexico and Arizona. Alder bark is astringent, and mildly heating. It helps to tone the lining of the small intestines, which in turn would help to improve food absorption and fat metabolism – functions similar to those of Juglans [walnut] and Rumex crispus [yellow dock]. Alder can be used externally as a wash for skin eruptions. #[Chemical Constituents] Alnus serrulata – oils, resins, tannins. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh or recently dried bark, strong decoction, Ω to two tablespoons, taken internally, up to four times a day; fresh or recently dried bark, weak decoction, used externally as a wash, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 291, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Felter: 177, Grieve: 18, Kloss: 179, Lust: 123 (#51), Moerman: 28, Meyer: 125, Willard: 69.

Aloe barbadensis TRUE ALOE / BARBADOS ALOE
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Asphodelaceae, asphodel family. #[Genus] 365 species; tropics and sub-tropics, especially southern Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, Canary Islands. #[Species] í Aloe barbadensis [aloe, aloes, barbados aloe, barbados aloes, common aloe, common aloes, true aloe, true aloes, zabila, zábila], = Aloe vera, = Aloe vulgaris, = Aloe officinalis, West Indies, Mexico, Central America, Canary Islands, northern Africa, southern Africa, India, Nepal, China; í Aloe ferox [cape aloe, thorny aloe], southern Africa, China; í Aloe socotrina [mocha aloe, turkey aloe, socotrine aloe, zanzibar aloe], eastern and southern Africa, India, West Indies. #[Editor] species of Agave [century plant] called: false aloe or american aloe. #[Appearance] –. #[Herbal Properties] abortifacient, bitter, emmenagogue, emollient, laxative, mucilaginous, purgative, tonic, vulnerary. #[Class] Many species of Aloe are medicinal. Aloe barbadensis is the correct botanical name of Aloe vera, by which is more well known in folk remedies and herbalism. The dried powder of aloe is available commercially and produces copious watery evacuations accompanied by intense griping. It is a potent, vicious purgative. As a quick, drastic laxative, you need only half a gram {about 1/60 ounce} in a single capsule, taken at night with a lot of fluids, to produce an effect six to ten hours later. Because it is so strong, it will sometimes irritate and excite the para-sympathetic nerves. It also irritates, inflames, and promotes intestinal diaphoresis, and it refocuses body energy back onto the colon. It also increases bile secretion. Dried Aloe is used for mucoid discharges of the large intestine and rectum as well as for anal prolapse. It should never be given in any inflammatory condition because of its irritating effects on the large and small intestines. A capsule of powdered Aloe with a cup of Coffea arabic [coffee], with Zingiber officinale [ginger], or with Cinnamomum verum [cinnamon] will act as a strong anti-spasmodic to stimulate peristalsis and induce secretions of the colon affected by spinal cord injuries, trauma, or extended surgical procedures such as resection. Also helpful would be a good stool softener such as psyllium seeds and a bitter tonic. Aloe is a drastic approach. The same effect could be achieved more moderately with bulk herbs, dietary changes, and upper GI stimulation. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Aloe has a succulent, hygroscopic, vulnerary, hyper-tonic sap, the function of which is to hold water inside the plant pulp during dry conditions of the environment. In an bruise or cut, blood vessels get injured, fluids leak out, and edema occurs. The quicker you get rid of the edema, the quicker tissue heals back to its original proportion of functional cells and structural cells. If you don't get the fluid out, scar tissue forms, which is infiltrated with collagen fibers. When held next to an injury, a slice of the fresh Aloe plant will draw out disorganized

fluid from the interstitial gel, through the skin, and pull it into the muco-poly- saccharide gel of the plant. A seriously juicy Aloe plant on the window sill won't do as well as a withered, slightly shrunken, not totally hydrated older plant. Any Aloe species will work. If you don't have Aloe, use Crassia ovata [jade plant] or a carefully prepared piece of Opuntia [prickly pear] cactus. Any succulent plant with a hygroscopic gel possesses the mechanism for holding fluids inside the leaf under drying pressure. Aloe is most widely used for bums, but it can also be used for blistered sore gums, Bartholin gland cysts, acute vaginitis, hemorrhoids and piles. The extracted plant gel is a non-hygroscopic emollient, soothing and softening to the tissues, but it won't draw out fluids. It is a hydro-gel in the plant, but a hydro-sol in the extracted gel. Aloe gel can be extracted with a washing machine ringer, stabilized with Vitamin C or sorbitol, and flavored with Mentha [mint] leaves. You can remove the laxative effect. The expressed juice from the plant is effective for healing sores in the esophagus, pharynx, or stomach. It is a good intestinal tract tonic, but it isn't as effective as the plant. #[Chemical Constituents] acemannan, aceylated mannan, aloin (=anthrone C-glucoside; =barbaloin), aloin A, aloin B, amino acids, anthranoids, anthra-quinone, anthra- quinone glycosides, anthrone C-glucoside (=aloin; =barbaloin), arabinose, barbaloin (=aloin; =anthrone C-glucoside; 30%), chromones, cinnamic acid, d- arakinose, emodin, enzymes, gluco-mannans, glyco-proteins, iso-barbaloin, minerals, oxydase, polysaccharides, resins, salicylic acid, sicaloin, stereo-isomers, volatile oil (trace). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with kidney problems or hemorrhoids; otherwise, best if used with an anti-spasmodic like Acorus calamus [sweet flag], or Angelica [angelica]. Dried juice, in single capsule, either #0 or #00; dried juice tincture, 1:10, 50% alcohol, 15-60 drops; either form, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 114, 116, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 92, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 171, Duke + Ayensu: 396, Dastur: 16 (#23), Felter: 177, Grieve: 26-29, Hutchins: 8, Hoffmann: 165, Holmes: 180, 397, Jain + DeFilipps: 384, Kloss: 197, Kadans: 29, Kay:90, Lust: 91 (#7), Lad + Frawley: 100, Millspaugh: 705, Meyer: 6, Morton: 78, Manandhar: 82, Mabey: 81, Oliver-Bever: 238, Potter: 8, Quisumbing: 160, Reid: 89 (#22), Rodale: 5, Shih-Chen: 29, Sturtevant: 41, Tierra (1): 103, Tierra (2): 170, Wyk + Wink: 40, 41, 397.

Alpinia galanga GALANGAL / SIAMESE GINGER
#[Family] Zingiberaceae, ginger family. #[Genus] 200 species; tropical and sub- tropical Asia, and South Pacific islands. #[Species] í Alpinia galangal, [catarrh root, galangal, greater galangal, siamese ginger, thai ginger], tropical Asia; í Alpinia officinarum, [galangal, lesser galangal, medicinal galangal, siamese ginger, thai ginger], eastern and southeastern Asia; cultivated in China, Malaysia, Thailand, and India. #[Editor] common name: ginger, also applied to Asarum caudatum [wild ginger] and Zingiber officinale [common ginger]. #[Appearance] Galangal is a perennial herb, with creeping, cylindrical, branching roots, ringed with leaf scars of past growth, rust-brown to reddish outside, and gray-white and mealy inside, with a taste and odor like Zingiber officinale [ginger]; stems are procumbent – creeping along the ground without rooting; growing stems and lanceolate basal leaves; the plant bear whitish flowers with reddish inner throats, grouped together in racemes on erect stalks. Creeping roots are reddish-brown and scaly outside, grayish-white and mealy inside, with a ginger-like taste and odor. #[Herbal Properties] anti-bacterial, anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-

mycotic, anti-spasmodic, anti-tumor, anti-ulcer, aromatic, carminative, digestive, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] Galangal is not readily available in this country. It is used for a sluggish metabolism, essentially as a substitute for Zingiber officinale [ginger]. It’s a carminative and stimulant which helps alleviate flatulence, dyspepsia, nausea, colic, and sea-sickness. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 1-acetoxychavicol, 1-acetoxyeugenol, alpha-pinene, cineole, diarylheptanoids (=galangol), essential oil, eugenol, flavonoids, galangin, galangol (=diarylheptanoids), gingerols (=phenyl alkyl ketones), kaempferol glycosides, linalool, methylcinnamate, monoterpenoids, phenyl alkyl ketones (=gingerols), quercetin, sesquiterpenes, volatile oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried rhizomes and roots, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 30-90 drops, as needed; dried rhizomes and roots, powder, in #00 capsules, one or two, up to three times a day; dried rhizomes and roots, standard infusion, Ω teaspoon in 8 fluid ounces boiling water, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 5. #[Other References] Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 442, Boulos: 193, Battaglia: 288, Duke + Ayensu: 650-651, Dastur: 17 (#24), Grieve: 339-340, Hoffmann: 191, Jain + DeFilipps: 610, Lust: 203 (#166), Meyer: 48, Potter: 122, Shih-Chen: 31-33, Sturtevant: 31-32, 41, Tierra (2): 248, Wyk + Wink: 43, 397.

Althaea officinalis MARSH MALLOW / ALTHEA
#[Family] Malvaceae, mallow family. #[Genus] 12 species; Europe, northern Asia, southern Australia, naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Althaea officinalis [althea, common marsh mallow, marsh mallow, mortification root, sweet root, wymote], Europe, naturalized in eastern North America. #[Editor] common name: mallow, also applied to: Malva neglecta [common mallow], and Sphaeralcea coccinea [globe mallow]; other mallow family members: Alcea rosea [holly hock], Gossypium thurberi [cotton root] and Hibiscus syriacus [hibiscus]. #[Appearance] Marsh mallow is an erect, perennial herb; with single stems; growing to about six feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, ovate to somewhat cordate (heart-shaped), usually with three lobes, serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and dense downy hairs. Flowers are pink, symmetrical; with five petals; solitary, and axillary; or grouped together in terminal racemes. #[Herbal Properties] anti-inflammatory, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, lenitive, mucilaginous. #[Class] The specific name officinalis means: of the market place, of the shops, or official. It indicates a traditional plant sold in sixteenth-century market places, old versions of our modern health food stores. ~ Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], and also Alcea rosea [holly hock] – roots, leaves, and flowers – have a mild but distinct phagocytosis effect. They are immuno-stimulants which increase the bug-devouring activities of the white blood cells. They have characteristic glycogens (long-chained, ropey starches) which excite the white blood cells. These starches go through the blood stream intact to the kidneys where they are excreted in a reconstituted long-chained polymer starch in the urine. G The slimy mucilage is a hygroscopic muco-poly- saccharide. Poly-saccharide means: many sugars. A muco-poly-saccharide is a starch that can hold water as a gel of hydrosol in solution. Muco-poly-saccharides hold water without heat at room temperature. If this plant were boiled, its storage starches would dissolve. The muco-poly-saccharides are part of the plant's vascular system, part of its blood stream, and they transport food from the root to the leaf and back again in a jello-like form. Since the plant is biennial or triennial, the root stores starches for the next year. Some muco-poly-saccharides are

transport starches which carry nutrients in the plant; others are storage starches which hold sugar for the next year's growth. Plants like Solanum tuberosum [potato] and Brassica napus [turnip] store nutrients for the next year's growth, and they are cooked and eaten for their starch. If the mucilage in Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow] is cooked, it turns into a starch, and you end up with marsh mallow soup. Therefore, the roots should only be steeped so the starches slide off and settle to the bottom of the jar as a viscous mucoid gloop. That’s what heals. G Hot Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow] root tea is a good demulcent, but not an immuno-stimulant. G Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow] can be used for auto- immunity.G Mallow family plants act as soothing catabolic stimulants to help break down metabolic wastes; they are basic tonic herbs for lymph and immune deficiency. G In chronic cystitis resulting from metabolic imbalance and immuno-depression, these herbs will be soothing to the urethra and urinary tract and provide good immuno-stimulants. G Generally, if a mallow family herb ever smells like vinegar, it has fermented, and it is useless. The dried herb became re- hydrated; then it was allowed to mold, and then it dried out again. The starches broke down, and they smell like vinegar. They are useless, and they may be toxic. ~ Alcea rosea [holly hock] used to be named Althaea rosea – it was formerly included in the same genus as Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] agedolite, althein, arabinose, asparagin, asparagine, caffeic acid, coumarin, D-glucan, diosmetin, dioxybenzoic acid, esterone-like compound, fatty acid esters, flavonoids, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucosans, glucosides, glucuronic acid, kaempferol, L-arabifuranan, mucilage, muco-poly- saccharides, p-coumaric acid, pectin, polyphenolic acids, quercetin, rhamnose, salicyclic acid, scopoletin, starch, syringic acid, tannins, tri-saccharides, uronic acid, vanillic acid, xylan. #[Physiology] Cooling synergists to soothe the stomach taken with Angelica sinensis [dong quai] include Symphytum officinale [comfrey] leaf or root tea, Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Alcea rosea [holly hock], and Ulmus rubra [slippery elm]. G Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Alcea rosea [holly hock], Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], Cupressus arizonica [arizona cypress], and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] stimulate phagocytosis by means of both macrophages and neutrophils. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, cold infusion; fresh roots, tincture, 1:2; dried herb, cold infusion; all forms, as needed; also, dried herb may be moistened for a poultice. NOTE – Same dosages as for Alcea rosea [holly hock]. You can put an ounce of marsh mallow root in a stainless steel bowl, moistened it with 32 fluid ounces of water, and make a standard cold infusion. If done the previous evening, you can drink it all day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 58, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 107, Alvarez: 196, Boulos: 134, Christopher: 325, Felter: 178, Grieve: 507, Hoffmann: 203, Jain + DeFilipps: 398, Kloss: 283, Lust: 93 (#13), Lad + Frawley: 128, Meyer: 6, Morton: 518, Mabey: 86, Martinez: 433, Potter: 185, Rodale: 379, Sturtevant: 42, Tierra (1): 137, Tierra (2): 187, 323, Wyk + Wink: 44, 398.

Amaranthus retroflexus AMARANTH / PIG WEED / ALEGRÍA
#[Family] Amaranthaceae, amaranth family. #[Genus] 60 species; tropics, sub- tropics, temperate zones. #[Species] í Amaranthus caudatus [tailed amaranth], tropical North and South America, Africa, Sri Lanka, Iran, Indonesia, eastern United States; í Amaranthus cruentus [purple amaranth, red amaranth], tropical North and South America, Asia, Quebec to Texas and Arizona; í Amaranthus hybridus [alegria, alegría, common amaranth, green amaranth, lady bleeding, love

lies bleeding, lovely bleeding, pig weed, pile wort, prince’s feather, red amaranth, red cocks comb, slender pig weed, spleen amaranth, wild beet], = Amaranthus chlorostachys, = Amaranthus hypochondriacus, = Amaranthus melancholicus, = Amaranthus paniculatus, nearly world wide; í Amaranthus powellii [powell amaranth], California, Oregon, Nevada and Wyoming to Arizona, New Mexico and Chihuahua, eastern United States; í Amaranthus retroflexus [alegria, alegría, amaranth, cocks comb, green amaranth, love-lies-bleeding, pig weed, red cocks comb, reflexed amaranth, wild beet], southern Canada, United States, Mexico, Central America, West Indies, tropical South America. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Pig weed is an annual weedy herb with an upright central stem, usually about four feet tall, which gradually becomes reddish with age. Generally, more color indicates better medicine. Leave are alternate, oval to oblong or lanceolate, with pointed tips, and sometimes with purplish spots. The inconspicuous small green flowers are grouped together in dense prickly spikes, and they produce numerous tiny dark shiny seeds. In most species, the seeds are edible as a grain. #[Herbal Properties] anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, hemo-static. #[Class] Basically, amaranth is an astringent used for inflamed mucous membranes. It’s good for that, and not much else. The seeds of some species are widely used as a food source. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alpha-spinasterols (leaves), ascorbic acid (leaves 5,000 ppm), beta-carotene (leaves 400 ppm), beta-cyanins, beta-sitosterol (leaves), calcium (leaves 25,000 to 53,335 ppm), campesterol (leaves), flavonoids, hentria- contane (leaves), iron (leaves 1,500 to 2,000 ppm), phosphorus (leaves 3,000 to 5,000 ppm), potassium (leaves 30,000 ppm), saponins, stigma-sterol (leaves 000 ppm), tannins, trisodium-3-hydroxy-4-(4-sulphonaphth-1-ylazo)-naphthalene-2,7- disulphonate (color agent). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] It is variously used internally for diarrhea, dysentery, stomach irritations, intestinal infections, bowel hemorrhages and hemorrhoids, and also for excessive menstruation. It can also be used externally as a douche for leucorrhea, as a wash for skin eruptions, and as a gargle for mouth and throat irritations. #[Medical Dosage] Whole dried flowering plant, preferably with reddish colorations present, standard infusion, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 24, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 12, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 26, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Angier (1): 88, Angier (2): 33, Ayensu (2): 35, Curtin: 24-26, 169, Dunmire + Tierney: 19, 173-175, Grieve: 30, Hutchins: 11, Jain + DeFilipps: 70, 103, Kloss: 295, Kadans: 31, Lust: 95 (#14), Moerman: 30, Meyer: 95, Morton: 181, 182, Potter: 10, Quisumbing: 266, Sturtevant: 43, 44, Tierra (1): 104, Tierra (2): 339, Willard: 79, Wyk + Wink: 398.

Ambrosia trifida RAG WEED / BUR SAGE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 43 species; nearly world wide; some botanists separate about 25 species into Franseria. #[Species] í Ambrosia ambrosioides [bur sage, canyon rag weed, chicura, chícura, false cockle bur, rag weed, yerba del sapo (herb of the frog)], =Fraseria ambrosioides, southern California, southern Arizona, and north- western Mexico; í Ambrosia aptera [texas rag weed, wingless rag weed], =Ambrosia trifida var. aptera, =Ambrosia trifida var. texana, Illinois to Colorado, south to Texas, Arizona and northern Mexico. íAmbrosia artemisiifolia [annual rag weed, bastard worm wood, bitter weed, carrot weed, hog weed, low rag weed, roman worm wood, sage brush-leaved rag weed, wild worm wood], southern Canada, United States, northern Mexico; íAmbrosia psilostachya [chícura, perennial rag weed, smooth-eared rag weed, western rag weed], Illinois to

Saskatchewan and Washington, south to northern Mexico; í Ambrosia trifida [buffalo weed, bur sage, giant rag weed, great rag weed, perennial rag weed, rag weed, yerba del sapo (herb of the toad)], Europe, United States, southern British Columbia. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Rag weed is a course, weedy, annual or perennial, branching herb; growing to about six feet tall; monoecious (male and female flowers located on the same plant, but placed at separate sites, and having different structures). Leaves are simple, opposite or alternate; darker and smooth above, pale and hairy below; with many pinnately or twice-pinnately divided lobes or clefts on the margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, green, inconspicuous, symmetrical, and prickly; ray florets are absent; disc florets with five, tubular petals; grouped together in composite heads; male heads grouped together in terminal racemes or spikes; female heads are solitary and axillary on stems below the male spikes. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] allergenic, anthelminthic, anti-allergenic, anti- inflammatory, anti-microbial, astringent, cytotoxic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, stimulant (liver). #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] The pollen of Ambrosia species [rag weed] is popularly considered to be a major source of allergy reactions, but the plant is used in folk medicine as a tea to inhibit allergies. Go figure. It’s one of several plants that act as a histamine inhibitor for hay fever. It helps control the inverted pyramid of allergies leading up to hyper-sensitivities. It can be used when Euphrasia officinalis [eye bright] isn’t available. Rag weed is a mild liver stimulant and a very efficient astringent. It’s used in folk medicine as a food to bring lots of heat to the liver. G The extract of Ambrosia ambrosioides inhibits Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; and the extract of Ambrosia psilostachys inhibits these same microbes, and also Streptococcus fecalis. #[Chemical Constituents] alicyclic-ketone, alpha-pinene, damsin, damsinic acid, essential oil, flavonoids, franserin, hispidulin, limonene, parthenolide, p-cymene, psilo-stachyin, sesqui-terpene lactones, sesqui-terpenes, tannins; only a few inconclusive studies available. #[Physiology] Ambrosia [rag weed] works well as a fluid extract. G Euphrasia officinalis [eye bright], Ambrosia [rag weed], and Simmondsia chinensis [jojoba] are useful decongestants and vaso-constrictors which will modify and limit the inflammatory response in the membranes and keep it localized without suppressing the response. G Euphrasia officinalis [eye bright] and Ambrosia [rag weed] decrease blood viscosity or stickiness and affect the interrelation-ship of mast cells and basophils. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowering herb, standard infusion, 1-2 fluid ounces; fresh flowering herb, tincture, 1:2, 20-40 drops; either form, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 291, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Gilmore: 80, Kindscher: 32, Kay: 92, Millspaugh: 325 (#82), Moerman: 30, 31, Meyer: 125, Mors + Rizzini + Pereira: 53, Martinez: 35, Wyk + Wink: 398.

Ammi majus BISHOP WEED
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 4 species; Atlantic islands, southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, some species naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Ammi majus [bishop weed, bishops weed, bishop’s weed, greater bishop weed], southern Europe, northern Africa. #[Editor] see also: Ammi visnaga [khella, visnaga], in following entry. Two closely related European genera in the same family, Aegopodium [gout weed] and Trachyspermum [ajowan], (neither covered here), are also known as bishop weed. #[Appearance] Bishop weed is a perennial herb, with finely dissected leaves, and typical parsley family flowers – small, white, and grouped

together in loose open umbels. #[Herbal Properties] carminative, digestive, diuretic, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] This is another umbel family plant found in northern Africa. The seeds are used medicinally, especially for asthma and angina pectoris. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] no information cited. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] The dried seeds are diuretic, tonic, carminative, digestive, and stomachic. They are used for angina pectoris and asthma. Their applications are more limited than for Ammi visnaga [khella], and they shouldn’t be used interchangeably. #[Medical Dosage] Dried seeds, 4-6 grams {about 1/8 ounce to about 1/5 ounce}, suspended in water or in a capsule, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Boulos: 175, Grieve: 369.

Ammi visnaga KHELLA / VISNAGA
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 4 species; Atlantic islands, southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, some species naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Ammi visnaga [bishop weed, khella, visnaga], as above. #[Editor] see also Ammi majus [bishop weed] in previous entry. #[Appearance] Khella is a perennial herb, similar to bishop weed, but the small white flowers are grouped together in more densely packed umbels. The dried flower stalks are used as tooth picks. #[Herbal Properties] anti- asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, appetizer, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogic, lithotropic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vaso-dilator. #[Class] The whole dried seeds are used for a much greater variety of medicinal purposes than are those of Ammi majus [bishop weed]. They shouldn’t be used interchangeably. The seeds of both plants are used for asthma and angina pectoris; but those of Ammi visnaga are also used for kidney stones and urinary problems in general; gastric ulcers, colic, and stomach problems in general; and also for congested prostrate glands in males. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] dihydro- samidin, furano-coumarins, khellin, khellol, pyrano-coumarins, samidin, visnadin, visnagin. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Not advisable for extended use. Dried seeds, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 60-120 drops, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Alvarez: 87, Boulos: 175, Wyk + Wink: 45, 398.

Anagallis arvensis SCARLET PIMPERNEL
#[Family] Primulaceae, prim rose family. #[Genus] 28 species; tropics, Europe, African mountains, South America. #[Species] í Anagallis arvensis [anagallis, common pimpernel, common scarlet pimpernel, pimpernel, poor man’s weather- glass, red chick weed, red pimpernel, scarlet pimpernel, shepherd’s weather-glass, weather-glass], Europe, widely naturalized. #[Editor] blue form; common name: shepherd's, also applied to: Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd's purse]. #[Appearance] This species is a spreading or prostrate, multi-branched, small, annual herb; some other species are perennial; with smooth, four-angled [square] stems; growing to about twenty inches tall. Leaves are simple, opposite or whorled, ovate to oval, usually stemless; with small black dots below; smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, symmetrical, star-shaped, solitary, and terminal; with five, lanceolate to awl-shaped sepals; five, unfused, fringed, whitish-pink to salmon-colored petals (blue-purple varieties also exist); five stamens; flowers open when sunny, and close when rainy or damp. Fruits are

spherical, membranaceus capsules; opening at maturity in a circle around the middle. Seeds are numerous, and somewhat triangular. #[Herbal Properties] anti- epileptic, anti-hydrophobic, cephalic, cholagogue, cyto-toxic, dermatological, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, nervine, poisonous, purgative, stimulant, sudorific, vulnerary. #[Class] Scarlet pimpernel is a sweet little plant, but with marginal medicinal value. In small doses, it’s a simple laxative and diuretic, used for water retention and poor liver fat digestion, and it’s also used as a mild nervine. In larger doses, it can cause very unpleasant internal effects including excessive nervousness and purging. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] aglycones, anagalligenone-B, anagalline, arvenin-I, arvenin-II, arvenin-III, arvenin-IV, cucurbitacin-B, cucurbitacin-D, cucurbitacin-E, cucurbitacin-I, cucurbitacin-L, cucurbitacin-R , cucurbitacins, glycosides, oleanolic acid, proto-primula-genin-A, saponins, tannins, triterpene saponins. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Not for extended use; fresh leaves can sometimes cause dermatitis. Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 5-15 drops, once a day; dried herb, simple tea, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 291, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 127, Jain + DeFilipps: 496, Lust: 331 (#374), Grieve: 632, Millspaugh: 423 (#108), Manandhar: 87, Potter: 216, Sturtevant: 47, Wyk + Wink: 398.

Anaphalis margaritacea PEARLY EVER LASTING
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 110 species; world wide. #[Species] í Anaphalis margaritacea [anaphalis, common pearly ever lasting, cotton weed, cud weed, ever lasting, gordo lobo (Baja California), large-flowered ever lasting, life ever lasting, indian posy, ladies tobacco, lady’s tobacco, pearly cud weed, pearly ever lasting], = Gnaphalium margaritacea, = Antennaria margaritacea, temperate Asia and North America. #[Editor] Common name: ever lasting, also applied to Antennaria [pussy toes, cat paw, ever lasting], and Pseudognaphalium [false cud weed, ever lasting]. #[Appearance] Pearly ever lasting is a small, perennial, downy herb; with upright, unbranched, leafy stems; plants form colonies via thin inter-connected, horizontal, lateral roots; and grow to about two feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, closely spaced, mostly linear; darker green and downy above, paler and more furry below. Flowers are tiny, yellowish, and symmetrical; grouped together in composite heads; peripheral ray florets absent; central disc florets tubular, with five petals; grouped together in pea-sized, composite heads, which turn brownish with age; each head is surrounded by white to pearly- opalescent bracts (leafy appendages), which look like petals; heads, in turn, grouped together in loosely compound corymbs. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-edemic, anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory, astringent, dermatological, diaphoretic, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge, vulnerary. #[Class] This is a gentle little herb, nearly forgotten, which is very useful as a home remedy for minor afflictions. Internally, as a tea, the herb is soothing and anti-inflammatory. It’s a good astringent, and mildly expectorant. It acts as a feeble anti-histamine, and deceases edema in swollen membranes. It’s also used for diarrhea, gastro-enteritis (stomach flu), and an irritable esophagus or stomach (especially with a moist, red-tipped tongue). Externally, as a poultice, the dried leaves help with bruises and contusions by soothing and decreasing redness and swelling. The dried flowers stimulate healing of sunburns and other moderate burns due to heat and friction. The dried leaves are also used in smoking

mixtures, especially with Rubus [rasp berry], Petasites [western colt foot] Tussilago [eastern colt foot], and Verbascum [mullein]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] anaphalin, flavones, flavonoids (leaf; stem), , gnaphalin, luteolin, monoterpenes, quercetin, steroids (flowers, sterols (leaf; stem), tannins (leaf; stem), tri-terpenes (leaf; stem; flowers), volatile oils. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowering herb, standard infusion, internally as needed; dried leaves, rubbed into fuzzy wads, mixed with a little hot water, for poultice; dried flowers, briefly simmered in a little water, cooled until warm, applied to burns, then covered with a moist cloth. #[Moore References] Mountain West – Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 197, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 290, Grieve: 477, Kay: 152, Lust: 189 (#145), Moerman: 33, 40, Meyer: 70, Sturtevant: 49, Willard: 199.

Anemone occidentalis WESTERN WIND FLOWER
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 145 species, 190 if Hepatica [liverwort herb] and Pulsatilla [pulsatilla] included; Europe, Asia, Sumatra, southern and eastern African mountains, North America to Chile. #[Species] í Anemone occidentalis [anemone, mountain anemone, mountain pasque flower, mountain pulsatilla, mountain wind flower, old man in the mountain, pasque flower, pulsatilla, western anemone, western pasque flower, western pulsatilla, western wind flower, white pasque flower, wind flower], = Pulsatilla occidentalis, British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California mountains. #[Editor] see also: Hepatica nobilis [liverwort (herb)], Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla], and the other Anemone entries above and below. #[Appearance] Western wind flower, also called western pasque flower, is a perennial herb with erect downy flowering stems up to two feet tall. The leaves are simple, mostly basal, downy, usually much dissected, and feather-like. The flowers lack petals, but they each have usually six, showy, usually creamy-white, cup-shaped sepals, with numerous stamens, surrounding numerous central pistils, which mature into the fruits – hairy tassel-like achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), clustered together in what looks like a loose mop-head. #[Herbal Properties] nervine. #[Class] Most Anemone species are nervines, used for insomnia, nervousness, general agitation, a sense of doom or gloom, physical irritability, or any distressed state of mind. Wind flower is not for a flushed, red- faced person with a feverish countenance. Rather, it usually helps a pale, chilled, stretched-out, tired, over-worked, over-wrought person with a tenuous, rapid, thready pulse. It often helps women who sometimes get a particularly bad month of PMS, with a yinned-out, uncenteredness, sharp abdominal pains, and overly sensitive skin. It also helps a tired, shaky person, with clammy hands and bags under their eyes, who can’t sleep, needs to sleep, but are afraid they won’t sleep, which prevents them from actually sleeping. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed; probably similar to Anemone tuberosa. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with feverish, flushed or excess conditions; do not use with bradycardia (excessively slow pulse or heart-rate); fumes released when the fresh plant is chopped can seriously irritate the eyes and lung mucosa; do the prep work outside in the open air, or indoors with a fan nearby blowing across the table; best in small frequent doses; use with care. Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 5-15 drops, every 2-3 hours, up to five times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 257, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –.

#[Other References] Moerman: 35.

Anemone patens PRAIRIE WIND FLOWER
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 145 species; 190 if Hepatica [liverwort herb] and Pulsatilla [pulsatilla] are included; Europe, Asia, Sumatra, southern and eastern African mountains, North America to Chile. #[Species] í Anemone patens [american pulsatilla, anemone, blue tulip, easter flower, goslin weed, hairy anemone, hairy pasque flower, hairy pulsatilla, hairy wind flower, hart horn, harts horn, hart’s horn, head ache plant, lion beard, lion’s beard, may flower, meadow anemone, pasque flower, prairie anemone, prairie crocus, prairie pasque flower, prairie pulsatilla, prairie smoke, prairie wind flower, pulsatilla, twin flower, western pulsatilla, wild crocus, wind flower], = Anemone hirsutissima, = Anemone ludoviciana, = Anemone multifida, = Anemone nuttalliana, = Pulsatilla hirsutissima, = Pulsatilla ludoviciana, = Pulsatilla nuttalliana, = Pulsatilla patens var. multifida, etc. Alaska, western and central Canada to Ontario, Washington and Idaho south to Utah, New Mexico, and Texas, east to Kansas, Illinois, and Michigan. #[Editor] see also: Hepatica nobilis [liverwort (herb)], Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla], and the two other Anemone entries below; similar common name: passion flower, applied to species of Passiflora [passion flower]. #[Appearance] Prairie wind flower, also called prairie pasque flower, is a low growing perennial herb with erect downy flowering stems; growing to about one foot tall. Leaves are simple, mostly basal (sometimes alternate), usually with much-divided, palmately-dissected, narrow to linear lobes, and pointed tips. Flowers are symmetrical; with six to ten showy, usually white sepals, fringed with pink; petals absent; numerous stamens; and numerous central pistils. Fruits are flat, ribless, hairy achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), clustered together in a small head. #[Herbal Properties] diaphoretic, diuretic, nervine, rubefacient, vesicant. #[Class] The nomenclature of many Anemone species has gotten very mixed up. The plants don’t care what we call them, but the botanists have conniptions trying to settle on a single Latin name. G This plant grows from Alaska to Ontario, across much of the central North American plains to Texas, and in the northwestern United States. It may be used as a substitute for Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla], an official European drug plant, which is rarely available, and is rarely prepared correctly when it is available. You need a fresh plant tincture. Period. All dried plant preparations are practically useless. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] flavescetin, glycosides, proto-anemonin, ranunculin, ranunculetin, saponins. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with feverish, flushed or excess conditions; do not use with bradycardia (excessively slow pulse or heart-rate); fumes released when the fresh plant is chopped can seriously irritate the eyes and lung mucosa; do the prep work outside in the open air, or indoors with a fan nearby blowing across the table; best in small frequent doses; use with care. Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 3-10 drops, up to four times a day. NOTE – Same usages as for Anemone tuberosa and Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla]. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 16, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 259, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6 #[Other References] Grieve: 34, Gilmore: 28, Holmes: 433, Kindscher: 36, Lust: 302 (#327), Millspaugh: 2 (#1), Willard: 90.

Anemone tuberosa DESERT WIND FLOWER
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 145 species, 190 if Hepatica [liverwort (herb)] and Pulsatilla [pulsatilla] included; Europe, Asia,

Sumatra, southern and eastern African mountains, North America to Chile. #[Species] í Anemone tuberosa [anemone, desert anemone, desert pasque flower, desert pulsatilla, desert wind flower, pasque flower, pulsatilla, tuber anemone, tuberous anemone, tuberous pasque flower, tuberous pulsatilla, wind flower], = Anemone edwardsiana, = Anemone sphenophylla, southern California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, northern Mexico. #[Editor] see also: Hepatica nobilis [liverwort (herb)], Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla], and the other Anemone entries above. #[Appearance] Desert wind flower, also called desert pasque flower, is a low growing perennial herb, with erect, downy, flowering stems, up to one foot tall, and a small, dark-skinned, pinkish tuber. The leaves are mostly basal, palmately compound, with usually three leaflets, resembling parsley leaves, often with purplish stems; leaves on the flowering stalks are similar, but they clasp the stalk, and they have fewer divisions. The flowers lack petals, but they each have 8-10 showy, white to lavender to reddish sepals, numerous stamens, surrounding numerous central pistils, which mature into a conical silky fruit, with achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), clustered together in a head. #[Herbal Properties] nervine. #[Class] This Anemone, like the other species, is basically a nervine. It slows and strengthens the pulse; it slows and strengthens respiration; and it improves central nervous system blood supple and circulation. It dilates peripheral blood vessels, and creates a smooth, efficient, fanning out of the blood from the body center to the extremities. Too large a dose will excessively lower blood pressure and over-suppress sympathetic autonomic functions. G Anemone is used for insomnia, nervousness, general agitation, physical irritability, and distressed states of mind. It helps tired, over-worked people with rapid, thready pulses; women in particularly bad PMS cycles, and people who have difficulty sleeping. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] anemone camphor [=proto-anemonin], anemonic acid (C15H14O7), anemonin (C15H12O6), proto-anemonin [=anemone camphor], volatile oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with feverish, flushed or excess conditions; do not use with bradycardia (excessively slow pulse or heart-rate); fumes released when the fresh plant is chopped can seriously irritate the eyes and lung mucosa; do the prep work outside in the open air, or indoors with a fan nearby blowing across the table; best in small frequent doses; use with care. Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 3-10 drops, up to four times a day. NOTE – Same dosages as for Anemone patens [prairie wind flower], and Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla]. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 16, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 259, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] –.

Anemopsis californica YERBA MANSA
#[Family] Saururaceae, lizard tail family. #[Genus] 1 species; southwestern United States and Mexico. #[Species] í Anemopsis californica [bavis, bavisa, common yerba mansa, gentle herb, hierba el manso, lizard tail, lizard tail root, mansa, mansa grass, manso, manso grass, shrimp plant, shrimp root, swamp root, yerba del manso (herb of gentleness), yerba mansa] California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, northern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Yerba mansa is a perennial herb, with nodes on the stems, and creeping stolons (runners) that put down new roots. Leaves are simple, mostly basal (a few, small, alternate leaves on the stalks), ovate to elliptical or oblong, long-stemmed; with smooth- margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are very small, symmetrical, and white; sepals and petals absent; with numerous white stamens and pistils; grouped together in dense, terminal, cone-shaped spikes, with conspicuous white bracts (leafy

appendages) below each spike which appear to be petals. Fruits are small capsules, with six to ten, roundish to ovoid seeds. The whole plant turns brick-red in the autumn – the same color as Rumex crispus [yellow dock]. #[Herbal Properties] anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, astringent, carminative, immuno- stimulant, tonic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] aromatics, asarinin, esdragole, estragole, eugenol [rhizomes and roots], linalool, methyl-ester, methyl-eugenol, p-cymene, tannic acid, thymol, thymol methyl- ester. #[Physiology] Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] in fairly large doses is used for osteo-arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and pseudo-gout. It is anti- inflammatory for the joints, tends to increase excretion of uric acid in the urine, decrease blood levels, and decrease potential for local uric acid irritability. It’s a great douche and enema medicine for fairly chronic bleeding piles and diverticulosis. The fluid extract is convenient and has little alcohol. G Anemopsis acts as an immuno-stimulant to increase the transport and movement of interstitial fluids. G Myrica cerifera [bay berry] and Anemopsis are both used for chronic mouth conditions. You need a hot and cold herb, or a hot herb that makes things juicy. Myrica is astringent to the mesenchymal tissues and stimulating to the parenchymal tissues. It is cold to the structure and hot to the function. Myrica and Anemopsis shrink boggy membranes and stimulate blood supply to re-heal the tissues. The tissues aren’t necessarily inflamed, but they are puffy and painful. G Myrica cerifera [bay berry] and Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] make good mouth washes as well as good internal remedies. Generally, when there is a problem in the mouth, there are concurrent problems in the esophageal tissues between the mouth and the stomach. Myrica is the most practical herb, although Anemopsis is a good substitute. Anemopsis works when the mouth, intestinal tract, and rectum are sub-acute, boggy, and congested with aches and pains due to gastro-enteritis or stomach flu. You want to stimulate the mucous membranes, but not necessarily shrink them. G Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal] is a good mucous membrane stimulant, but it is also astringent to the mucosa from the inside out. Anemopsis works both topically and internally. Hydrastis works internally and is excreted by the mucosa, thereby altering its metabolism and stimulating regeneration. G Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] used together with Myrica cerifera [bay berry] would give an effect similar to Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal]. Then it would be used orally and not topically. Anemopsis has an affinity for the mucosa. Myrica increases the blood supply to the mucosa. Hydrastis, Myrica, or Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] shouldn’t be used for acute problems. They’re hot herbs which heat up the condition. Commiphora [myrrh] or another astringent will cool the heat. Hydrastis [golden seal], Myrica [bay berry], and Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] are good for sub-acute, chronic mucous membrane problems, or for tissues that are stuck in a cold mode and haven't healed properly. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 20-60 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 20-60 drops; dried roots, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; all forms, up to five times a day; also, dried herb, standard infusion or cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 132, Los Remedios: 83, Pacific West: 291, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Curtin: 215-216, Felter: 188, Kay: 94, Moerman: 36, Tierra (2): 344.

Angelica pinnata ANGELICA / OSHA DEL CAMPO
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 110 species; northern hemisphere, one in New Zealand. #[Species] í Angelica archangelica [european angelica, garden angelica], = Angelica officinalis

,northern Europe, northern Asia; í Angelica arguta [lyall’s angelica, sharp- toothed angelica], = Angelica lyallii, northern California to British Columbia, Alberta and Wyoming; í Angelica atropurpurea [alexanders, american angelica, angelica, archangel, belly ache root, high angelica, master wort, purple angelica, purple-stemmed angelica, wild angelica], eastern Canada, northeastern United States to Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota; í Angelica genuflexa [kneeling angelica], northern California to Alaska and Siberia; í Angelica grayi [angelica, angelica root, gray angelica, gray’s angelica, new mexican angelica, osha del campo (field osha), western angelica], = Selinum grayi, southern Wyoming, Colorado, northern New Mexico; í Angelica hendersonii [henderson angelica], = Angelica tomentosa var. hendersonii, coastal from central California to southern Washington; í Angelica lineariloba [linear-lobed angelica], central Sierra Nevada mountains; í Angelica pinnata [angelica, new mexican angelica, osha del campo (field osha), pinnate angelica, small-leaved angelica], Alberta, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona; í Angelica tomentosa [california angelica, woolly angelica], = Angelica californica, = Angelica tomentosa var. californica, northern California. #[Editor] cured Chinese species, especially Angelica sinensis, produce an entirely different medicine (see next entry). #[Appearance] Angelica is a stout, usually perennial herb (sometimes biennial); with thick, hollow, round, grooved stems, branched near top, sometimes tinged with blue; growing up to seven feet tall. Leaves have two forms; lowest leaves are basal, large, usually clasping or sheathed around stem at the base, compound (oddly pinnate), usually twice trifoliate; leaflets with three groups of three leaflets, each leaflet usually serrated (saw-toothed), with main vein reaching clear to the tip; upper leaves much smaller, compound (oddly pinnate), usually with only one group of three leaflets. Flowers are small, white or greenish-white, sometimes light pink or purplish; grouped together in small rounded umbellets; these in turn grouped together to form large, terminal, compound umbels. Fruits (called mericarps) are large, elliptical to oblong but flattened on one side, with two, yellow, winged seeds. #[Herbal Properties] anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-nicotinic, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Montana] The roots, fresh or dried, are used medicinally. They are a good anti- spasmodic. They relieve menstrual cramps, and also cramps due to flatulence, diarrhea, and passing kidney stones. In general, all materials in the body must move through smooth tubes – by being squeezed in boluses. The tubes constrict inward with resistance, while other muscles expel downward. This happens in the intestinal tract and the urinary tract. When contents get stuck in a tube, the body tries to push them out quickly. Intestinal tract muscles can be hyper-tonic, and they squeeze in too much. When the body pushes too hard, cramps result; and the sudden, strong contractions are felt as referred pain. The smaller the tube (especially ureter tubes, gall bladder tubes, and fallopian tubes), the more drastic the cramps. Angelica will alleviate those cramps. #[Chemical Constituents] 8- methoxypsoralen, 12-methyl-omega-tridecanolide, acetaldehyde, alpha-copaene (root 65 to 190 ppm), alpha-phellandrene, alpha-pinene (seed 400 to 1,500 ppm), ancelicin, angelic acid, angelicol, apterin, archangelenone, aromatics, bergapten, beta-bisabolene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-phellandrene (root 3,500 to 1,000 ppm), beta-pinene (root 62 to 2,400 ppm), beta-thujene (root 6,900 to 8,700 ppm), borneol, byak-angelicin, camphene (root 45 to 130 ppm), cis-ocimene (root 45 to 125 ppm), coumarins, D-alpha-phellandrene (root 130 to 380 ppm), delta-3- carene (root 505 ppm), dihydro-apterin, flavone, flavonoids, furo-coumarin glycosides, hexa-methyl-phthalate, hexyl-methyl-phthalate (seed 3,600 ppm), hydroxy-apterin, imperatoren, imperatorin (seed 50 ppm), limonene (root 440 to 1,320 ppm), linalool, macro-cyclic lactones, marmesin, menthadienes, myrcene

(root 130 to 380 ppm), nitro-menthadienes, omega-penta-decanolide, omega-tri- decanolide, osthenol, osthol, oxypeucedanin, P-cymene (root 330 to 980 ppm), phellandrene, phthalates, pinene, psoralen, sterols, sugars, terpenes, trans-4- ethoxy-2-pinene (root 79 ppm), trans-ocimene (root 90 to 268 ppm), umbelliferone, volatile oil, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol; the presence and concentrations of constituents vary from species to species; the above list is a composite of the temperate angelica plants. #[Physiology] Combining Swertia radiata [green gentian] root, Angelica [angelica] root, and Foeniculum vulgare [fennel] seeds would make a good bitter tonic formula to stimulate the upper GI and relieve spasms and pain. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; in some people, the constituents psoralen and 8- methoxypsoralen can cause light sensitivity. Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 30-60 drops; dried roots, strong decoction, 1-2 fluid ounces; dried seeds, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 30-60 drops; all forms, up to four times a day; also, several dried seeds may be chewed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 25, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 41, Mountain West Revision: 30, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Angier (1): 232, Angier (2): 41, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 95, Battaglia: 160, Grieve: 35-40, Hutchins: 13, Hoffmann: 165, Holmes: 275, Jain + DeFilipps: 117, Kloss: 198, Kadans: 32, Lust: 99 (#20), 99 (#20), Millspaugh: 250 (#64), 252, Moerman: 37, 38 Meyer: 10, Mabey: 117, Potter: 11, Rodale: 10, Sturtevant: 61, Tucker + Debaggio: 148, 150, Tierra (1): 104, Tierra (2): 148, 273, Wyk + Wink: 48, 398.

Angelica sinensis DONG QUAI / TANG KWEI
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 110 species; northern hemisphere, one in New Zealand. #[Species] í Angelica acutiloba [dâng dui) (China-Pinyin), sharp-lobed angelica], China; í Angelica dahurica [bai zhi (China), siberian angelica], eastern Asia; í Angelica grosseserrata [fú shçn (China-Pinyin), serrate angelica], China; í Angelica porphyrocaulis [dú huó (China-Pinyin), purple-stem angelica], China; í Angelica pubescens [downy angelica, dú huó (China-Pinyin)], eastern Asia; í Angelica sinensis [asian angelica, chinese angelica, dang gui (China), dâng guí (China- Pinyin), dong quai (China), eastern angelica, tang kwei (China)], = Angelica polymorpha, = Angelica polymorpha var. sinensis, central China; í Angelica sylvestris [chiang huo (China), european wild angelica, forest angelica, gout weed, wild angelica], Europe and Asia; í Angelica taiwaniana [bai zhi (China), taiwan angelica], China, Taiwan. #[Editor] uncured non-Chinese species produce an entirely different medicine (see previous entry). #[Appearance] We don’t usually get to see this plant while it is growing. It has small white flowers grouped together in typical compound umbels. NOTE: with minor differences, the description of appearances found in the previous entry also apply to Asian species. #[Herbal Properties] anodyne, anti-anaemic, appetizer, bitter, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, laxative, stimulant, tonic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] essential oil, coumarins, furano- coumarins; constituents vary from species to species; see also the list given for Angelica pinnata and other western species in previous entry. #[Physiology] Chinese cured Angelica is used for kidney deficiency. It will increase the strength of androgen and gonad steroids. If the kidney deficient person is also liver deficient and skin deficient, then Angelica sinensis [dong quai] would be a good kidney stimulant and tonic, although it does have reproductive implications. G For kidney deficiency, Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] to some degree mimics and

facilitates aldosterone without the reproductive and skin aspects of Angelica sinensis [dong quai]. G For kidney deficiency, Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] also has strong lung and intestinal tract effects. If the person has a distinctly weak GI, it will especially work on the kidneys. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] and Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] could be used in combination as a tonic for kidney deficiency. G For essential hyper-tension, AVOID Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] and Angelica sinensis [dong quai]. G Serenoa repens [saw palmetto], Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], and Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] are helpful for enlarged prostate. G The ovarian cycle is probably best handled by Angelica sinensis [dong quai], although Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] also seems to be a fairly good ovarian stimulus. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] facilitates gonad hormones in both genders. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is a rather striking medicine. Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] is the closest herb in the west to Angelica sinensis [dong quai]. G Curing the root is not a simple process. The biochemistry of the root is altered under the stress of temperature and chemical changes. What makes the cured root of Angelica sinensis [dong quai] so useful is that it increases the bio-availability of gonad hormones. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is an estrogen and progesterone facilitator, and to some degree it is also a testosterone facilitator. Angelica sinensis will increase the health of enlarged prostates, cervical tissues, the endometrium in general, and reproductive deficiencies of both genders, although most noticeably and predictably in women. It will make a deficient amount of estrogen more bio-active. With diminished estrogen, there is increased tissue activity. Estrogen is a steroid hormone. Steroids lack co-enzymes which initiate genetic pathways and synthesis. They control cells. If a cell doesn't receive a steroid hormone from outside its cell membrane, it will perform other functions. The steroid attaches to a binding site. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] seems to make estrogens and other reproductive steroids more efficiently utilized. This means, the actual estrogen level isn’t raised, but more estrogen binding sites have estrogen available to them. If a woman has low estrogen levels characterized by long cycles, Angelica sinensis [dong quai] facilitates the availability of the estrogen. G Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice], Angelica sinensis [dong quai], and Panax [ginseng] will stimulate digestion, protein and fat metabolism in the liver, and bile secretion. They are also used to strengthen the blood and stimulate the availability and efficiency of gonad and adreno-cortical hormones. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is probably the one thing which will act as a synergist to increase sensitivity to estrogen, although perhaps Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] may do this to some degree. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is cured, which alters its properties 180 degrees from uncured Angelica. Uncured species can be used to decrease intestinal tract cramps and uterine cramps; cured Angelica sinensis [dong quai] will stimulate and aggravate the cramps. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is an estrogen synergist. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is a cyclic alterative to specifically stimulate estrogen response. It is hot. It is a strong upper and lower GI stimulant. It stimulates the mucosa and stimulates gastric secretions, sometimes causing gastritis. G Cooling synergists to soothe the stomach taken with Angelica sinensis [dong quai] include Symphytum officinale [comfrey] leaf or root tea, Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Alcea rosea [holly hock], and Ulmus rubra [slippery elm]. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] can sometimes bring a flush to the face and body, making it warm externally. The tincture gives a short-term flush. Eating the herb gives a long term flush. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] builds up the cycle and acts as a cyclic alterative to push the cycle through to completion. Vitex agnus-castus [chaste tree] completes the cycle by clarifying the under-pinning of the ovarian cycle which is the pulsing of the gonadotropin releasing hormone. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] helps males by

strengthening the sertoli influence. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] helps strengthen males because it helps with non-testosterone aspects. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] and Ceanothus [red root] help reduce testicular fluid cysts via increased metabolism and lymph drainage. G As an endocrine and steroid alterative, Angelica sinensis [dong quai] may facilitate the release of estrogen and androgen from binding sites and improve the quality of carrier proteins in the cells and liver. It may also facilitate a more adequate release of conjugated steroids in the presence of inadequate steroids in the blood stream. Angelica sinensis [dong quai] can be called an endocrine and steroid alterative which doesn't initiate but rather facilitates. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] won't do anything unless a source of estrogen hormones is present. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] can be taken to improve the transport of carrier proteins in the blood stream and the binding site availability of C-17 or C-19 steroid hormones like testosterone, progesterone, sertoli androgens, and things cascaded by the gonad hormones, like aldosterone somatotrophins. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is a strong reproductive and upper GI stimulant as well as an anabolic stimulant. It is also a strong, local stimulant to the stomach. G Upper GI excess people taking Angelica sinensis [dong quai] would start experiencing a gnawing excitability in the stomach. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] and Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] would both be reproductive tonics. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Vitex agnus-castus [chaste tree] berries, and Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root] increase anabolic strength going into ovulation so there would be stronger liver and reproductive function. They would stimulate estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone production. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is anabolic; it will have a moderate effect on respiratory and skin deficiencies. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] is mildly inflammatory and helps control excess prostaglandin response. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] helps stimulate reproductive functions, adreno-cortical functions, and liver functions. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] would facilitate the utilization of estrogen more than progesterone. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Cured roots (Chinese or Korean), large slices, 1/16 to 1/8 of a slice per day, chewed slowly and swallowed; cured root tincture, 1:5, 70% alcohol, 5-20 drops, once a day; cured root powder, in capsules, #0, one to three a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West 42, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 6. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 187, 189, 350, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 95, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 42, 226, 474, Duke + Ayensu: 48, 74-77, 85, Grieve: 40, Lu: 94, 124, Lust: 98 (#19), Lad + Frawley: 159, Moerman: 39, Reid: 112 (#83), 151 (#178), Sturtevant: 50, Tierra (1): 177, Tierra (2): 312, Wyk + Wink: 48, 398.

Antennaria parvifolia PUSSY TOES / EVER LASTING
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 70 species; temperate and arctic zones. #[Species] í Antennaria aromatica [scented pussy toes], Alberta, Montana, Wyoming; í Antennaria corymbosa [flat-topped pussy toes], Alberta, Saskatchewan, western United States, except Arizona; í Antennaria dioica [cat ear, cat’s ear, cat paw, cat’s paw, dioecious pussy toes, european pussy toes, mountain ever lasting, mountain pussy toes], = Gnaphalium dioicum, Europe, Asia and Australia; í Antennaria geyeri [geyer pussy toes], northern California, Oregon, eastern Washington; í Antennaria howellii [howell pussy toes], Canada, northern United States; í Antennaria lanata [woolly pussy toes], British Columbia, Alberta, Washington,

Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming; í Antennaria parvifolia [cat paw, cat’s paw, ever lasting, mountain cat paw, mountain ever lasting, mountain pussy toes, pussy toes, small-leaved cat paw, small-leaved ever lasting, small-leaved pussy toes], western Canada to Ontario, western United States to Michigan and Texas; í Antennaria rosea [pink pussy toes], = Antennaria microphylla, Alaska, Canada, western United States. #[Editor] Common name: ever lasting, also applied to Anaphalis margaritacea [pearly ever lasting], and Pseudognaphalium [false cud weed, ever lasting]. #[Appearance] Pussy toes is a small, tomentose (woolly), mat-forming, silvery-gray, perennial herb; with stems growing to about eight inches tall; dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants). Leaves have two forms; lower leaves are simple, basal, stemless, and spatulate (spoon-shaped); with smooth margins, and somewhat pointed tips; upper leaves on the stems are simple, alternate, stem-less, linear to oblanceolate, with smooth margins, and somewhat pointed tips. Male flowers are white, with five, thread- like petals; female flowers are pink to rose, with five petals forming a tubular corolla; individual flowers are grouped together in composite heads; heads, in turn, are grouped together in terminal cymes. Seeds are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-diarrheal, astringent, cholagogue, expectorant, hepatic, styptic. #[Class] This little plant seems fairly dainty, but it has several important uses, especially liver inflammations, and mild recurrences of hepatitis symptoms. It’s also a non-irritating astringent for intestinal distress above the ileocecal valve, and as an enema for the descending colon and rectum. The tea makes a good douche for vaginitis, and also a reliable gargle for sore throats. The European species, Antennaria dioica, has been used as a cholagogue to increase bile secretions into the intestines, and to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions. It can tend to raise blood pressure. It has been used for dysentery, but far better remedies are available.#[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] flavonoids, luteolin, sesqui-terpene lactones, sterols, tri-terpenes, ursolic acid, volatile oil; not very well studied. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Whole dried flowering plant (including rootlets), chopped, one tablespoon, standard infusion, 3-6 fluid ounces, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 53, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 78, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 3, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 291, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 42, Grieve: 175, Lust: 151 (#91), Potter: 170, Wyk + Wink: 168, 398.

Apium graveolens CELERY
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 1 species, 25 by splitters; Europe, western Asia to India, northern and southern Africa, introduced in North and South America, cultivated. #[Species] í Apium graveolens [celery, celery seeds, common celery, garden celery, qin cai [china], smallage, wild celery], as above. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Celery is a widely cultivated biennial (sometimes a short-lived perennial) herb; with fleshy, bulbous roots; angular, furrowed, branched, second year stems; growing up to three feet tall; a familiar soup and salad vegetable. Leaves are opposite, compound (oddly pinnately), dark green and shiny; leaflets (3-5) are wedge-shaped, incised; with coarsely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are white to grayish or light pink; grouped together in small umbellets; these in turn, grouped together in large umbels. Fruits are small, ribbed, ovate to elliptical. seeds are very small, brownish-tan, with five, pale, length-wise ribs. #[Herbal Properties] alexipharmic, alterative, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, anti- spasmodic, appetizer, diuretic, carminative, cordial, deobstruent, emmenagogue,

hypo-tensive, lithontriptic, pectoral, resolvent, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] Celery seeds are a disinfectant, anti-microbial, and diuretic. They should be avoided by people having chronically weak kidneys, active nephritis, and renal failure, as well as by those who are on dialysis or who have a history of kidney disease. Celery seeds work well for the anabolic, protein-consuming, grease-ball person having an acid disposition and a PH of 6.0 to 5.5. It doesn't work as well for catabolic, sugar-consuming, yinny type people. G Celery generally works better for men, and better for women in their 30's and 40's. A tincture or strong tea is best. Celery works as a diuretic for acid PH infections. These are far more serious than alkaline infections because they tend to be urinary tract specific. Acid urine infections were usually sexually transmitted, and they are very amicable in that environment. An alkaline urine infection is not specific to urethritis and can mean anything, but particularly cold sore bacteria, which comprise about 90% of all urinary tract infections. The remaining infections are acid specific. G Celery seeds have a certain validity as a nerve tonic. Because it is a mild vaso-dilator which particularly affects the vagus nerve and gives more heat from the navel up, it is considered to be useful for people who have a certain brittleness and intellectual dysfunction, who are basically fuzzy-brained. It will get more blood to the brain and make it work better. It works the same way as Turnera [damiana] which makes you feel bright around the edges because it gives you better blood. G As an acid-specific diuretic, celery seeds are good for an anabolic metabolism with arthritic tendencies. Like Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] it helps to get rid of blood acids like uric acid for anabolic stress people, it stimulates hydrogen ion release by the kidneys, and diminishes nitrogen wastes in the blood stream. Both celery seeds and Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] are hepatic, disinfectant, and vaso-dilating. Celery is not anti-inflammatory. As a diuretic, celery seeds cause more urine to be excreted with the same degree of acids in the urine. Therefore, it is acid leaching. For most people, acid is released in the morning, diminishes during the day, and builds up during the night. G Things like Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] and celery seeds will promote the excretion of acid throughout the day and increase the hydrogen ion leaching that occurs later on in the day. That makes them especially helpful for arthritis, acid metabolism type chronic diseases, and nitrogen heavy chronic diseases like gout problems, essential hyper-tension, and hyper-lipidemia. The nitrogen metabolism of the anabolic dominant person is too high. Celery seeds might be useful for thyroid excess. Acidosis of the true diabetic is a very different mechanism and doesn't call for a diuretic. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 3-n-butyl-phthalide, alpha-eudesmol, alpha-eudesmol, alpha- selinene, apigenin, apigenine (fruit), apiin (plant), apiumoside, asparagine (bulb), bergapten, butyl-phthalides, celeroside, choline (fruit), coumarins, dihydro- carvone, fatty acids, d-limonene, fixed oil, flavonoids, furo-coumarins, glucosides (plant), glutamine (bulb), inosite (plant), iso-imperatorin, iso-pimpinellin, ligustilide, mannite (plant, bulb), monoterpenes, osthenol, phthalides, protein (fruit), santalol, sedanenolide, sedanolide, tyrosine (bulb), vitamin A2 (plant), vitamin B1 (plant), vitamin C2 (plant), volatile oils (plant, bulb, fruit). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried seeds, simple infusion, Ω to one teaspoon of seeds, in one cup of hot water. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 188, Alvarez: 63, Boulos: 175, 180, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 96, Duke + Ayensu: 78, Dastur: 21 (#32), Grieve: 182, Hutchins: 75, Hoffmann: 179, Holmes: 599, Jain + DeFilipps: 118, Kloss: 231, Kadans: 88, Lust: 153 (#94), Lad + Frawley: 155, Moerman: 41, Morton: 642, Martinez: 373, Potter: 68, Quisumbing: 681,

Shih-Chen: 42, Sturtevant: 55, Tierra (2): 304, Wyk + Wink: 47, 399.

Apocynum androsaemifolium DOG BANE / CANADIAN HEMP / LECHUGUILLA
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family. #[Genus] 12 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Apocynum androsaemifolium [american hemp, american ipecac, amy root, bitter root, black hemp, black indian hemp, bowman root, bowman’s root, canadian hemp, catch fly, choctaw root, coctaw root, dog bane, dog’s bane, dropsy weed, fly trap, glabrous hemp, hairy dog bane, hemp dog bane, honey bloom, indian hemp, indian hemp dog bane, indian physic, lechuguilla, milk ipecac, milk weed, mountain dog bane, mountain hemp, prairie dog bane, rheumatism weed, silk weed, spreading dog bane, wall flower, wandering milk weed, western wall flower, wild cotton], North America, northern Mexico; í Apocynum cannabinum [black indian hemp, canadian dog bane, canadian hemp, choctaw root, indian hemp], = Apocynum pubescens, North America; í Apocynum sibiricum [clasping-leaved dog bane], North America. #[Editor] common name: bane, also applied to: Actaea rubra [bane berry, cohosh], Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh, bug bane], Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane, horse weed], Hyoscyamus niger [hen bane, fetid night shade], and Pluchea camphorata [marsh flea bane]; common name: lechuguilla, also applied to: Abronia fragrans [sand verbena], and Agave lechuguilla [century plant]; common name: hemp, also applied to: Cannabis sativa [marijuana]. #[Appearance] Dog bane is a perennial herb with horizontal roots, erect stems, milky sap. Leaves are usually opposite, ovate to oblong, with smooth margins and short-stalks. Flowers are small, bell-shaped or urn-shaped, whitish to pinkish, with five petals, and grouped together in short-stalked cymes. Fruits usually follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), with two slender cylindrical seeds. #[Herbal Properties] anti-edemic, anti-syphilitic, anti-tumor, cardiac, cardiac stimulant, cardio-tonic, cathartic, counter-irritant, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, hypo-tensive, poisonous, renal stimulant, stimulant, sudorific, tonic, vaso-dilator. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] (1) [Arizona] Apocynum is a naturalized weed which came from Europe. The fresh roots are caustic; the dried roots are used medicinally. Too large a dose can be toxic. You want to get as much of the little tiny rootlets as you can. Tincturing the dried roots and the lower stems is the most practical. The plant is a specific to dilate renal arteries and increase blood flow to the kidneys. It works well in adrenalin stress people who have frequent urination, renal vaso-constriction, deficient blood supply to the kidneys, dry skin, constipation, who are starting to get fluid retention. The kidneys have been suppressed neurologically and over- worked by being under-stimulated. The condition has gone to the point of kidney deficiency without function. G This is an important herb because the people it helps are those who are looking at kidney failure and dialysis. Episodic hyper- tension is one of the vascular symptoms you find in the person who has been kidney deficient for a long time. The person is most likely to be a woman, a house-keeper, or a woman who runs her own business, who smiles a lot and suppresses. Generally, hypo-tensive drugs and diuretics are given for episodic elevated blood pressure related to stress and tension. Hypo-tensives decrease the blood supply to the kidneys. This is the only plant I know about that dilates the renal arteries without irritating the body. Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] would dilate the renal arteries, but it would create too much heat in the middle of the body. G The herb is a mild, feeble, but potentially toxic glycoside and cardio-tonic like Digitalis purpurea [foxglove]. It is very erratic in the heart muscle and doesn't work like Digitalis does to increase the calcium transport in

the heart muscle or the electrolyte pump. In small doses (10-20 drops of 1:5 tincture), it affects the smaller arteries, but not the heart and aorta. It mainly works on the arteries of the kidneys, but frequently also gives the liver more blood. G Perhaps 10% of us have adrenalin stress and genetically weak kidneys and will get to the point of kidney failure and episodic hyper-tension caused by short-term, serious kidney retention and will ultimately need dialysis. This herb can be used to turn around the early stages of kidney failure. The earlier a person has edema or frequent urination, the more they might need this herb. It works well with Equisetum [horse tail] to help strengthen the kidneys, and with Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] as a tonic to para-sympathetic functions. (2) [Arkansas] The root is used medicinally. The powdered root mixed with water is a good zone therapy stimulant to bring heat and moisture to a tissue. The herb acts as a renal stimulant and is given in small doses to increase blood supply to the kidneys and relieve kidney deficiency that has gone to the edema state. It is also a cardiac stimulant. It’s better to take one or two capsules of the herb a day for a more gradual absorption, rather than the tincture which has a strong, immediate response and hump effect. (3) [Montana] Apocynum androsaemifolium or mountain dog bane is a relative of Apocynum cannabinum or canadian hemp. Mountain dog bane has pretty little burgundy-colored flowers. The underground tubers of the plant are not much thicker than the stems. A paste of the dried roots, ground up and mixed with water, is applied as a topical counter-irritant to bring blood to the tissues. It could be used on a sore ankle or on the back of the neck to relieve lung congestion. Dog bane can be used to dilate the renal artery and stimulate blood supply to the kidneys. It would be appropriate for edema pervasive throughout the body due to deficient kidney function, but not due to cardiopathy or pulmonary edema. The condition might be accompanied by adrenalin stress, arteriosclerosis, and impaired renal blood supply. Dog bane will oppose the adrenalin constriction and could be taken every second or third night. The ground up, dried roots are better than the tincture. The solid particles provide a slower absorption rate over a longer period of time. #[Chemical Constituents] aceto-vanillin, alpha-amyrin, androsin (roots), andro-sterol (plant), apobioside (roots), apocannoside (plant), apocymarin (roots), apocynamarin (plant), apocynein (plant), apocynin (roots), caoutchouc (plant), cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, cymarin (plant), cymarol, cyno-cannoside, cyno-toxin, epuranol (roots), essential oil (roots 160 ppm), fatty oils, genins, glucosides, harmalol, homo-andro-sterol, K-strophanthin (roots), k-strophanthoside, lupeol, oleanolic acid, oxy-aceto-phenone, P-oxy-aceto-phenone, resins, saponins, strophanthidin, strophanthin, strophanthin cymaroside, tannins; several constituents resemble Digitalis purpurea [fox glove] glucosides in action. #[Physiology] A person with impaired or very weak kidney functions may have overall edema and produce little urine. A good approach for this is to start a person on Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] and for a few days, and then wean them over to dog bane to help the kidneys to relax and get more blood. G Apocynum [dog bane] is an effective vaso-dilator which strengthens and makes more efficient the aortal blood supply, dilates the renal artery, increases blood supply to the kidneys, and reduces blood pressure. Apocynum is a circulatory stimulant to both the kidneys and the liver. It will dilate the hepatic artery to give more arterial blood to the liver. Apocynum [dog bane] is sometimes complimentary with Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] or with a stronger stimulant to liver transport like Mahonia [oregon grape]. G Apocynum is a good herb to turn around the liver deficient, adrenalin stress person before the functional imbalance becomes organic and the person starts getting edemic. When the internal thermostats are up, there is frequent urination, dry skin, and dry intestinal tract. The kidneys become boggy and congested and start to cave in. The person will feel a dull ache

in the back and will start drinking hot diuretic teas and brandy to stimulate blood supply to the kidneys. The person would actually be better off retaining fluid than to force sodium and potassium through the kidneys by way of diuretics. G If Apocynum is too strong on the heart, herbs like Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] or Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] will give a lot of internal arterial stimulation as well as stimulate the kidneys. G For imbalanced or deficient kidneys, Equisetum [horse tail] tea, generous amounts of Arctium lappa [burdock], and small amounts of Apocynum [dog bane] are useful. G Apocynum [dog bane] increases the force and efficiency of cardiac output by slowing and strengthening the pulse, better organizing intake and output. Apocynum is a tonic which goes from cardio-vascular through the kidneys, and is best where kidney deficiency is stronger than the cardio-vascular deficiency. The person is starting to get diminished urine and experiences a dull ache in the lower back in the right or left side from drinking alcohol, coffee, sour fruit juices, and eating meat. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy, otherwise, use small dose with care. Dried roots, powdered, one capsule, #0, once a day, as a tonic; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-20 drops, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 70, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 292, Mountain West Revision: 06, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Christopher: 207, 209, Curtin: 111, Felter: 193, Grieve: 108, 395, Hutchins: 39, 49, Kloss: 205, Kindscher: 41, Lust: 173 (#123), Millspaugh: 526 (#132), 530 (#133), Moerman: 42, 43, Meyer: 16, 19, Potter: 34, 58, Willard: 173, Wyk + Wink: 399.

Aralia californica CALIFORNIA SPIKE NARD
#[Family] Araliaceae, spike nard-ginseng family. #[Genus] 35 species; eastern and southern Asia, North America. #[Species] í Aralia californica [aralia, california ginseng, california spike nard, spike nard, western aralia, western spike nard], southern California to southern Oregon. #[Editor] common name: ginseng, applied to: Aralia californica [spike nard (california)] = california ginseng, Aralia hispida [spike nard (spiny)] = ozark ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus [siberian ginseng], Oplopanax horridus [devil’s club] = western american ginseng, Panax ginseng [chinese ginseng], Panax quinquefolius [american ginseng], Rumex hymenosepalus [cañaigre] = desert, false, red or wild american ginseng. #[Appearance] Aralia californica is a huge perennial herb, with smooth stems (no spines), growing up to ten feet tall, with large roots having milky sap. Leaves are large, alternate, twice pinnately compound, first divided into three leaflets (two lateral/opposite, one terminal); in turn, lateral leaflets divided into five (sometimes seven) sub-leaflets, and terminal leaflet divided into three sub- leaflets. Each sub-leaflet ovate to oblong, short-stemmed, with moderately serrated (saw-toothed) margins, heart-shaped bases and pointed tips. Flowers are small, yellow-green to greenish-white, with five petals; grouped together in dense umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in terminal panicles. Fruits are small, round, juicy, bluish-black berries, with about five seeds. Seeds are flattened and light-colored. #[Herbal Properties] anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti- tussive, aromatic, dermatolog-ical, expectorant, tonic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] araloside, beta-sitosterol, chlorogenic acid, choline, oleanic acid glycosides, oleoresin, panaxosides, ursolic acids. #[Physiology] Aralia species are all stronger as a fluid extract than as a tincture. G Aralia racemosa [american spike nard], Oplopanax horridum [devil’s club], Zanthoxylum americanum [prickly ash], and Smilax rotundifolia [sarsaparilla] are the four ingredients in a compound alterative syrup. G The specific symptoms for

an Aralia compound alterative syrup include chronic or acute hepatitis, rheumatism or arthritis, syphilis, scrofula, ulcers, swellings, rickets, chronic lung inflammation and enlargement, non-specific pains and aches in the joints, pre- menstrual joint problems, and dry skin problems such as psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis, dandruff, and seborrhea. The first ingredient of the recipe is three ounces of Aralia root or root bark. You can use: Aralia californica or California spike nard, Aralia racemosa or spike nard, or Aralia nudicaulis or American sarsaparilla, sometimes called wild sarsaparilla. Aralia species are members of the spike nard ginseng family. They contain many ginsenosides, panaxosides, and other compounds similar to those present in Panax [ginseng], which is very expensive. Like ginseng, Aralia species are distinct and overt adaptogens. Adaptogens facilitate the functioning of the emotional diagnostic center of the brain or limbic system which decides how one feels. The hypo-thalamus of the limbic system controls the pituitary which is responsible for all extended stress patterns. Adaptogens will enable the body to handle stress better. If the body is under microbial or environmental stress, it can endure longer with an adaptogen. Aralia is an adaptogen which has the effect of relaxing living systems and reducing stress. Aralia species are mild stimulants of alveoli mucous membranes, although not strong expectorants. G As expectorants, Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate] will break up external congestion, Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] will go a little deeper, and Aralia [spike nard] will go all the way out to the edge of the lungs. G For essential hyper-tension, Panax [ginseng] and Aralia [spike nard] groups are generally alright. G Some Panax [ginseng] species, some Aralia [spike nard] species, and even Smilax rotundifolia [sarsaparilla], seem to be alteratives to the hypo-thalamus and modify its responses. G Adaptogens like Aralia [spike nard] species will help cool down the hypo-thalamus. G Aralia [spike nard] and Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] would help modify blood sugar. G Aralia [spike nard] is a hypo-thalamus moderator. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-90 drops; recently dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 30-90 drops; dried roots, strong decoction or cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; all forms, once a day. Also, fresh berries, tincture, 1:2, Ω to one teaspoon, as needed; dried leaves, simple tea, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 116, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Grieve: 760, Moerman: 46, Tierra (2): 297.

Aralia hispida BRISTLY SPIKE NARD / DWARF ELDER
Aralia spinosa SPINY SPIKE NARD / HERCULES CLUB
#[Family] Araliaceae, spike nard-ginseng family. #[Genus] 35 species; eastern and southern Asia, North America. #[Species] í Aralia hispida [aralia, bristle- stemmed sarsaparilla, bristly sarsaparilla, bristly spike nard, dwarf elder, ozark ginseng, wild elder], eastern and central Canada, northeastern United States to Minnesota; í Aralia spinosa [angelica tree, devil’s walking stick, hercules club, spiny spike nard], eastern United States to Illinois, Florida and Texas. #[Editor] common name: elder, applied to species of Sambucus [elder], and also to: Aralia hispida [spike nard] = dwarf elder, and Tecoma stans [trumpet flower] = yellow elder; common name: ginseng, applied to: Aralia californica [spike nard] = california ginseng, Aralia hispida [spike nard] = ozark ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus [siberian ginseng], Oplopanax horridus [western american ginseng], Panax ginseng [chinese ginseng], Panax quinquefolius [american ginseng], Rumex hymeno-sepalus [cañaigre] = desert, false, red or wild american ginseng; common name: devil’s, applied to: Acacia greggii [cat-claw] = devil’s claw,

Aralia spinosa [spike nard] = devil’s walking stick, Bidens frondosa [tick seed] = devil’s ticks, Cuscuta [dodder] = devil’s guts, Clematis virginiana [virgin’s bower] = devil’s darning needles, Datura wrightii [jimson weed] = devil’s weed, Ferula asafetida [asafetida] = devil’s dung, Harpagophytum procumbens [devil’s claw], Oplopanax horridus [devil’s club], Opuntia humifusa [prickly pear] = devil’s tongue, Tribulus terrestris [puncture vine] = devil’s thorn. #[Appearance] Aralia hispida is a small perennial herb, with [thin] spines (on lower stems), growing up to two feet tall, roots without milky sap. Leaves are large, alternate, twice pinnately compound, first divided into three leaflets (two lateral/opposite, one terminal); in turn, lateral leaflets divided into three (sometimes five) sub- leaflets, and terminal leaflet divided into five sub-leaflets. Each sub-leaflet ovate to oblong, short-stemmed, with moderately serrated (saw-toothed) margins, pointed bases and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, with five petals; grouped together in [loose] umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in terminal corymbs. Fruits are small round [dark purple] berries with about five seeds. Seeds are flattened and light-colored. G Aralia spinosa is a deciduous shrub or small tree; with roots without milky sap; spiny branches and stems; growing up to about forty feet tall (usually smaller). Leaves are large, alternate, and compound (twice oddly pinnate); divided into three primary leaflets (two are lateral and opposite, one is terminal); in turn, the lateral leaflets are divided into five (sometimes seven) sub-leaflets; and the terminal leaflet is divided into five sub-leaflets. Each sub-leaflet is ovate, short-stemmed, with moderately serrated (saw-toothed) margins, rounded bases, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, and symmetrical; with five petals; grouped together in numerous umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in terminal panicles. Fruits are small round to ovoid, black berries, with about five seeds. Seeds are flattened and light-colored. #[Herbal Properties] laxative, and kidney stimulant. #[Class] Aralia hispida grows in warm, hardwood, Appalachian forests and is equivalent to Oplopanax horridum [devil’s club]. It has a very strong taste and is adaptogenic. Aralia hispida has the added benefit of being helpful for anabolic or adreno-cortical stress people who are beginning to experience blood sugar problems. That would include the short, chunky, brutish, heavy drinking, twinky binging person soon to be diabetic. Aralia spinosa or hercules club is used in a similar manner. Its grows back east in many of the same areas as Aralia hispida, but it extends further south. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Aralia hispida or dwarf elder is a genetic relative of Oplopanax horridum [devil’s club]. The crown looks almost like ginseng and the plant is sometimes called Ozark ginseng. It has prickly leaves and nodes with spores up and down them. In these plants, the rings are in the stem. A characteristic of most of the Aralias is that the center stays the same and the root will pull itself down into the ground. There will be no upwards growth from the crown. The whole plant is used medicinally. It can be used pretty much in the same fashion as devil’s club. It is a cooling adaptogen and hypo-thalamus tonic with anabolic tendencies. It used to be used as a winter tonic as well as for sugar diabetes and poor appetite. It is moderately hot and more modifying than stimulating. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed; see Aralia racemosa [american spike nard] below. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots and/or dried bark tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-25 drops, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Felter: 201, Grieve: 40, 278, Moerman: 46, 50.

Aralia nudicaulis BARE-STEMMED SPIKE NARD

#[Family] Araliaceae, spike nard-ginseng family. #[Genus] 35 species; eastern and southern Asia, North America. #[Species] í Aralia nudicaulis, [american sarsaparilla, aralia, bare-stemmed spike nard, rabbit foot, rabbit’s foot, small spike nard, wild licorice, wild sarsaparilla], Canada and northern United States, south to Georgia. #[Editor] true sarsaparilla is Smilax rotundifolia. #[Appearance] Aralia nudicaulis is a small perennial herb, with a single, short, main stem, barely reaching above the ground, and long horizontal aromatic roots having no milky sap. Leaf is a single, large, basal, erect, twice pinnately compound leaf, rising directly from the short main stem, with no spines, growing up to two feet tall; first divided into three leaflets (two lateral/opposite, one terminal); in turn, lateral and terminal leaflets all divided into five sub-leaflets. Sub-leaflets are ovate, short-stemmed, with moderately serrated (saw-toothed) margins, pointed bases and pointed tips. Flowers are small, greenish, five petals; grouped together in umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in terminal corymbs. Fruits are small, round, purple-black berries with about five seeds. Seeds are flattened and light-colored. #[Herbal Properties] diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant. #[Class] Aralia nudicaulis is a basic ground-cover, north-country plant with ginseng-like leaves which is very common in Minnesota, Michigan, the Dakotas, Montana, and up into Ontario. It prefers acid soil. Although its scent is somewhat similar to Aralia racemosa [spike nard], it doesn't have tuberous roots, but rather long, slinky, snaky roots. Aralia nudicaulis is used in alterative syrups. Its called American or wild sarsaparilla, but genuine sarsaparilla is Smilax rotundifolia. The Aralia group is a general tonic for any stress type. Aralia nudicaulis is basically a hypo-thalamus cooler like Aralia racemosa and Eleutherococcus senticosus [siberian ginseng]. It is a good tonic and alterative to slightly modify any basic stress condition, including adreno-cortical, adrenal medulla, and thyroid stress. It has the adaptogenic effect of Aralia species to decrease mental anxiety and stress. It cools the brain function, although it takes a while. It is not a sick medicine, but a health medicine. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed; see Aralia racemosa [american spike nard] below. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; recently Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 15-30 drops; either form, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Grieve: 81, 712, Hutchins: 240, Kadans: 48, Lust: 361 (#424), Moerman: 46, Tierra (2): 297, Willard: 148-150.

Aralia racemosa AMERICAN SPIKE NARD
#[Family] Araliaceae, spike nard-ginseng family. #[Genus] 35 species; eastern and southern Asia, North America. #[Species] í Aralia racemosa [american spike nard, elk clover, indian root, life of man, pigeon weed, pretty morel, spignet, spike nard], = Aralia bicrenata, = Aralia racemosa var. bicrenata, eastern and central North America to Utah and Arizona; í Aralia humilis [arizona spike nard, dwarf spike nard], = Aralia arizonica, southern Arizona and New Mexico, northern Mexico. #[Editor] common name: indian root, also applied to Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root]; common name: clover, applied to: Aralia racemosa [spike nard] = elk clover, Melilotus alba [sweet clover], and Trifolium pratense [red clover]. #[Appearance] Aralia racemosa is a small perennial herb, with smooth stems (no spines), and roots without milky sap. Leaves are large, alternate, twice pinnately compound, first divided into three leaflets (two lateral/opposite, one terminal); in turn, lateral leaflets divided into five (sometimes seven) sub-leaflets, and terminal leaflet divided into three sub-

leaflets. Sub-leaflets are ovate, short-stemmed, with twice serrated (saw-toothed) margins, heart-shaped bases and pointed tips. Flowers are small, greenish, five petals; grouped together in umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in terminal racemose panicles. Fruits are small, round, dark purple to reddish brown berries with about five seeds. Seeds are flattened and light-colored. #[Herbal Properties] adaptogenic, alterative, anti-rheumatic, aromatic, diaphoretic, expectorant, pulmonary, sedative, stimulant, tonic. #[Class] Aralia racemosa is the most widespread American species of Aralia. It should not to be confused with the biblical spike nard {Nardus aromatica}? which produces a resin made into an oil and is used as incense. It should also not be confused with Nardostachys grandiflora [indian spike nard], also known as Nardostachys jatamansi, a member of the Valerianaceae [valerian] family. That tree also produces a resin which is made into an incense. The ginsengs, American and Asian, used to be placed in the Aralia genus. Some botanists still feel Panax should not have been made into a distinct genus. The Araliaceae [spike nard-ginseng] family is a large group which encompasses tropical herbs as well as cold, clammy rain forest herbs. The Aralia species evolved out of the original umbels which grew fast, had hollow stems, and preferred ample heat and moisture. Plants adapting to cold and clammy environments developed less hollow stems, more inner pith, and large tubers, like Angelica [un-cured angelica] and Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate]. Gradually they developed non-hollow, solid stems because they lived longer. Aralia racemosa, and similar species, have large fleshy tubers and very similar (although feebler) effects as the ginsengs. They contain the same adaptogens, panaxosides and ginsenosides as the ginsengs. Aralia racemosa and allies are rather helpful for decreasing brain stress, hypo-thalamus mediated stress, and stress responses in general, in the same way as Eleutherococcus senticosus [siberian ginseng]. Some Aralia effects are only temporary. Aralia racemosa is a good medicine for the lungs. Its aromatics act as expectorants to relieve long term, boggy, and acute coughs. It is good for both extremes of the onset of a chest cold as well as for chronic lung conditions which have endured for many years. Some aromatics which increase blood circulation deteriorate after a year or so. Therefore, the fresh root tincture is advisable for that function. However, there are few aromatics in fresh ginseng root and it doesn't provide the mood elevator the dry root does. There is no simple formula to cover all applications. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] araloside, beta- sitosterol, chlorogenic acid, choline, diterpenes, essential oil, falcarinolene, falcarinone, ginsenosides, glycosides, oleanic acid glycosides, oleoresins, panaxosides, polyacetylenes, saponins, sesquiterpines, tannins, ursolic acids. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 10-30 drops; recently dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-30 drops; dried roots, strong decoction or cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; all forms, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 114, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Grieve: 760, Hutchins: 256, Kloss: 316, Lust: 361 (#423), Millspaugh: 272 (#69), Moerman: 48, Meyer: 8, 118, Potter: 256, Tierra (2): 297, Wyk + Wink: 399.

Arbutus menziesii MADRONE / MADROÑO
#[Family] Ericaceae, heath family. #[Genus] 14 species; Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, western North America to Central America. #[Species] í Arbutus menziesii [arbutus, common madrone, madrono, madroño, pacific madrone], = Arbutus procera, southern California to southern British Columbia. #[Editor] common name: arbutus, also applied to Epigaea repens [trailing

arbutus]; common name: madroño, also applied to species of Arctostaphylos [manzanita] = madroño borracho (purple madroño). #[Appearance] Madrone is a widely branched ever green tree or large shrub; with initially yellow-green bark, which turns distinctly reddish-orange to reddish-brown (similar to manzanita), and sheds in long shaggy sections; sometimes growing to forty feet in height. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptical, long-stemmed, and leathery, growing up to about 6 inches long; with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, urn-shaped, white to light pink, and symmetrical; grouped together in terminal panicles. Fruit is a somewhat spherical berry, butter-scotch to buff-red, with rough-skin; containing many small, hard seeds. #[Herbal Properties] astringent, urinary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alkanes, arbutic alkane, arbutin, gallo-tannic acid, phenol glycosides, ursolic acid, ursolic alkane. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] Madrone is used for acute bladder infections with either alkaline or acid urine. For alkaline urine, use a full dose of tea or tincture internally. For acidic urine, use a half dose of tea and combine it with some Thuja [arbor vitae], Grindelia [gum weed], Eriodictyon [yerba santa] or Juniperus [juniper]. Madrone is also used externally in sitz baths for post-partum mothers, vaginitis, bacteria vaginosis, and yeast infections. You could also add some Anemopsis [yerba mansa], Osmorhiza [sweet root], or Usnea barbata [tree moss (lichen)], either tea or tincture, to the sitz bath, because these herbs are all anti-fungal. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – not for extended use (up to one week) due to high tannin content. Dried leaves, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, in eight fluid ounces of water; dried leaves, standard infusion, 3-4 fluid ounces; either form, internally, up to three times a day; dried leaves, standard infusion, externally, for sitz bath, 8-12 fluid ounces, in warm water, in morning and evening. NOTE – Same usages as for Arctostaphylos pungens [manzanita] and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [bear berry] (see below). [Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 171, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Moerman: 50, Sturtevant: 61, Willard: 163.

Arctium lappa BUR DOCK / BARDANA/ LAPPA
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 11 species; temperate Europe and Asia, introduced in North America. #[Species] í Arctium lappa [arctium, bardana, beggar button, beggars buttons, beggar’s button, bur dock, bur weed, burr seed, burr weed, clot bur, cockle button, cockle bur, common bur dock, fox clot, gipsy rhubarb, gobo (Japan), grass bur dock, gypsy rhubarb, great burr, greater bur dock, har dock, hare bur, hare burr, hurr burr, lappa, personata, pig rhubarb, snake rhubarb, stick button, thorny burr, turkey bur, turkey burr, turkey burr seed, wild gobo],= Arctium majus, = Bardana major, = Lappa major, = Lappa officinalis, = Lappa officinalis var. major, Europe, Asia, Canada, northern United States, to Maryland, Illinois, California; í Arctium minus [lesser bur dock, small bur dock], Europe, Asia, North America, except florida. #[Editor] burdock sometimes confused with Xanthium strumarium (cockle bur). NOTE: Arctium lappa [burdock] is one of four ingredients in the Essiac Formula; see also: Rumex acetosella [sheep sorrel], Ulmus rubra [slippery elm], and Rheum palmatum [rhubarb]. #[Appearance] Burdock is a coarse, branching, biennial herb. Leaves are large, irregular, roughly ovate, darker above and woolly below, with wrinkled surfaces, wavy and round-lobed margins, heart- shaped bases and rounded tips. First year plants produce numerous leaves in a large basal rosette; second year plants also send up several central flowering stalks, up to five feet tall, with alternate leaves and branches. Flowers are very

small and tubular, with five narrow pink to magenta petals; grouped together on a central disc (ray florets are absent), in dense, spherical to ovoid, thistle-like composite heads, each about æ inch in diameter. Fruits are bristly, spherical to ovoid, burs; each bristle with a recurved hook. Seeds are shiny, dark, thin, flattened achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] alterative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-rheumatic, anti-septic, aperient, cholagogue, dermatological, diaphoretic, diuretic, hypo-glycemic, orexigenic, pulmonary, urinary. #[Class] Arctium lappa [burdock] isn’t native to southern Arizona or New Mexico. Usually, the dried roots are used medicinally, primarily as a diuretic. They can also be used as a constitutional medicine for stressed, anabolic, adreno-cortical people who tend toward hyper-tension and fluid retention of a steroidal nature. They need to quiet down their liver and kidneys. Burdock cools the liver – and not many herbs can do that. G The best way to cool the liver is to change your diet, and use burdock as an adjunct. It helps eliminate sodium. A standard diuretic removes water, but if the sodium isn't removed as well, the water comes right back. Some herbs remove more sodium than the equivalent amount of water. That property is very important for people with kidney and liver excess, or adreno-cortical, anabolic stress. G Arctium [burdock] and Taraxacum [dandelion] slow down liver and kidney excess. Kidney excess holds in; kidney deficiency lets go. The kidneys control blood chemistry by controlling urine and the amount of blood going to different parts of the body. G Burdock tends to lower rennin synthesis in the kidneys, which makes blood pressure less reactive. It tends to decrease over-production or synthesis of proteins, and it will lower cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Burdock has a cooling effect – by getting sodium and water out of the body, decreasing over-synthesis and over-metabolism by the liver, and decreasing over-production of purines so uric acid isn’t made. Burdock won’t work as a simple diuretic. People who have other types of water retention – like adrenalin initiated water retention, or excess amounts of diuretic hormones – are holding water as a stress response. G People who tend to form uric acid stones, or who get gout or pseudo-gout inflammations, would use burdock. Eventually, almost all proteins get broken down into urea, a very small nitrogen compound, and then re-synthesized back into non-essential amino acids. The nucleo-proteins or excess waste products of cell proliferation cannot be reduced beyond uric acid. The body makes excess uric acid from cell damages, major cell-death events, or excess ingestion of dead cells. Burdock cools down over-production of uric acid, because it cools down over-synthesis of nucleo-proteins. It cools metabolism, particularly in the liver. The liver is the primary organ for breaking down metabolic wastes and purines into excretable forms. If the liver makes too much uric acid, and it can't all be excreted through the kidneys, it settles in joints or form kidney stones. Too much uric acid isn’t a problem, it's a symptom. G Arctium is predominantly a male medicine. Men tend toward a basic metabolic pattern. They make too many proteins, eats too many proteins, proliferate too many cells, and have an excessive phospho-lipid and lipid metabolism. The pattern sets up certain metabolites which trigger pituitary output by way of the hypothalamus. The altered blood chemistry affects gonad and adreno-cortical synthesis. The pattern makes men burn out more quickly than women. Arctium is a good way to cool their metabolism. G Women are more cyclic. They have three metabolic lives. Arctium is useful for the fluid retention and expansion phase in the pre-menstrual cycle, and also after menopause when a woman goes into a different type of anabolic strength which relates to adreno- cortical androgens. The metabolism change creates different stresses. The only contra-indication is that burdock doesn't do much for liver deficiency. It helps liver and anabolic excess. G Burdock is quite useless for adrenal-medulla or catabolic stress. It’s not strong enough to cause excess urination. Most herbs have

a straight-forward effect on diuresis, but they aren’t strong enough to have more than a limited effect. Drugs, however, can force everything to pass out of the
body through the urine.
G Burdock produces a slight shift in active transport in the kidneys. If you have over160 or 165 in systolic high blood pressure, you have too much hydraulic pressure on the kidneys. The subtle effects of five-sided starches can’t reduce sodium retention because there's too much blood pressure. For kidney weakness, Glycyrrhiza [licorice] helps retain fluid. For kidney excess, Arctium [burdock] helps release fluid. Arctium wouldn’t hurt kidney deficiency, but licorice would hurt kidney person. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 8-hydroxy-eudesmol (=arctiol), acetaldehyde, acetic acid, alkaloids, amino acids, aplotaxene (plant), arctic acid (plant), arctigenin (plant), arctiin (plant), arctinal, arctinones (plant), arctio-picrin, arctiol (=8-hydroxy-eudesmol), aspartic acid (root 8,500 ppm), benzaldehyde, beta-eudesmol, butyric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cnicinolide (plant), dauco-sterol (plant), de-hydro-costus- lactones (plant), di-lignans, eremophilene, essential oil (root 7,500 ppm), fatty acids, fixed oil, fukinanolide, fukinone, gamma-guanidino-n -butyric acid, germacranolide, glucosides, glutamic acid (root 7,850 ppm), heterocyclic acetylenes, inulin (root 190,000 to 500,000 ppm), iso-valeric acid (plant), lappaol- A (plant), lappaol-B (plant), lappaol-C (plant), lappaol-D (plant), lappaol-E (plant), lappaol-F (plant), lappaol-G (plant), lappaol-H (plant), lappaphen A (plant), lappaphen B (plant), lappin, lappine, lauric acid, lignans, matairesinol, myristic acid, neoarctin (seeds), nitrate of potash, organic acids, petasitolone, phenolic acids, phlobaphene, poly-acetylenes, pyrazine, sesqui-lignans, sesqui- terpenes, sesqui-terpenoid lactone, sulphur, tannins, tri-deca-diene-tetraynes, tri- deca-tiene-triynes, tri-terpenes. #[Physiology] Licorice makes an aldosterone excess person retain more sodium. Burdock wouldn’t make a kidney deficient person release too much sodium. G For kidney excess, Arctium lappa [burdock] and Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] are basic tonics. If kidney excess is concurrent with elevated low density blood lipids, elevated uric acid, and acidic urine – then Tribulus terrestris [puncture vine] might be added or used as an alternative. G For deficient or imbalanced kidneys, Equisetum [horse tail] tea, generous amounts of Arctium lappa [burdock], and small amounts of Apocynum [dog bane] are useful. G Arctium lappa [burdock] and Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] are both diuretic. G Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] and Arctium lappa [burdock] act as kidney suppressants. G Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] and Arctium lappa [burdock] cool the kidneys and induce kidney excretion. Dandelion and burdock will act as kidney suppressants, but not as a tonic to stimulate deficiencies. G To lower cholesterol synthesis and cool the liver, use Tribulus terrestris [puncture vine], Harpagophytum procumbens [devil’s claw], Arctium lappa [burdock], and Taraxacum officinale [dandelion]. G Arctium lappa [burdock] and Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] reduce sodium in the system and thus reduce water. G Once blood volume is normalized, correct sodium levels can be maintained with Arctium lappa [burdock] or Taraxacum officinale [dandelion]. G Arctium lappa [dandelion], Tribulus terrestris [puncture vine], and Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] act as basic sodium leachers for cardio-vascular excess. G Arctium lappa [burdock], Taraxacum officinale [dandelion], and Conyza canadensis [flea bane (canadian)] help skin excesses. G Arctium lappa [burdock] or Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] root would be good for the intestinal track. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; dried roots, fluid extract, 1:1, 60% alcohol, 15-30 drops; fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-90 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 30-90 drops; all forms, up to three times a day; also, dried seeds, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 10-25 drops, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 43, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 292, Mountain West Revision: 64,

Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Angier (1): 46, Angier (2): 96, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 53, Christopher: 64, 273, Duke + Ayensu: 145, Felter: 442, Grieve: 143, Gilmore: 83, Hutchins: 62, Hoffmann: 176, Holmes: 596, Jain + DeFilipps: 154, Kloss: 210, Kadans: 79, Lust: 140 (#77), Lad + Frawley: 105, Millspaugh: 360 (#92), Moerman: 51, Meyer: 27, Manandhar: 93, Mabey: 41, Potter: 49, Reid: 85 (#12), Rodale: 56, 57, Shih-Chen: 45, Sturtevant: 62, Tierra (1): 112, Tierra (2): 157, 193,Willard: 200, Wyk + Wink: 49, 399.

Arctostaphylos pungens MANZANITA
#[Family] Ericaceae, heath family. #[Genus] 70 species; western North America (70); north temperate and arctic zones (1). #[Species] í Arctostaphylos alpina [alpine bear berry, alpine manzanita], Europe, Asia, Alaska and Canada; í Arctostaphylos canescens [hoary manzanita], northern California and southern Oregon; í Arctostaphylos columbiana [columbia manzanita, hairy manzanita], northern California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia; í Arctostaphylos glandulosa [eastwood manzanita, glandular manzanita] California and Oregon; í Arctostaphylos manzanita [white-leaved manzanita], California; í Arctostaphylos nevadensis [nevada manzanita, pine mat manzanita], California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington; í Arctostaphylos patula [green-leaved manzanita], western United States; í Arctostaphylos pringlei [pringle manzanita], southern California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Baja California; í Arctostaphylos pungens [coralillo, madrono borracho, madroño borracho, manzanita, pinguica, pingüica (Spanish), point-leaved manzanita, sharp-leaved manzanita], southern California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas and northern Mexico; í Arctostaphylos rubra [red manzanita], Alaska, Canada, Montana, Wyoming; í Arctostaphylos tomentosa [woolly manzanita], southern California. í Arctostaphylos viscida [sticky manzanita, sticky white-leaved manzanita], California and Oregon. #[Editor] common name: madroño, also applied to Arbutus menziesii [madrone]; see also: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [bear berry] in entry below. #[Appearance] Manzanitas are mostly shrubs or small trees (a few prostrate), ever green, with distinctly intense reddish-brown bark that tends to shed freely, and twisting branches. Leaves are simple, alternate, mostly oval to elliptical, and leathery, with either smooth or finely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, with either stems or stemless, usually with pointed tips. Flowers are small, urn-shaped, drooping, white, pink, or rose-colored, with 4-5 rounded over- lapping petals, and grouped together in simple, terminal racemes or panicles. Fruits are round, pulpy-mealy berries, with 4-10 seeds each. Seeds are nutlets. #[Herbal Properties] anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, astringent, disinfectant, diuretic, urinary, vaso-constrictor. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] (1) [Arizona] Most western species of Arctostaphylos are shrubs called manzanita. There are over forty species just in California. In most of their medicinal functions, they resemble Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [bear berry], which is a low- growing or prostrate sub-shrub. Manzanita needs organic acids in the soil to grow well. The leaves are used medicinally. If you put a tablespoon of brandy, ethanol, or grain alcohol in a quart jar filed with dried leaves, close the lid, and let it sit for a few hours steeping in the alcohol fumes, the leaves become fumigated. You can make a much stronger tea because the slightly alcoholic dried leaves are more water soluble G Tea made from the dried leaves is a standard urinary tract disinfectant, good for kidney infections, urethritis, and alkaline urine. It is especially effective for short-term alkaline conditions in which the urinary tract is slightly out of balance due to sugar binges and prone to bacterial infections. Alkaline urine occurs more frequently in women and vegetarians whose normal

diet is deficient in protein. G Manzanita wouldn’t be quite as helpful for urinary tract infections or non-specific urethritis in which the urine was acidic. However, with acid urine, it could be combined with aromatics like Juniperus [juniper], Cupressus [cypress], or Centella [gotu kola]. The only problem is, it’s slightly astringent, and it’s tannins could irritate the kidneys and stomach lining. Manzanita works best for short-term infections, acute cystitis, and urethritis. It’s a strong and efficient treatment. It could be used for two to four days. After that,
the tannins would start to irritate. Some tannins could be precipitated out by adding some milk to the tea.
G Manzanita can be used with Althaea [marsh mallow], Zea mays [corn silk], and Sphaeralcea [globe mallow], which soothe membranes and act as a mild immuno-stimulant for recurring cystitis. G If a little blood is in the urine, or there is pain during urination, add some Capsella [shepherd's purse]. Manzanita works well with Vaccinium oxycoccus [cran berry] juice, which acidifies and mildly disinfects the urine. After birthing, a strong tea made from the dried leaves can be used as a sitz bath to soothe membranes. It's a good topical astringent and disinfectant which relieves pain, shrinks membranes, and promotes healing. (2) [Montana] The active constituents in Manzanita – arbutin and ericolin – contain different forms of hydro-quinones which are urinary tract disinfectants. Manzanita is a good short-term remedy for acute urethritis. If a long term action is needed, the related herb Chimaphila umbellata [pipsissewa] would be useful. G Manzanita is also good for a sitz bath. Use fumigated leaves, cooked in hot water, and put the tea in the bath tub in warm water. A disinfectant, astringent sitz bath would be good following delivery, for hemorrhoids, for herpes sores, and for diaper rash. #[Chemical Constituents] allantoin (plant), arbutin (leaves 50,000 to 120,000 ppm), betulinic acid (plant, root), ellagic acid (leaves), ericolin, gallo-tannins (leaves), hydro-quinone (leaves 3,000 to 5,000 ppm), hydro-quinone-glycosides (leaves 50,000 to 180,000 ppm), hyperin (leaves), lupeol (plant), methyl-arbutin, myricetin (plant), quercetin (plant), quercitrin (plant), quinones, tannin (plant 60,000 to 200,000 ppm), taraxa- sterol (plant), ursolic acid (leaves 4,000 to 7,500 ppm), ursone. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] NOTE – same usages as for Arbutus menziesii [madrone] (see above) and Arctostaphylos uva-ursa [bear berry] (see below). Dried leaves tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, in eight fluid ounces of water; dried leaves, standard infusion, 3-4 fluid ounces; either form, up to three times a day; dried leaves, standard infusion, for sitz bath (Ω cup fumigated leaves in 8-12 fluid ounces water), in warm water, morning and evening. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 102, Desert and Canyon West: 67, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 176, 244, Mountain West Revision: 156, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Angier (2): 52, Grieve: 89, Kay: 97, Moerman: 52, 53, Mayes + Lacy: 62, Martinez: 256, Sturtevant: 63, Willard: 164.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi BEAR BERRY / UVA-URSI
#[Family] Ericaceae, heath family. #[Genus] 70 species; western North America (70); north temperate and arctic zones (1). #[Species] í Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [ar berry, bear berry, bear grape, bear’s grape, common bear berry, hog cran berry, kinni-kinnick, meal berry, mountain box, mountain cran berry, red bear berry, sagackhomi, sand berry, upland cran berry, uva-ursi], northern Europe, northern Asia, Alaska, Canada, northern United States to California, Arizona and New Mexico. #[Editor] see also: Arctostaphylos [manzanita] in entry above. #[Appearance] Bear berry is in the same genus as manzanita, but it’s a prostrate sub-shrub, and the bark isn’t nearly as reddish-brown or obviously shedding. Thin stems crawl along the ground and sends up little flowering branches. Leaves are

ever green, simple, alternate, oval to ovate or spoon-shaped, leathery, and shining, with smooth margins, short stems, wedge-shaped bases, and rounded tips. Flowers are small, urn-shaped, drooping, pinkish-white, with five rounded over- lapping petals, and grouped together in simple, dense, short, terminal racemes. Fruits are round, dull red, dry-mealy, drupes, with one stone, surrounded by 5-10 seeds. Seeds are nutlets. #[Herbal Properties] anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, astringent, disinfectant, diuretic, hemo-static, tonic, urinary, vaso- constrictor. #[Class] We already talked about manzanita. The medicinal uses ascribed to manzanita also apply to bear berry. The dried leaves, made into a tea, is a standard short-term urinary tract astringent and disinfectant used for kidney infections, acute cystitis, urethritis, and alkaline urine. The astringency comes from tannins which could start to irritate the kidneys and stomach lining after two or three days. You can make a strong tea from the dried leaves for a sitz bath to soothe sore membranes, hemorrhoids, or diaper rash. The tea can also be used externally as a wash for herpes sores. The active constituents in Manzanita – arbutin and ericolin – are metabolized and excreted in the urine as hydro- quinones, which are an anti-microbial waste product most active in an alkaline PH, so they act as urinary tract disinfectants. If you need a treatment that lasts longer than four days, you could switch to the related herb, Chimaphila umbellata [pipsissewa]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] allantoin (plant), arbutin (C25H34O14 =ursin, =hydro-quinone-beta-glucoside, plant 50,000 to 120,000 ppm), arbutose, betulinic acid (plant, root), dioxy-benzene, ellagi- tannins, ellagic acid (leaves), ericinol (C10H16O), ericolin (C34H56O21), flavones, flavonoids, gallic acid (C7H3O2 =trioxy-benzoic acid), gallo-tannins (leaves), glucosides, hydro-kinone (C6H6O2x), hydro-quinone glucuronide, hydro-quinone sulphate, hydro-quinone-beta-glucoside (C25H34O14 =arbutin, =ursin), hydro- quinone-glycoside (leaves 50,000 to 180,000 ppm), hydro-quinones (leaves 3,000 to 5,000 ppm), hyperin (leaves), hyperoside, iridoid-glucoside, iridoids, iso- quercetin, iso-quercitrin, kinone (C6H4O2), lupeol (plant), malic acid, methyl- arbutin, mono-tropeine (leaves), myricacitrin, myricetin (plant), phenolic glycosides, quercetin (leaves), quercitrin (leaves), quinones, tannins (C14H10O9 plant 60,000 to 200,000 ppm), taraxa-sterol (plant), tri-terpenes, trioxy-benzoic acid (C7H3O2 =gallic acid), unedoside, ursin (C25H34O14 =arbutin, =hydro- quinone-beta-glucoside), ursolic acid (leaves 4,000 to 7,500 ppm), urson (C20H32O2), ursone, volatile oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] NOTE – same usages as for Arbutus menziesii [madrone] and Arctostaphylos pungens [manzanita] (see above). Dried leaves tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, in eight fluid ounces of water; dried leaves, standard infusion, 3-4 fluid ounces; either form, up to three times a day; dried leaves, standard infusion for sitz bath, 8-12 fluid ounces, in warm water, in morning and evening. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 155, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 36, Pacific West: 242, Mountain West Revision: 250, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Angier (2): 52, Alvarez: 151, Allen + Hatfield: 122, Bremness: 94, Christopher: 258, Grieve: 89, Gilmore: 56, Hutchins: 29, Hoffmann: 169, Holmes: 528, Kloss: 321, Kay: 97, Lust:110 (#33), Millspaugh: 390 (#100), Meyer: 13, Mabey: 57, Potter: 273, Rodale: 494, Sturtevant: 63, Tierra (1): 157, Tierra (2): 224, Willard: 164, Wyk + Wink: 50, 399.

Argemone pleiacantha PRICKLY POPPY / CARDO SANTO
#[Family] Papaveraceae, poppy family. #[Genus] 23 species; North and South America. #[Species] í Argemone corymbosa [corymbed prickly poppy, desert prickly poppy, mojave prickly poppy], California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona; í

Argemone gracilenta [desert prickly poppy, slender, sonora prickly poppy], Arizona and Sonora; í Argemone hispida [bristly prickly poppy], Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Western Texas, northern Mexico; í Argemone mexicana [cardo, devil fig, devil’s fig, holy thistle, mexican poppy, mexican prickly poppy, prickly poppy, tepehuan (Spanish), thorn poppy], = Argemone ochroleuca, eastern and central United States, to Nebraska, Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, Mexico, tropics and sub-tropics; í Argemone munita [armed prickly poppy, flat-bud prickly poppy], southern California and Baja California, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas and Northern Mexico; í Argemone platyceras [thick-horned prickly poppy], Wyoming and Nebraska, to Arizona and northern Mexico; í Argemone pleiacantha [cardo santo, chicalote, many-spined prickly poppy, mexican poppy, prickly poppy, thistle poppy, southwestern prickly poppy], Arizona, New Mexico; í Argemone polyanthemos [crested prickly poppy, many-flowered prickly poppy, thick-horned prickly poppy], = Argemone intermedia, = Argemone platyceras, central and western United States (except California, Oregon, Arizona, Nevada); í Argemone squarrosa [hedge-hog prickly poppy], Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico. #[Editor] common name: prickly, also applied to: Lactuca [prickly lettuce], Opuntia [prickly pear], and Zanthoxylum [prickly ash]; common name: poppy, also applied to: Eschscholtzia californica [california poppy], Kallstroemia grandiflora [desert poppy], Papaver somniferum [opium poppy], and Romneya coulteri [matilija poppy]; common name: cardo santo, also applied to Cirsium undulatum [wavy thistle]. #[Appearance] Prickly poppy is an erect, annual or perennial herb, superficially resembling a thistle before flowering. Stalks are very prickly, up to three feet tall; all plant parts have a yellowish- orange milky latex-juice or sap, which turns black upon contact with air. Leaves are simple, alternate, very prickly, blue-green, about 3-8 inches long, stemless (leaf bases clasp the main plant stalk), with dentate (toothed) wavy margins, and upper leaves smaller than lower. Flower buds are prickly and three-horned. Flowers are showy, poppy-like, with five, white, thin, papery petals, and golden- yellow centers; grouped together in loose clusters, the oldest flower at the center. Fruits are ridged, football-shaped, prickly capsules. Seeds are small, numerous, initially whitish, but turning shiny brown-black when mature. #[Herbal Properties] alterative, analgesic, anodyne, anti-edemic, anti-hydropic, anti- inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, cathartic, caustic, demulcent, dermatological, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emollient, expectorant, laxative, narcotic, pulmonary, purgative, rubefacient, sedative. #[Class] Prickly poppy contains some mild opiate constituents, which make it a sedative and analgesic to help reduce pain and induce sleep. The whole dried plant, made into a strong tea, is used externally for sun burns, sprains, abrasions, heat rashes, hives, and fractures; it is used internally for the onset of migraine head aches, and to lessen urethra or prostate irritability and inflammation. The fresh plant juice is rubefacient and slightly caustic. Traditionally, the fresh sap has been used undiluted directly on warts, partially diluted for skin ulcerations, and greatly diluted on cornea opacities of the eye. Unfortunately, dosages are inconsistent or vague. The third usage, for the eyes, is similar in effect as the usage for Senecio cineraria [dusty miller]. It’s not an unreasonable claim, but it would need further study. The dried seeds are edible in small quantities, but they quickly become laxative. The dried seeds are mixed with Verbascum thapsus [mullein] and smoked to calm coughing fits. The seed oil was formerly used as substitute for castor oil. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] Argemone mexicana – acetic acid, albumin, alkaloids (plant 1,200 ppm), allo-cryptine, allo-cryptopine, argemonic acid (plant), argemonine (plant), artarine, benzoic acid, berberine (plant 410 ppm), biflorine, butyric acid, carbohydrates, chelerythrine (roots), cinnamic acid, codeine

(absent?), coptisine (seeds), cryptopine, dihydro-chelerythrine, dihydro- sanguinarine (shoots), fat (seeds 200,000 to 393,000 ppm), fixed oil, glucosides (flowers), iso-quinoline alkaloids, iso-rhamnetin-3-beta-d-glucoside (flowers), iso-rhamnetin-3,7-di-glucoside (flowers), linolenic acid (seeds 96,000 to 188,600 ppm), morphia (C17H19O3 apparently absent?), morphine (absent?), myristic acid (seeds), nor-argemonine, oleic acid (seeds 44,000 to 85,800 ppm), palmitolic acid (seeds 12,000 to 23,600 ppm), potassium nitrate, protopine (=argemonine; plant 840 ppm), resin (plant 17,500 ppm), ricinoleic acid (seeds 20,000 to 39,300 ppm), romneine (plant), sanguinarine (seeds), tannin (plant 11,000 ppm), valerianic acid. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – For short-term use only; smoking the seeds can cause nausea and vomiting. Dried herb, cold infusion, 2-3 fluid ounces, up to three times a day; dried herb, strong decoction, 2-3 fluid ounces, once a day; either form, topically as needed; also, dried seeds, crushed, 1-2 teaspoons in water, as a laxative. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 135, Desert and Canyon West: 91, Los Remedios: 28, Pacific West: 206, Mountain West Revision: 209, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 140, Alvarez: 126, Dastur: 22 (#34), Jain + DeFilipps: 467, Kindscher: 228, Kay: 98, Millspaugh: 76 (#20), Moerman: 55, Morton: 241, Manandhar: 94, Martinez: 108, 109, 498, 567, 568, Oliver-Bever: 31, Quisumbing: 329, Shih-Chen: 47, 87, Wyk + Wink: 399.

Arisaema triphyllum JACK-in-the-PULPIT / DRAGON ARUM
#[Family] Araceae, arum family. #[Genus] 150 species; eastern Africa, Arabia, tropical and eastern Asia, eastern and central North America. #[Species] í Arisaema triphyllum [bog onion, brown dragon, dragon arum, dragon root, indian turnip, jack-in-the-pulpit, memory root, small jack-in-the-pulpit, starch wort, three-leaved jack-in-the-pulpit, wake robin, wild turnip],= Arisaema atrorubens, = Arum triphyllum, eastern and central North America. #[Editor] common name: dragon, applied to: Arisaema triphyllum [jack-in-the-pulpit] = dragon arum, Cedronella canariensis [canary balm] = dragon head, Daemonorops draco [dragon blood], and Jatropha curcas [limber bush] = dragon blood. #[Appearance] Jack-in-the-pulpit is a perennial herb, about 20 inches tall, with an acrid under ground wrinkled corm, and pungent sap. Leaves, one or two, basal, clasping the stalk, tri-foliate, nearly erect; leaflets ovate, very short-stemmed, with prominent veins, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers tiny, yellow, without sepals or petals, stemless, grouped together (like corn kernels on a cob) on the lower part of the spadix (an elongated, cylindrical flower-bearing tube; upper part bare), surrounded by the spathe (a leaf-like sheath surrounding the spadix), green with purple stripes outside, brownish-purple inside, curving upward to a flap or arch over the spadix, with a pointed tip. Fruit smooth, shining, round, scarlet berries, with 4-6 seeds, grouped together in a dense head. #[Herbal Properties] acrid, expectorant, pulmonary. #[Class] Arisaema triphyllum is found in eastern North America in hot, humid conditions where moss grows on the end of your elbows. The roots are used medicinally. They are gathered in the spring before the leaves fully expand. They affect mucous membranes, especially in the throat and lungs. The tincture has anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, and expectorant traits. Internally, it is used for excess phlegm, sores and burning constrictions in the throat, asthma and coughs, including whooping cough, and chronic laryngitis. It can also be used as a simple gargle for sore throats. Michael Tierra said it’s been used for dizziness, numbness, facial paralysis, strokes, seizures, and lock jaw. I haven’t used the herb in that way; I just haven’t met any good test cases when I had the herb available to test. As a carminative, it has also been used for

colic and flatulence, but much better medicines are available. Externally, it is used as a poultice or liniment for skin sores, ulcers, boils, swelling, tinea capitis (scalp eruptions), and tumors. It needs to be used with care, because it’s pretty caustic. The roots are edible, but only after they are well cooked. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] calcium salt, potassium salt, rhaphides of calcium oxalate, starch. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh corm (slightly wilted and crushed), tincture, 1:2, 50% alcohol, 2-10 drops, once a day; dried corm, powdered, 1 teaspoon in 8 fluid ounces water, externally. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Angier (1): 110, Felter: 205, Grieve: 238, 841, Gilmore: 17, Hutchins: 112, Lust: 239 (#228), Millspaugh: 672 (#167), Moerman: 55, Meyer: 65, Sturtevant: 65, Tierra (2): 383.

Aristolochia californica CALIFORNIA SNAKE ROOT / PIPE VINE #[Family] Aristolochiaceae, snake root family. #[Genus] 120 species; tropical, sub-tropical and mild temperate zones. #[Species] í Aristolochia californica [california dutch man’s pipe, california pipe plant, california snake root, dutch man’s pipe, pipe plant, pipe vine], central California. #[Editor] similar common name: dutch man’s britches or breeches, applied to Dicentra formosa [bleeding heart]. #[Appearance] California snake root is a perennial vine, with thick downy stems, woody at the base, reaching up to 15 feet in length, and thick, gray-brown roots. Leaves are alternate, heart-shaped, with long stems, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are light green with purple veins, solitary, axillary or terminal, drooping, with long thin stems, no petals, and three fused tubular sepals, forming an inflated, irregularly-shaped, pouch or sac, contracted at the throat, and resembling a pipe bowl and pipe-stem. Fruits are dry capsules, about two inches long, wedge-shaped, narrow at the base, with six wings, six internal segments, and many seeds. Seeds are small, compressed and smooth. #[Herbal Properties] vaso-dilator. #[Class] This plant has approximately the same properties as Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] (see below), but it’s not nearly as strong, so it’s much safer for extended usages, and the dosages can be a little higher. The same thing goes for Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root] (see below) which we will get to tomorrow. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, aristo-lactone, aristolochic acid, aristolochine; very little research; see constituents for Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root]. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; for short-term use, or for extended use in low doses within a formula. Whole fresh plant (roots and herb), tincture, 1:2, 5-20 drops, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 113, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] –.

Aristolochia serpentaria VIRGINIA SNAKE ROOT / BIRTH WORT #[Family] Aristolochiaceae, snake root family. #[Genus] 120 species; tropical, sub-tropical and mild temperate zones. #[Species] í Aristolochia serpentaria [birth wort, pelican flower, red river snake root, sangree root, serpentaria, serpentary, serpentary root, snagrel, snake root, snake weed, texas snake root, thick birth wort, virginia snake root], = Aristolochia hastata = Aristolochia officinalis, = Aristolochia sagittata, = Aristolochia serpentaria var. bartonii, = Endodeca bartonii, = Endodeca serpentaria, eastern and central United States. #[Editor] common name: snake root, also applied to Asarum caudatum [wild

ginger] = canadian snake root, Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh] = black snake root, Echinacea angustifolia [cone flower] = kansas snake root, Echinacea purpurea [cone flower] = missouri snake root, Eryngium yuccifolium [eryngo] = button snake root, Liatris punctata [gay feather] = button snake root, Polygala senega [milk wort] = seneca snake root; similar common name: birth root, applied to Trillium [birth root]. #[Appearance] Virginia snake root is a perennial herb, with slender, erect, smooth stems, and a knotty rhizome. Leaves are alternate, ovate to oblong, heart-shaped at the base, with thin stems, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are downy, purple to purple-brown, solitary, axillary, drooping, with thin stems, no petals, and three fused tubular sepals, forming a curved, irregularly-shaped, inflated, pouch or sac, with an open mouth at the front. Fruits are dry capsules, round to ellipsoid, and star-shaped after opening, with many seeds. Seeds are small, ovoid, tan-gray, with yellowish-white markings. #[Herbal Properties] abortifacient, alexiteric, anodyne, anti-spasmodic, bitter, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, nervine, orexigenic, parturient, pulmonary, sialogogue, stimulant, tonic, vaso-dilator, vulnerary. #[Class] Basic vaso-dilation occurs in the circulatory system in a sequence of steps or levels of depth. Capsicum [cayenne] dilates the smallest blood vessels (capillaries) found in or near the skin. Zingiber [ginger] is more efficient on slightly larger and deeper metarterioles. Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] dilates the arterioles or small arteries, and Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] stimulates circulation in the deepest major arteries. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] aristolochia camphor, aristolochic acid, aristolochin, aristored, borneol (C10H18O), oil of serpentaria, resins, terpene (C10H16), volatile oil. #[Physiology] Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] is used for large arterial vaso-dilation. It’s not hot, like cayenne; it's just stimulating and very bitter. It will actually cut through the cayenne taste. It’s the best vaso-dilator for deep arteries, but it causes mesenteric inflammation if used in excess, especially to the liver and intestinal tract. Given in small doses, in a formula, or as a tonic, for a person with poor circulation, it will dilate the largest arteries. It isn't directly a cardiac stimulant like Digitalis purpurea [foxglove]. It isn’t a cardiac medicine, but rather a vascular medicine. It opens up arteries to the lungs, viscera, and liver. G If a person is very depressed, dry, and cold, he may need some Aristolochia [snake root] for a while, along with Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] or Zingiber officinale [ginger]. Aristolochia almost too strong. It’s great in small doses – three to five drops of tincture in a formula with other herbs – where it acts as a facilitator, synergist, or collateral stimulant to blood transport. G Aristolochia dilates the portal vein and increases portal blood supply in a person with portal congestion and chronic hemorrhoids. It also gets a little more blood to the intestinal tract and mesenteric arteries. It helps a tired, middle-aged person who is really cold, boggy around the hips, avocado-shaped, with varicose veins, hemorrhoids, prostate enlargement, and general congestion. G Sometimes it’s good for adrenalin stress habits. A little Aristolochia disperses blood to the viscera, makes the skin warm, and gets a person through a crisis, but it's too hot and stimulating for regular use. Perhaps wonder woman or the incredible hulk could handle it as a tonic, but not us. Aristolochia works better in winter rather than in summer – like for aging snow-bunnies and snow-studs on the slopes who don't want to freeze off their body parts. G Aristolochia [snake root], Zingiber [ginger], Capsicum [cayenne], and Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], are not medicines for any particular organ or pathology; they manipulate blood heat. If you have visceral coldness, Aristolochia takes blood away from muscles and the skeleton. It's an adrenalin blocker in a vascular sense – like Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] is in a neurologic sense. It mimics actions adrenalin suppresses. It brings out heat one normally suppresses. G It’s also quite stimulating to the uterus. In

Chinese medicine, pregnancy is considered a conscious stuck-blood condition. The uterus needs to be passive, quiet, and available as a heat oven. The three major vaso-stimulant herbs aren’t good in pregnancy – because they unstick stuck-blood. Capsicum [cayenne] is okay because it’s superficial – it works only on the skin. Zingiber [ginger], Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], and Aristolochia [snake root] are too strong. They give too much blood, heat, and excitability; they over- whelm the normal control system of uterine blood supply. G For lower GI deficiency, you need to stimulate upper digestive functions first with a bitter tonic – or sometimes with a secretory stimulant and vaso-dilator like Zanthoxylum [prickly ash]. Aristolochia serpentaria may be too hot. You could use Aristolochia watsonii and add some Zanthoxylum [prickly ash]. If Zanthoxylum isn’t available, Ptelea trifoliata [wafer ash] would work. It increases pancreatic fluids. G A person with impaired or very weak kidney functions may have overall edema and produce little urine. You could give them Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] first, and then ease them off it with Apocynum [dog bane] to help the kidneys relax and get more blood. G All Aristolochia species increase response rates in granulocyte activity and phagocytosis. In toxic doses, snake root increases the cloning rate of T-memory cells for an anti-body by over 30%. That’s why in the old days Aristolochia was given for periodic fevers – usually self- induced by hormones called pyrogens released into the blood stream by neutrophils and basophils. The body intentionally releases pyrogens to raise body temperature, to increase basal metabolism, and to increase glucose and oxygen levels available to very expensive white blood cells. Pyrogens help feed and support a more rapid anti-body response. Aristolochia [snake root] facilitates the process. G Protozoa which cause malaria have a particular life cycle in which they intermittently populate, and then they lie dormant. Cinchona [quinine] interferes with one phase of their cycle. The pyrogen response that causes the nocturnal fevers of malaria is reduced by Aristolochia [snake root]. G A straight forward bitter tonic approach for liver deficiency could combine small doses of Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] and Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], to dilate the hepatic artery, get more blood to the liver, and speed up liver metabolism. Aristolochia is a strong, emphatic catabolic metabolite which stimulates liver energy, macrophage proliferation and transport, and increases their ability clean up waste products. It’s an effective bitter tonic in proper doses. G Aristolochia covers a many predictable patterns of imbalance and many body systems. A person who is liver deficient, will generally also be skin deficient, mucous membrane deficient, upper and lower GI deficient, and reproductive organ deficient. Aristolochia covers all those bases. G Sometimes, Apocynum [dog bane] is complimentary with Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root], or with a stronger stimulant to liver transport like Mahonia [oregon grape]. If Apocynum is too strong on the heart, Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root], or Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], give internal arterial stimulation and also stimulate the kidneys. G Cortisone inhibits macrophage response in the kidneys. G Polygala senega [seneca snake root, milk wort], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Aristolochia [snake root], stimulate macrophages during innate immunity defense responses. G To stimulate liver fat metabolism without being anti-oxidant, use Aristolochia [snake root], maybe Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root], Asarum canadense [wild ginger], and Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo]. G Herbs to improve blood quality by stimulating and improving liver metabolism, and the synthesis of building materials to feed the skin include Aristolochia [snake root], Calendula officinalis [european marigold], Mahonia [oregon grape], and Panax [ginseng] species. G Mahonia [oregon grape], Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], and a pinch of Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] function as a reproductive stimulant. G

Aristolochia [snake root] stimulates upper GI secretions, improves liver absorption, and facilitates utilization of fats. Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] makes the skin moist. They are complimentary. The Asclepias moves some of the Aristolochia energy away from the center and out to the edges. G In hyper- thyroid conditions, Mahonia [oregon grape], Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] and Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] will help feed the skin. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; for short-term use, or for extended use in low doses within a formula. Fresh plant (roots and herb), tincture, 1:2, 5-20 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 70% alcohol, 5-20 drops; either form, up to three times a day. For extended usage, Aristolochia californica (see above) or Aristolochia watsonii (see below) are safer than Aristolochia serpentaria. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Christopher: 416, Felter: 629, Grieve: 63, 104, 211, 356, 744, Hutchins: 289, Hoffmann: 227, Holmes: 118, Kadans: 184, Lust: 384 (#459), Millspaugh: 552 (#138), Moerman: 57, Meyer: 129, Potter: 253, Rodale: 500, Wyk + Wink: 51.

Aristolochia watsonii ARIZONA SNAKE ROOT / INDIAN ROOT #[Family] Aristolochiaceae, snake root family. #[Genus] 120 species; tropical, sub-tropical and mild temperate zones. #[Species] í Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root, indian root, indio, raiz del indio (indian root), snake root], = Aristolochia brevipes, = Aristolochia lassa, western Texas to southern Arizona. #[Editor] common name: indian root, also applied to Aralia nudicaulis [spike nard]; see also cross reference for common name: indian (i.e. indian hemp, indian turnip, indian paint brush, etc.). #[Appearance] Arizona snake root is a perennial herb or vine, with large thick roots, and trailing downy stems. Leaves are alternate, elongated, acutely triangular to spear-shaped, usually having a purple coloration, with long stems, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are dull yellow-green with purple-brown colorations, solitary, axillary, erect, with downy hairs, long thin stems, no petals, and three fused tubular sepals, forming an irregularly-shaped, pouch or sac, open at the throat. Fruits are dry capsules, with usually five internal segments, and many seeds. Seeds are small, horizontal and flat. #[Herbal Properties] bitter, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, pulmonary, recuperative, sialogogue, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vaso-dilator. #[Class] This plant has nearly the same properties as Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] (see above), but it’s not as strong, so it’s much safer for extended usages, and the dosages can be a little higher. It’s not as heating, and it stimulates function more than circulation. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] This is the only desert species of Aristolochia in the world. It’s a short, stumpy plant. When it gets moisture, it can spread up to twenty feet; when it’s dry, you can barely fine it. The whole herb is used medicinally. The root is stronger than the leaves, but both have the same constituents – mainly aristolactone and aristolochic acid. A fresh plant tincture is the best way to get the most medicine from the leaves. All Aristolochia [snake root] species are immune tonics which stimulate white blood cell phagocytosis, especially by macrophages, the intermediaries between innate immunity and acquired immunity. G If you have a new infection, Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root] will stimulate the immune response. Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] is too strong for long term use. It over-excites the central blood supply; it dilates aortal, renal, and hepatic arteries. However, Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root] isn’t very aromatic, and it only moderately stimulates the central cardio-vascular system. It’s a more substantial

recuperative tonic for long term use. Indian root stimulates gastric, pancreatic, intestinal tract, and liver secretions for depressed digestive functions following a diseased state. It has some Iris [blue flag] effects in this context. G It sends arterial blood to the viscera and lungs. It affects the kidneys and promotes excretion of metabolites in the urine. It’s a nutritive, recuperative, bitter tonic. It requires sufficient vital energy in a person. When vital forces are seriously depressed, use Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] first. Then use Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Echinacea [cone flower], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Bursera microphylla [elephant tree], or Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root]. G Indian root diffuses blood and energy sufficiently well that, to use it, a person needs a decent metabolism and a reasonable amount of life energy. It is nutritive and building. After an extended disease, it facilitates recuperation, and it stimulates depressed organs. Use it to help recover from hepatitis, gastro-enteritis, depressed intestinal tract or liver functions following surgery, giardia, or traveler's diarrhea. It’s also an excellent simple bitters for upper digestion deficiency with depressed stomach function, dry mouth, bad gums, and coated tongue. G It has several contra-indications. It shouldn’t be used for diarrhea accompanied by sensations of heat. It shouldn’t be used in pregnancy. It’s an herb for cold conditions; don’t use it for hot conditions. The one exception is short-term immune stimulation to get blood into deficient areas, but the person must have enough vital energy to handle it. G Indian root works as a para-sympatho-mimetic on the lower half of the body. It gives arterial support to the bulk portion of the para-sympathetic nerves. It’s good for adrenergic and thyroid deficient stress, when a thyroid excess person is in a deficient state. It puts more blood into the skin, mucosa, liver, intestinal tract, and reproductive organs, where blood has been suppressed by adrenalin stress. Use it for people with hardened arteries or arteriolosclerosis. Indian root helps AIDS patients during remissions. G The primary symptom of excess dosage is gastric irritability – any over stimulation of stomach or intestinal tract. G In combination with Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower], Pedicularis [lousewort], Scutellaria laterifolia [skull cap] Asclepias asperula [inmortal], or Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] – indian root gives more visceral heat. Whereas, Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] gives an incredible amount of nostril-flaring animal heat. Indian root is almost a pure tonic. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloid acids, aristo-lactone, aristolochic acid (=aristolochine), aristolochine (=aristolochic acid), eudesmane alkaloids; very little research; see also constituents for Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root]. #[Physiology] Indian root is for people with poor protein and fat digestion, poor secretions, and pelvic congestion. Everything backs up and goes out through collateral venous absorption into the portal blood. Aristolochia [snake root] stimulates blood transport by manipulating blood vessels; it doesn’t affect blood chemistry or quality. It circulates bad blood better. It stimulates the blood to move into suppressed parts. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Vitex agnus-castus [chaste tree] berries, and Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root] increase anabolic strength going into ovulation so there would be stronger liver and reproductive functions. They stimulate estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone production. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; for short-term use, or extended use only in low doses within a formula. Whole fresh plant (roots and herb), tincture, 1:2, 5-20 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 70% alcohol, 5-20 drops; either form, up to three times a day. NOTE: 5-10 drops, as a long-term tonic; 10 drops as a GI bitter tonic; 15-20 drops for short-term acute conditions. For extended use, this plant and Aristolochia californica (see above) are safer than Aristolochia serpentaria (see

above). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 59, Los Remedios: 70, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Kay: 101.

Armoracia rusticana HORSE RADISH
#[Family] Brassicaceae [/Cruciferae], mustard-cabbage family. #[Genus] 4 species; eastern and southeastern Europe, northern and central Asia, eastern North America. #[Species] í Armoracia rusticana [armoracia, black radish, cochlearia, common horse radish, country radish, field radish, horse radish, mountain radish, red cole, sting nose, white radish, wild radish, wood radish], =Armoracia lapathifolia, = Radicula armoracia, = Rorippa armoracia, as above. #[Editor] Common name: horse, also applied to: Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut], Agastache [giant hyssop] = horse mint, Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] = horse fly weed, Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] = horse balm, Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane] = horse weed, Mentha x rotundifolia [apple mint] = horse mint, species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm] = horse mint, and Solanum carolinense [horse nettle]; common name: radish, usually applied to: Raphanus sativus [garden radish] (not covered here) with similar but milder properties. #[Appearance] Horse radish is a leafy perennial herb, with upright stems growing up to three feet tall, and a thick, tapering, pungent tap root, with whitish pith. Leaves are mostly simple, basal, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, and coarse, with long thick stems, thick mid-veins, wavy-scalloped margins, and somewhat rounded tips. Upper leaves on the stem are smaller, stemless, and lanceolate. Flowers are numerous, white, with thin stems, and four unfused petals; grouped together in elongated, thin-stemmed, terminal racemes; racemes in turn grouped together in panicles. Fruits are nearly round, long-stemmed silicles (short capsules, with two compartments, separated by a central inner partition between seed rows, which split open from the bottom – found in the mustard family). Seeds are swollen and wingless, with two rows in each compartment. #[Herbal Properties] anti-micro- bial, anti-rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, cyto-toxic, dermatological, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, irritant, pulmonary, rubefacient, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic. #[Class] The fresh roots are used medicinally; the dried roots are practically useless. Refrigerated fresh roots keep for several months. As a diuretic, they help alleviate bladder and urinary tract infections, and also gout and rheumatic problems. As a stomachic, they are used for colitis and intestinal putrefaction. As an expectorant, they affect the lungs, and are used for coughs, asthma, and catarrh. Externally, the fresh roots are used as a rubefacient skin irritant and poultice to stimulate blood flow and treat rheumatism and similar inflammations. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 2-phenyl-ethyl- gluco-sinolate, allyl-iso-thio-cyanate, ascorbic acid (=vitamin C), asparagine, coumarins, gluco-sinolates (=mustard oil glycosides), gluco-nasturtin, mustard oil glycosides (=gluco-sinolates), phenolic acids, phenyl-ethyl-iso-thio-cyanate, resins, sinigrin, sugars, vitamin B, vitamin C (=ascorbic acid), volatile oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – use only small to moderate doses; stop using if diarrhea or night-sweats occur. Fresh grated roots, Ω to 1Ω teaspoons, with honey if needed; fresh roots, juice, 15-20 drops; either form, up to three times as day; between meals is best. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Angier (1): 104, Battaglia: 320, Christopher:422, Gilmore: 7, Grieve: 417, Hoffmann: 196, Holmes: 325, Jain + DeFilipps: 199, Lust: 233 (#218), Moerman: 58, Meyer: 63, Mabey: 53,

Potter: 148, Rodale: 338, Sturtevant: 180, Tucker + Debaggio: 156, Tierra (2): 247, Wyk + Wink: 52.

Arnica cordifolia ARNICA / LEOPARD BANE / WOLF BANE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 32 species; northern temperate and arctic zones. #[Species] í Arnica chamissonis [chamisso arnica], Alaska, Canada, western United States; í Arnica cordifolia [arnica, heart-leaved arnica, leopard bane, leopard’s bane, mountain tobacco, wolf bane, wolf’s bane], Alaska, western and central Canada, western United States; í Arnica fulgens [foot-hills arnica, shining arnica], western Canada, western United States; í Arnica latifolia [broad-leaved arnica, wide- leaved arnica], Alaska, western Canada, western United States; í Arnica longifolia [long-leaved arnica, spear-leaved arnica], British Columbia and Alberta to California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado; í Arnica mollis [downy arnica, hairy arnica], Alaska, western Canada, to California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado; í Arnica montana [arnica, arnica flowers, arnica root, common arnica, european arnica, leopard bane, leopards bane, leopard’s bane, mountain arnica, mountain tobacco, wolf bane, wolfs bane, wolf’s bane], central and northern Europe, introduced in North America, cultivated; í Arnica ovata [ovate-leaved arnica, ray-less arnica], = Arnica diversifolia, Alaska, Washington to Montana, California to Utah; í Arnica parryi [parry arnica, washington arnica], Yukon to California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado; í Arnica sororia [canadian arnica, twin arnica], British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to California, Nevada and Utah. #[Editor] common name: mexican arnica, applied to: Heterotheca subaxillaris [camphor weed]; common name: wolf bane, usually applied to species of Aconitum [monks hood]; common name: tobacco, applied to: Arnica montana [arnica] = mountain tobacco, Ceanothus velutinus [red root] = tobacco brush, Lobelia inflata [cardinal flower (pink)] = indian tobacco and wild tobacco, Nicotiana trigonophylla [wild tobacco, punche] = indian tobacco and wild tobacco, species of Pseudognaphalium [cud weed (false)] = ladies tobacco and rabbit tobacco, Valeriana edulis [valerian] = tobacco root, Verbascum thapsus [mullein] = indian tobacco and wild tobacco. #[Appearance] Arnica species are perennial herbs, with downy stems, and both rhizomes and fibrous roots. In general, leaves are simple, usually opposite (some on upper stems are alternate), and variously shaped, with serrated (saw-toothed) or smooth margins, pointed or rounded tips, short or long stems. Leaves of Arnica cordifolia are oval to ovate, with heart-shaped bases, serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and rounded tips. Individual flowers are small and numerous, peripheral ray florets: few, female only, yellow to orange, appearing as if petals; central disc florets: numerous, male and female, yellow to orange; grouped together in solitary composite heads (which appear to be single flowers), having long stems, and green phyllaries (bracts). Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), somewhat cylindrical to spindle-shaped, with whitish hairs, and many bristles. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anti-hyperemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti- rheumatic, anti-septic, anodyne, cardio-vascular, counter-irritant, dermatological, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, immuno-stimulant, irritant, stimulant, vaso-dilator, vulnerary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Montana] Arnica has basal rhizomes like Achillea millefolium [yarrow]. The whole plant is medicinal; the greatest strength is found in the roots, but the flowers are more frequently used. Arnica is a first aid for any kind of sprain, bruise, or fresh muscle injury. The leaves and root can be crushed, made into a pulp, and applied to a sprained ankle. You can make a fresh plant tincture out of the whole plant or just the root. If you use isopropyl alcohol, the tincture can be used externally as a

rubbing agent for injuries to joints and muscles. G Arnica oil can also be used in the same way. Grind up the dried plant, mix it with b its volume of alcohol, and let it sit in a covered jar for a week. Add the same volume of olive oil into the mix, and blend it. Store in the same jar for another week, but with a cheese cloth cover to let the alcohol evaporate. Strain off the herb, and what’s left is Arnica oil. To make an Arnica salve, bees wax can be melted and added to the finished oil. G Internally, use Arnica tincture sparingly in doses of five to twenty drops on the tongue. It’s good for rough and tumble physical injuries and compressions. Arnica alleviates shock and trauma. It’s a vaso-dilator which slightly elevates blood pressure and disperses blood. If a person uses too much Arnica; he starts to feel like he’s bleeding inside – probably because he is. #[Chemical Constituents] 2-beta-ethoxy-6-0-iso-butyryl-2,3-di-hydro-helenalin, 6-0-iso-butyryl-tetra- hydro-helenalin, alkaloids, angelic acid (rhizomes), arnicin, arnicine (C12H22O2), arnicolides (leaves), arnidendiol, arnidiol (flowers), arnifolin (leaves), arnisterin, arnisterol (flowers), astragalin (flowers), azulene, betuletol (flowers), carotenes, carotenoids, catechin tannins (rhizomes 23,000 ppm), dientetrain (flowers), en- pentain (flowers), essential oil (flowers 1,400 ppm; rhizomes 63,100 ppm; roots 37,400 ppm), eupafolin (flowers), faradiol (flowers), fatty acids, flavones, flavonoids, flavonols, formic acid (rhizomes), fumaric acid (rhizomes), helenalins (plant), hispidulin, inulin (flowers, rhizomes 90,000 to 120,000 ppm), laciniatin, methylated flavonoids, mucilage, patuletin (flowers), phenolic acids, poly- saccharides, pseudo-guanolides, quercetins (flowers), reducing sugars (rhizomes 5,000 ppm), resins, sesqui-terpene lactones, spinacetin, tannins, taraxasterol (flowers), thymo-hydro-quinone, thymol ethers, thymol-methyl-ether, thymols (flowers), tri-deca-diens (flowers), tri-terpenoids, volatile oils. #[Physiology] Arnica contains sub-aromatic resins in the form of semi-fixed oils which don't evaporate. G It seems to me, the strongest native Arnica species are the ones that look most like Arnica montana. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use on broken skin; do not continue application if skin reddens on first contact; do not take tea internally; use only tinctures internally and with great care. Fresh whole plant (flowers, leaves and roots), tincture, 1:2; dried herb (flowers and/or leaves), tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol; all forms, used externally, diluted with one or two parts water, applied as needed; all forms, if used internally, 3-10 drops, in one cup water, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 28, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 19, Pacific West: 46, Mountain West Revision: 35, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Battaglia: 313, Felter: 205, Grieve: 55, Hutchins: 15, Hoffmann: 166, Holmes: 254, Kadans: 38, Lust:101 (#23), Moerman: 59, Meyer: 10, Mabey: 41, Martinez: 42, Potter: 16, Rodale: 17, Willard: 203, Wyk + Wink: 53, 399.

Artemisia absinthium COMMON WORM WOOD / ABSINTHE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; northern temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia absinthium [abrotanum, absinthe, agenjo, ajenjo, common worm wood, european worm wood, worm wood], = Absinthium vulgare, = Artemisia officinale, Europe, naturalized in Canada and northern United States. í Artemisia mexicana [mexican worm wood], = Artemisia ludoviciana var. mexicana, Mexico and southern Arizona. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] European worm wood is a coarse, shrubby, perennial herb, aromatic and bitter, with downy white stems, and branching rhizomes; growing to about three feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, silver-gray, linear to lanceolate; lower leaves long-stemmed,

middle leaves short-stemmed, upper leaves stemless; largest leaves with 2-3 times pinnately dissected margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous, tiny, and narrow-tubed; with five petals; peripheral ray florets absent; central disc florets are yellowish; grouped together in small, fuzzy, drooping, button-shaped to nearly spherical, composite heads; heads in turn grouped together in axillary, erect, foot- long spikes or panicles. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded); without and fluff. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anthelminthic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-rheumatic, anti- septic, anti-spasmodic, aromatic, bitter, cardiac stimulant, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, digestive, emetic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, intoxicant, orexigenic, poisonous, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge. #[Class] Artemisia absinthium is considered a magical herb in Europe, but in commerce it is impoverished by the time it reaches the United States. It’s terribly depleted with few aromatics remaining. It has an old history and reputation, with many uses, but it’s usually employed as a vermifuge. The Mexican species is also used in a similar manner. Worm wood is a large, slightly toxic, semi-heroic medicine with an but it doesn’t act like a very predictable therapeutic agent. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 3-rhamno-glucoside, 3,6-dihydro-chamazulene, 5,6- dihydro-chamazulene, absinthin (C15H20O4) or (C20H28O4), absinthol (C10H16O), acetylenes [root], alpha-thujone, anabsinthin, arabsin, artabin, artabsin, artabsinolides-A, artabsinolides-B, artabsinolides-C, artabsinolides-D, artemetin, artemolin, azulenes, beta-thujone, bisabolene, C13-trans-spiro-ketalenol ether, C14- trans-spiro-ketalenol ether, cadinene, camphene, chamazulene, chlorogenic acid, chrysanthenyl acetate, dia-yangambin, epi-yangambin, flavonoids, iso-absinthin, lignans, matricin, mono-terpenoids, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxy-phenyl-acetic acid, phellandrene, phenolic acids, pinene, potassium chloride (KCl), proto- catechuic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, sabinene, sesqui-terpene lactones, sesqui- terpenoids, spinacetin-3-glucoside, succinic acid (C4H6O4), syringic acid, thujone, thujyl alcohol, trans-dehydro-matricaria ester, trans-sabinyl-acetate, vanillic acid, volatile oil. #[Physiology] Artemisia tridentata [sage brush] or Artemisia absinthium [worm wood] are diaphoretic under any circumstance. They can be used as an alterative, but they are not in themselves an alterative. They have a drug effect by producing perspiration. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with prescription drugs; otherwise, dried herb, cold infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 9, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 78, Allen + Hatfield: 299, 350, Boulos: 54, Battaglia: 325, Christopher: 107, Dastur: 25 (#38), Felter: 112, Grieve: 858, Hutchins: 309, Hoffmann: 231, Holmes: 489, Jain + DeFilipps: 154, Kay: 51, Kloss: 332, Lust: 409 (#497), Millspaugh: 347 (#88), Moerman: 59, Meyer: 143, Morton: 908, Mabey: 41, Martinez: 134, Potter: 288, Sturtevant: 66, Tucker + Debaggio: 161, Tierra (2): 212, Willard: 204, Wyk + Wink: 54, 400.

Artemisia annua ANNUAL WORM WOOD / ANISOTE
Artemisia biennis BIENNIAL WORM WOOD / ANISOTE
Artemisia dracunculoides FALSE TARRAGON
Artemisia redolens FRAGRANT WORM WOOD / ANISOTE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; northern temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia annua [anisote, annual worm wood, sweet worm wood, worm wood], Europe, sporadic throughout the United States and Mexico;

í Artemisia biennis [anisote, biennial worm wood, worm wood], Europe, Alaska, Canada, northern and western United States; í Artemisia dracunculoides [false tarragon] western and central Canada, western United States, Wisconsin to Texas, adjacent northern Mexico, and Baja California. í Artemisia redolens [anisote, fragrant worm wood] southeastern Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas and northern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Artemisia biennis – Biennial worm wood is an annual or biennial herb, not aromatic but bitter, with smooth erect stems, and a small tap-root. Leaves are simple, alternate, green and hairless; with bipinnately dissected margins, and linear, toothed segments. Flowers are numerous, tiny, and symmetrical; peripheral ray florets absent; central yellow disc florets narrow-tubed with five petals grouped together in small, fuzzy, erect, ball-shaped composite heads; composite heads in turn grouped together in six- inch long, erect, axillary, spike-like panicles. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] diaphoretic, digestive, stomachic. #[Class] Artemisia annua produces artemisian, which acts as an anti-malaria drug. G Artemisia biennis and Artemisia redolens are used as a light simple tea, drunk cold for stomach aches and indigestion, and hot as a diaphoretic. G The rutin in Artemisia dracunculoides decreases capillary permeability and fragility, and it may be a cancer preventative. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] [a] Artemisia annua – artemisian; [b] Artemisia dracunculoides – essential oil, herniarin, hydroxy-coumarins, methyl-chavicol, ocimene, phellandrine, rutin. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Otherwise, simple tea, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 19, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 37, Kay: 104, Moerman: 59.

Artemisia californica CALIFORNIA MUG WORT
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; northern temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia california [california mug wort, california sage, california sage brush, coastal mug wort, coastal sage brush, douglas mug wort, mug wort], along coastal strand: central California to Baja California; í Artemisia douglasiana [douglas mug wort, douglas sage wort], = Artemisia heterophylla, = Artemisia kennedyi, = Artemisia vulgaris var. california, = Artemisia vulgaris var. douglasiana, = Artemisia vulgaris var. heterophylla, = Artemisia vulgaris var. lindleyana, California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Idaho, Baja California. #[Editor] see also: Artemisia vulgaris [mug wort] below. #[Appearance] California mug wort is a gray-green shrub, aromatic and bitter, with downy gray stems, and branching rhizomes. Leaves are simple, alternate, and silver-gray; lower leaves, with 1-2 times palmately dissected margins, segments linear to thread-like; upper leaves smaller, linear, stemless, without dissected segments, and sometimes grouped in bundles or whorls. Flowers are numerous, tiny, narrow-tubed, five-petaled, cream-colored disc florets (ray florets absent), grouped together in tiny ball-shaped composite heads; composite heads in turn grouped together in long racemose panicles. Seeds are small, short, achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), with a scaly crown. #[Herbal Properties] cephalic, anti-secretory. #[Class] The tea is also used like Artemisia frigida [sand sage, estafiate] (see below) for frontal head aches – as a forehead and scalp wash. #[Field Notes] [Seattle] Artemisia california is commonly called California mug wort. In general, most Salvia species are called: sage, and most Artemisia species are called: worm wood or mug wort. Artemisia species are

usually used to stimulate secretions such as perspiration, salivation, and urination. However, California mug wort is an anti-secretory agent, good for a hyper- secretor where gastric secretions are excessive. It decreases secretions of hyper- active gastric mucosa. Referring to nocturnal ulcers and dyspeptic distress, a hyper-secretor might have the habit of waking up at 11 o'clock at night with a stomach ache. When one is upset, defensive and frightened, the stomach won't secrete because adrenalin decreases gastric secretions. However, when one is frustrated with an inner directed stress, one over-secretes. During the first dream cycle, when you dream about what happened during the day, the stomach secretes, and a couple hours later you wake up with a stomach ache. When you get upset, blood pressure and blood sugar levels rise. You can get into the habit of eating food to calm down because food disperses blood, quiets central nervous system excess, and lowers blood sugar. If you use food as a calming drug, when you go to sleep and experience stressful dreams, the stomach secretes. A small amount of tincture or tea of Artemisia californica helps a hyper-secretor under stress. For that purpose, the tea is best sipped cold or lukewarm. The hot aromatic tea stimulates perspiration. #[Chemical Constituents] arteglasin-A (flower), caffeoylquinic acids (plant), chlorogenic acid (plant), COX-2 inhibitor (=dihydro- leucodin, plant), cytoprotectant, dihydro-leucodin (=COX-2 inhibitor, plant), guainolide sesqui-terpene lactones (=guainolides, 22+, plant), guainolides (=guainolide sesqui-terpene lactones, 22+, plant), sesqui-terpenes. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried herb, standard infusion, 2-3 fluid ounces, used cold for stomach and liver, used hot for sweating, expectoration and sinuses, every three hours, or as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 20, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 106, Mountain West Revision: 259, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Hughes: 139, Moerman: 59, 61, 66.

Artemisia filifolia SAND SAGE / ROMERILLO
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; northern temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia filifolia [romerillo, sand sage, sand sage brush, silver sage, thin-leaved silver sage], South Dakota to Texas, west to Arizona and Nevada. #[Editor] common name: sage, also applied to: Artemisia [worm wood /mug wort] = sage brush, Ambrosia artemisiifolia [rag weed] = bur sage, various species of Eriogonum [buck wheat bush] = antelope sage, = bastard sage, Hyptis emoryi [desert lavender] = bee sage, Leucophyllum frutescens [purple sage], Lepechinia calycina [pitcher sage], Teucrium canadense [germander] = wood sage; true sages belong to genus Salvia. #[Appearance] Silver sage is a delicate perennial herb, aromatic and bitter, with thin, downy, silvery-white stems, about two feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, silvery-gray, very thin, linear to thread- like, usually with smooth margins, but some with three very small teeth or lobes. Flowers are numerous, very tiny, narrow-tubed, five-petaled, cream-colored disc florets (ray florets absent), grouped together in very small, ball-shaped composite heads; composite heads in turn grouped together on the stems in a spike. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-secretory, anti-ulcer, bitter, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Artemisia filifolia is a sage brush equivalent found on the western planes. It’s a bitter tonic and anti- secretory agent for hyper-secretors with nocturnal ulcers and gastritis – any chronic dyspeptic stress. It contains lactones which inhibit local stomach lining secretions. Topically, it has a drug effect. In general, worm woods tend to be anti-

fungal and anti-microbial. Drink the tea or tincture in cold water. It shouldn’t be hot or bitter. The herb just works in the stomach. It’s pretty specific. After passing the stomach, it breaks down. It’s the preferred New Mexican and Spanish ulcer medicine. It is applicable for people who wake up in the night with a stomach ache after two hours of sleep. They can drink the tea before bed. Medicinally, the herb holds up well; it doesn't wear off; it will last three to five hours. It can be used long term, it isn't toxic, but it should be avoided in pregnancy. #[Chemical Constituents] lactones; no others listed; probably similar to other Artemisia species. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried herb, simple tea, one cup, in the evening, or as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 71, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 171, Dunmire + Tierney: 150, Moerman: 61.

Artemisia franserioides MOUNTAIN MUG WORT / ALTAMISIA #[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; northern temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia franser-ioides [altamisia, altamisa de la sierra, mountain mug wort, mug wort, rag weed sage brush], southern Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Mountain mug wort is a perennial herb, aromatic and bitter, with downy pinkish stems. Leaves are simple, alternate, green above and silvery-gray below, woolly, with bipinnately dissected margins, and upper leaves much reduced in size. Flowers are numerous, tiny, narrow- tubed, five-petaled, cream-colored disc florets (ray florets absent), grouped together in small, fuzzy, erect, ball-shaped composite heads; composite heads in turn grouped together in foot-long spikes. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-diarrheal, aromatic, bitter, febrifuge, stomachic, tonic. #[Class] This plant isn’t toxic – if used in moderation. It grows in higher mountain areas, in moist shade, under spruce trees. As a tea, it is widely used in Hispanic traditions, along with Artemisia frigida [sand sage, estafiate] (see below). It is drunk cold for winter colds and flu, and to settle the stomach. It is drunk hot to induce and/or reduce fevers. It is a bitter tonic for stomach pains and acid stomach induced by eating too much greasy or rancid foods. It is also sometimes used for diarrhea. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed; probably similar to other Artemisia species. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried herb, standard infusion or cold infusion, drunk cold for flu and colds, drunk hot to induce sweating and reduce fevers, 2-4 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 162, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 14, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Fourth Edition Materia–, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 29, Kay: 104.

Artemisia frigida SILVER SAGE / ESTAFIATE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; northern temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia frigida [altamisa de la sierra, estafiate, fringed sage brush, istafiate, mountain sage, mountain silver sage, plumajillo de la sierra, prairie sage wort, romerillo, silver sage], Alaska, Canada, northern and western United States, except Oregon and California. #[Editor] common name: estafiate, usually applied to Artemisia ludoviciana [louisiana worm wood] (see below). #[Appearance] Sand sage or estafiate is a small perennial herb, aromatic and

bitter, with thin downy whitish stems, never more than two feet tall. Leaves are small, simple, alternate, densely-haired, and silver-gray; lower leaves with 2-3 times pinnately dissected margins, upper leaves much reduced in size. Flowers are numerous, tiny, narrow-tubed, five-petaled, whitish, disc florets (ray florets absent), grouped together in small, fuzzy, erect, button-like composite heads, with appended white hairs; composite heads in turn grouped together sparsely on a short spike. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-secretory, cephalic, digestive, diuretic, laxative, stomachic. #[Class] Estafiate grows a little further down the mountain sides than Artemisia franserioides [mountain mug wort, altamisia] (see above), and if found in abundance, it often indicates over-grazing. The cows won’t touch it. It’s widely used in Hispanic traditions, along with mountain mug wort. The tincture is used for stomach hyper-secretion, especially between meals, and middle-of-the-night acid indigestion. If the problem is chronic, add some Medicago [alfalfa] or Trifolium [red clover] tea in the mid-afternoon, and before retiring. You could also eliminate morning fruit juice and quit drinking coffee – or maybe not. The hot tea is a strong diuretic and a mild laxative. The tea is also used like Artemisia californica [california mug wort] (see above) for frontal head aches as a wash on the forehead and scalp. A vinegar tincture applied to the temples and sides of the face works even better, especially if the head ache is accompanied by blood-shot eyes. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 8- deoxy-cumambrin, guainolides, lactones. no others listed probably similar to other Artemisia species. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried herb (flowers and leaves) tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 20-30 drops, in cold water, for excessive stomach secretions and indigestion; dried herb, standard infusion, used hot and internally as a strong diuretic and moderate laxative, or used cold and externally as a face, scalp and forehead wash for frontal head aches; also, dried herb, vinegar tincture, 1:5, used externally, for head aches. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 162, Desert and Canyon West: 111, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 267, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Dunmire + Tierney: 150, Gilmore: 82, Kindscher: 47, Kay: 104, Moerman: 61, Willard: 203.

Artemisia ludoviciana LOUISIANA WORM WOOD / ESTAFIATE #[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; north temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia ludoviciana [agenjo, ajenjo, altimisa de la casa, chihuahua sage wort, dark-leaved mug wort, estafiate, garfield tea, istafiate, lobed cud weed, louisiana sage wort, louisiana worm wood, mexican sage wort, mexican worm wood, musha, prairie sage, sage wort, silver king, romerillo, western mug wort, white mug wort, white sage, white sage brush, wild sage, worm wood], = Artemisia mexicana, = Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana, Canada, United States except Florida. #[Editor] common name: estafiate, also applied to Artemisia frigida [sand sage] (see above). #[Appearance] Louisiana worm wood is a small perennial herb, aromatic and bitter, with slender downy gray to silver-white stems, and spreading rhizomes. Leaves are simple, alternate, silvery-white and densely haired on both sides, linear to narrowly elliptical, short- stemmed, usually with smooth margins. Flowers are numerous, tiny, narrow- tubed, five-petaled, white to cream-colored, disc and ray florets, grouped together in small, fuzzy, ball-shaped composite heads, with dense white hairs; composite heads in turn grouped together in compact panicles. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties]

anthelminthic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, aromatic, bitter, deodorant, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, pruritic, pulmonary, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge. #[Class] This species is used primarily as a bitter and stimulating stomach remedy. The tea drunk cold helps cool the stomach. The hot tea is also used for diarrhea and menstrual cramps, and it is added to bath water to help relieve arthritis. The tea can be combined with some Matricaria recutita [german chamomile, manzanilla] to sooth stomach ulcers. The dried herb is added to simmering water, and the steam is inhaled through the mouth to treat lingering sore throats. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Artemisia ludoviciana is strong, bitter, and aromatic. It has a similar function as Artemisia tridentata [sage brush] as a secretory stimulant. #[Chemical Constituents] achillin (plant 1,200 ppm), anthemidin (flower 1,000 ppm), artecanin (plant 60 ppm), artemexifolin (plant 270 ppm), artemisin, beta-sitosterol (plant 70 ppm), camphor (plant 1,136 ppm), chrysoeriol (plant 40 ppm), coumarin (plant 45 ppm), douglanine (plant 700 ppm), eupafolin (plant 180 ppm), eupatilin (plant 90 ppm), hispidulin (plant 42 ppm), lactone glycosides, ludalbin (plant 49 ppm), ludovicin- A (plant, 1,400 ppm), santonin, scopoletin (plant 68 ppm), tanaparthin-alpha- peroxide (plant 46 ppm), tanapartholide-B (plant 68 ppm), trans-chrysanthenol (plant 45 ppm). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with overt liver disease. Dried herb, cold infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces, up to four times a day, as a stomachic or tonic; dried herb, standard infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces, as needed, as diaphoretic; dried herb, simple tea, one rounded teaspoon per cup of hot water. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 43, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 262, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 82-83, Gilmore: 82-83, Kindscher: 46, Kay: 104, Moerman: 64, Willard: 206.

Artemisia tridentata SAGE BRUSH / CHAMISO HEDIONDO
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; north temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia tridentata [basin sage brush, big sage brush, chamiso, chamiso hediondo, chamisona, common sage brush, great basin sage brush, sage brush, stinking chamiso], British Columbia, western United States, North and South Dakota, Nebraska. #[Editor] Common name: chamiso, also applied to Atriplex canescens [salt bush] = common chamiso; Chrysothamnus nauseosus [rabbit brush] = chamiso blanco (white chamiso). #[Appearance] Sage brush is a large ever green shrub, strongly aromatic and bitter, with silver-gray to brownish, flaky, woody stems. Leaves below the flowering stalks are simple, alternate, silver-gray, wedge-shaped, short-stemmed, with three characteristic small blunt teeth at the tips; leaves on the flowering stalks are linear, and lack stems or teeth. Flowers are numerous, tiny, narrow-tubed, five-petaled, cream- colored to yellowish disc florets (ray florets are absent), grouped together in small, fuzzy, ball-like composite heads; the composite heads in turn are grouped together on erect, woody-stemmed, densely crowded panicles. Seeds are small, short, resinous achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-rheumatic, aromatic, dermatological, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, inhalant, pulmonary, secretory, stimulant, stomachic. #[Class] If you’ve ever watched a John Wayne western, you know what sage brush looks like. It grows in New Mexico along the Rio Grande as far south as Espanola. It grows west all across the Great Basin into Oregon and Washington. The herb is anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and disinfectant. The dried leaves are used medicinally for most skin problems –

including: diaper rashes, cuts, scrapes, abrasions, and infections. You can use the herb as a cleansing wash, or as a powder – just dust the herb directly on any affected areas. If you cook up the herb and inhale the vapors, it induces perspiration. It is an old, long-respected herb used in saunas and sweat lodges to induce perspiration and ritual purification. It tastes absolutely terrible, which prohibits internal use – other than as a self-inflicted torture. If you cook up a turkey, and you flavor it with sage brush instead of true sage (Salvia officinalis), your relatives will never speak to you again. Then again, maybe that’s not such a bad idea. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alpha-phellandrene (leaves- essential oil 10,000 ppm), alpha-pinene (leaves 800 ppm), alpha-thujone (leaves 900 ppm), arbusculin-A (leaves + twigs 4000 ppm), beta pinene (leaves 15,000 ppm), beta thujone (leaves 4,000 ppm), camphene (leaves 800 ppm), camphor (leaves-essential oil 400,000 ppm), car-3-ene (leaves-essential oil 30,000 ppm), carvacrol (leaves-essential oil 1,000 ppm), D-camphor (leaves 5,800 ppm), deacetyl-laureno-biolide (leaves + stems 12000 ppm), deacetyl-matricarin (leaves + twigs 800 ppm), fenchol (leaves-essential oil 2,000 ppm), fenchone (leaves- essential oil 1,000 ppm), iso-pulegole (leaves-essential oil 1,000 ppm), leucodin (leaves + stems 2,700 ppm), methyl-iso-pimarate (leaves 3,000 ppm), methyl- levo-pimarate (leaves 1,000 ppm), spiciformin (leaves + stems 2,000 ppm), tannins, tatridin-A (leaves + stems 750 ppm), tatridin-B (leaves + stems 4,000 ppm), terpineol (leaves 1,900 ppm), volatile oil. #[Physiology] Artemisia tridentata [sage brush] and Artemisia absinthium [worm wood] are diaphoretic in any circumstance. They can be used as an alterative, but they are not in themselves an alterative. They have a drug effect by producing perspiration. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with emphysema or bronchiectasis; if appropriate, use sparingly. Dried leaves, cold infusion, 1-2 fluid ounces, externally, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 162, Desert and Canyon West: 103, Los Remedios: 30, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 265, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Curtin: 57, Dunmire + Tierney: 150, Kay: 105, Moerman: 67, Mayes + Lacy: 106.

Artemisia vulgaris COMMON MUG WORT
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 350 species; north temperate zone, western South America, southern Africa. #[Species] í Artemisia vulgaris [california mug wort, common mug wort, corona de san juan, felon herb, estafiate, istafiate, mug wort, romerillo, sailor tobacco, sailors tobacco, sailor’s tobacco, yerba de san juan], = Artemisia heterophyllus, = Artemisia indica var. canadensis, Europe, Asia, Alaska, Canada, northwestern United States, central and eastern United States. #[Editor] see also: Artemisia californica [california mug wort]. #[Appearance] Mug wort is a perennial herb, strongly aromatic and bitter, with smooth greenish stems, and stout branching rhizomes. Leaves are simple, alternate, greenish above and downy-white below, with short stems, and several stipules (leafy appendages) near base, with deeply dissected margins. Flowers are numerous, tiny, narrow- tubed, five-petaled, cream to yellowish disc florets (ray florets absent), grouped together in small, stemless, fuzzy, gray-green, ovoid composite heads; composite heads in turn grouped together in numerous small spikes set along a central flowering stalk. Seeds are small, short, smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] abortifacient, anthelminthic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, anti-spasmodic, appetizer, aromatic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, deobstruent, dermatological, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, hemo-static, orexigenic, purgative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic,

vermifuge, vulnerary. #[Class] Artemisia vulgaris has different effects than most other Artemisia species. There are over 300 Artemisia species growing around the world, including ten in New Mexico. The Artemisia vulgaris sub-group includes common mug wort, and also Artemisia chinensis or moxa in China, and Artemisia californica or California mug wort in California and in the northwest. Unless you know mug wort well enough to know which species you are picking, it’s safer to buy it. Different mug wort varieties have distinctly different internal effects. G The Artemisia vulgaris sub-group is very efficient as an anti-secretory agent to decrease over-secretion in the stomachs of chronic hyper-secretors and people prone to stress and gastric ulcers. It decreases crypt cell secretory function. It resembles an aromatic – which can make a person more agitated and sleep more shallow. It’s useful for a person with dyspepsia during sleep, who wakes up an hour or two after bedtime with stomach or ulcer pains. G Most people with ulcers spend their days being stressed and upset. Their faces are pale and sweaty, their eyelids slightly swollen, and they have a slightly cryptic expression. They look like they have diarrhea, and they’re trying to control it with their emotions. G Many Artemisia species are liver and gastro-intestinal tract stimulants. Mug wort has a very distinctive and different chemistry. It’s somewhat similar to Corallorhiza odontorhiza [coral root] and Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] – it won't irritate, excite, or stimulate the liver. It acts as a liver diuretic. It stimulates bile secretions, and it detoxifies the liver. G Larrea tridentata [chaparral, creosote bush] also cools the liver somewhat, but it isn't a bile stimulant. G Another plant with the same effect is Artemisia frigida [silver sage]. The Spanish name is romerillo. It’s a sage brush that grows on the great plains, has very thin leaves, and is quite common. It also affects the stomach, and help with nocturnal ulcers and dyspeptic reactions. Since it has the same effects as mug wort, it presumably has the same constituents. G Mug wort is also fairly unique in being a topical analgesic. A vinegar tincture is applied to the temples on the top of the head for sharp, splitting head aches caused by over-eating, too much sun, or over-exertion. Often, the person perspires at the back of the head. This use applies to regular head aches, but not migraines. G alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are expectorants; cineole is an expectorant and insecticide. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 1,8-cineole, 3-beta-hydroxurs-12-en-27,28-dionic acid, 5,3- dihydroxy-3,7,4'-tri-methoxy-flavone, 7,8-methyl-endioxy-9-methoxy-coumarin, aldehyde, alpha-cadinol, alpha-pinene, beta-amyrin, beta-cadinol, beta-pinene, beta-sito-sterol, beta-thujone, borneol, cadinenol, camphor, cineol, cineole, coumarin derivatives, coumarins, essential oil, flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, gamma-cadinol, inulin, linalool, linalyl-acetate, mono-terpenoids, muurolol, myrcene, nerol, neryl-acetate, paraffin, psilostachyin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamno-glucoside, resin, sesqui-terpene lactones, sesqui-terpenoids, spathulenol, stigma-sterol, tannins, thujone, tri-terpenes, volatile oil, vulgarin, vulgarole. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried herb (flowers and leaves) tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-25 drops; dried herb, acetum tincture (in vinegar), 1:5, externally, as needed; dried herb, standard infusion, drunk hot, as diaphoretic; or, dried herb, cold infusion, as tonic. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 162, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 297, 351, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 371, Christopher: 305, Duke + Ayensu: 150, Grieve: 556, Hutchins: 200, Hoffmann: 205, Hughes: 124, Holmes: 315, Kloss: 285, Kindscher: 50, Kay: 105, Lust: 284 (#296), Lad + Frawley: 131, Millspaugh: 344 (#87), Morton: 909, Mabey: 44, Martinez: 512, Potter: 194, Quisumbing: 960, Reid: 132 (#130), Rodale: 392, Shih-Chen: 52, Sturtevant: 67, Tucker + Debaggio: 168, Tierra (1): 139, Tierra

(2): 264, Willard: 206, Wyk + Wink: 57, 400.

Asarum canadense WILD GINGER / CANADA SNAKE ROOT
#[Family] Aristolochiaceae, snake root family. #[Genus] 70 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Asarum canadense [asarabacca, asarum, black snake weed, black snake root, canada snake root, canada wild ginger, canadian snake root, canadian wild ginger, colt foot snake root, colt’s foot snake root, false colt foot, false colt’s foot, heart snake root, indian ginger, snake root, southern snake root, vermont snake root, wild ginger], eastern and central North America; í Asarum caudatum [tailed wild ginger], British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana; í Asarum hartwegii [hartweg wild ginger], northern California, southern Oregon; í Asarum lemmonii [lemmon wild ginger], Sierra Nevada, California. #[Editor] common ginger is Zingiber officinale; common name: snake root, also applied to: Aristolochia = snake root, Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh] = black snake root, Echinacea angustifolia [cone flower] = kansas snake root, Echinacea purpurea [cone flower] = missouri snake root, Eryngium yuccifolium [eryngo] = button snake root, Liatris punctata [gay feather] = button snake root, and Polygala senega [milk wort] = seneca snake root. #[Appearance] Wild ginger is a small perennial herb, without stems, with slender, branching, creeping, gray-brown root stocks. Leaves are basal, simple, two only, rising directly from the roots, kidney-shaped to heart-shaped, with 2-7 inch long stems, a deep indentation at the base, usually very fine hairs on both sides, smooth margins, and somewhat rounded to pointed tips. They smell like ginger when crushed. Flowers are solitary, one only, brownish-purple-mauve, bell-shaped or cup-shaped, with a short, slender stem, three sepals (which look like petals) each usually having a long tail, borne at ground level, rising from the axil between the root and leaf, often hidden by mulch. Fruits are fleshy, round capsules. Seeds are large, and compressed. Asarum caudatum and Asarum hartwegii both have long-tailed sepals, but caudatum has fused styles and short anthers, while hartwegii has unfused styles and long anthers; Asarum lemmonii has short-tailed sepals. #[Herbal Properties] abortifacient, analgesic, anti- bacterial, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, expectorant, irritant, pulmonary, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic. #[Class] Asarum or wild ginger is in the same family as the Aristolochia genus – the snake roots. Aristolochia flowers have six stamens; Asarum flowers have twelve. Wild ginger is also called Canadian snake root. The typical eastern species is Asarum canadense. We have several of our own equivalent western species. G This herb is used especially for hot, dry conditions. With a hot, dry head cold, or a hot, dry bronchial problem – it will initiate secretions. For a hot, dry person in general – it will initiate sweating. The roots are diaphoretic and expectorant; they make you sweat and expel. They make you secrete from the sinuses, mouth, lungs and stomach. G The roots are also fairly carminative. They help settle down flatulence, colic, and upset stomachs. G With a slow onset, clotted, crampy period, from poor progesterone buildup of endometrium secretions, wild ginger stimulates anti-coagulant, anti-microbial, and thinning uterine secretions. G When taken internally, it can help stimulate the eruptions of measles and chicken pox. G When applied externally, it acts as a local irritant. G The dried powdered roots can be used as a milder ginger substitute, and the dried leaves make a pleasant-tasting, ginger-flavored tea. G If too much wild ginger is taken with gastric irritations, moist mouth, and a red-tipped tongue – you may get nauseous. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] aristolochic acid, asarin, asarone, beta-asarone, essential oils, methyl-eugenol, mono-terpenes, phenyl-propanoids, pinene, resin, volatile oils. #[Physiology] To stimulate liver metabolism of fats

without being anti-oxidant, use Aristolochia virginica [virginia snake root], maybe Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root], Asarum canadense [wild ginger], and Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; it can overly stimulate uterine mucosa. Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 20-50 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 20-50 drops; either form taken in hot water; also, dried herb, standard infusion or simple tea, taken hot, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 269, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Angier (1): 238, Angier (2): 140, Felter: 221, Grieve: 354, Hutchins: 136, Holmes: 216, Lust: 396 (#479), Moerman: 72, 74, Meyer: 135, Potter: 128, Tucker + Debaggio: 172, Tierra (2): 280, Wyk + Wink: 400.

Asclepias asperula INMORTAL / ANTELOPE HORNS
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America, Central America. #[Species] í Asclepias asperula [antelope horns, desert milk weed, inmortal, spider milk weed], = Acerates asperula, = Asclepiodora asperula, Nebraska to Arkansas and Texas, southwestern United States to Nevada, and northern Mexico. #[Editor] common name: antelope, also applied to: Eriogonum [buck wheat bush] = antelope sage, and Purshia tridentata [antelope bush]. #[Appearance] Inmortal is a perennial herb, with erect or sometimes sprawling stems, milky acrid latex sap, and a huge thick root (see below). Leaves are simple, mostly alternate (atypical: not opposite), narrow and linear to lanceolate, leathery, short-stemmed, with smooth margins, tapering pointed tips, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are strongly scented, yellowish-green with purple tinges, with five petals, and a typical five-part hood-like crown, and pollen fused in granular masses (pollinia); grouped together in solitary terminal umbels. Fruits are double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), erect, ovoid to lanceolate, often growing sideways (hence common name: antelope horns). Seeds are flat, light-brown, wind-borne, and bear a tuft of long silky white down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] cardiac, circulatory, diaphoretic, laxative, lymphatic, pulmonary, secretory, stimulant, tonic, vaso-dilator. #[Class] Asclepias asperula is a milk weed which grows from the Texas panhandle and western Oklahoma, where it has become a weed, to the Sangre de Cristos mountains in northern New Mexico, the mountains right here in southern New Mexico, and the eastern Rockies. It also grows as far west as Keystone Springs in the Providence mountains of the Mohave desert. Its closest relative is Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root]. It’s called inmortal because you can’t dig all of the root out of the ground, and it keeps growing back – endlessly. G The root has cream-colored milky pith. In younger plants, the root bark is smooth with reddish-tan longitudinal stripes. In older plants, the root bark is deeply furrowed and brownish-gray. Inmortal is a good herb, but not an exceptional one. It gives cardiac support to other vascular stimulant herbs. It slows and strengthens the pulse so the heart can more easily pump blood into the smaller arteries, and it makes secretions strong at the other end of the capillary beds. It's a mild cardiac stimulant which improves coronary output. G For a person with slight congestive heart problems, bouncy arrhythmic heart, and a murmur since childhood, but otherwise nothing basically wrong, inmortal strengthens the pulse and improves blood circulation. It’s good when the cardio-vascular system is brittle, but not diseased. G Over a long period of time, some people find Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root], or Zanthoxylum [prickly ash] with Zingiber

officinale [ginger], make them tired and nervous. G Inmortal also takes energy away from the hands and feet, and it may cause a head ache. It’s a sympathetic cholinergic stimulant. It stimulates sweating and secretions, neurologically. For functional congestive heart problems due to old age, but not due to cardiopathy per se, inmortal is very good. Some older people have hardening of the arteries,
or an enlarged heart, or a certain amount of cerebral hyperemia – and not enough blood gets to the brain. Some vascular stimulants can be used with a little inmortal to support the heart, get the blood vessels dilated better, and get more blood to the brain.
G Ginkgo biloba [maiden hair tree] functions as a vaso-dilator to the brain and its functions, but with chronic problems, it may cause head aches. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 5-6-dehydro-calotropin, 5-6- dehydro-uscharidin, 6'-O-(E-4-hydroxy-cinnamoyl), asclepains, coroglaucignin, degluco-uzarin, desgluco-uzarin, uzari-genin, uzari-genin-cellobiose, uzarin. #[Physiology] Asclepias asperula [inmortal] is stronger as a fluid extract than as a tincture, but by itself, the fluid extract would be too toxic. The tincture is strong enough. The fluid extract is a good tonic if it is mixed with other herbs. G People who respond poorly to Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] as a liver synergist, could try Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] or Asclepias asperula [inmortal] as para-sympathetic stimulants to intestinal tract tubes. G Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] stimulate para-sympathetic peristalsis. G Milk weed species move fluids in the system. Asclepias asperula [inmortal], and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], act as lymph tonics to stimulate the interstitial fluid transport away from the liver and lungs. Pleurisy root is often considered a lung medicine, and inmortal a heart and reproductive medicine, but above all, they effectively clarify movement of fluid out of tissues. G Iris versicolor [blue flag], Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], and Asclepias incarnata [swamp milk weed], all help kidney excess by dispersing fluids through the liver, through intestinal tract secretions, and through perspiration. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal] decreases arterial vaso-constriction in the pulmonary loop – opening, relaxing, dilating, and making the loop stronger and more efficient. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal] is a good strong tonic medicine for people with cardio-vascular, respiratory/pulmonary, or reproductive deficiencies, and also for older folks. However, it can be too strong for some people. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Peniocereus greggii [night-blooming cereus], and Leonurus cardiaca [mother wort], all modify cardiac output and efficiency. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal], and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], are para-sympatho-mimetics which stimulate cardio-pulmonary circulation through vaso-dilation and stimulation of secretions. G For dry lungs in need of more heat and better blood vessel transport, Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], and Asclepias asperula [inmortal], do both. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal] dilates blood vessels and increases blood supply to the pelvis. G Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Capsicum annuum [cayenne], Guaiacum officinale [lignum vitae], Stillingia sylvatica [queen’s root], Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], and Zingiber officinale [ginger] are all tonic vaso-dilators. The first five species above are also circulatory stimulants and very skin specific. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal] has a stronger liver and respiratory effect than pleurisy root. It dilates blood vessels in the kidneys and often normalizes urine imbalances. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal] helps kidney, liver, respiratory, and lymphatic functions. G Asclepias asperula [inmortal] improves blood supply to the kidneys. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Vitex agnus-castus [chaste tree] berries, and Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root] increase anabolic strength going into ovulation, and make liver and reproductive functions stronger. They stimulate estrogen and follicle-

stimulating hormone production. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-30 drops; dried roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, one or two; either form, up to three times a day. Same dosages as for Asclepias incarnata and Asclepias speciosa (see below); dried roots of Asclepias latifolia (see below) sometimes used as a substitute. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 89, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 50, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 139, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Angier (1): 138, Angier (2): 228, Holmes: 196, Kay: 108, Moerman: 75.

Asclepias incarnata SWAMP MILK WEED
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America to Central America. #[Species] í Asclepias incarnata [milk weed, pink milk weed, swamp milk weed], eastern and central North America to Idaho and Nevada. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Swamp milk weed is a perennial herb, with small amounts of milky acrid latex sap, slender smooth stems, and yellowish-brown, elongated, knotty, woody rhizomes. Leaves are simple, opposite, ovate to lanceolate, leathery, with smooth margins, pointed tips, short stems, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are numerous, pink to rose-purple (rarely white), with five petals, and a typical five- part hood-like crown, and pollen fused into granular masses (pollinia); grouped together in axillary, terminal or lateral, simple umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in wide corymbs. Fruits are double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), erect, lanceolate to spindle-shaped, covered with fine hairs. Seeds are wind-borne, flat, and bear a tuft of long silky white down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] anthelminthic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic, stomachic, vermifuge. #[Class] This species in particular has been used as an expectorant to treat asthma, catarrh, and similar lung inflammations. In other situations, it may be used like Asclepias asperula and Asclepias speciosa. In the early days of heroic herbalism, larger doses (than those recommended below) were used for their emetic, cathartic, and vermifuge properties. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, asclepiadine, fixed oil, resins, volatile oil. #[Physiology] Iris versicolor [blue flag], Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], and Asclepias incarnata [swamp milk weed] all help kidney excess by dispersing the fluids through the liver, through intestinal tract secretions, and through more perspiration. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-30 drops; dried roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, one or two; either form, up to three times a day. Same dosages as for Asclepias asperula (see above) and Asclepias speciosa (see below). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Angier (1): 138, Angier (2): 228, Felter: 225, Grieve: 787, Kindscher: 55, Moerman: 76, Potter: 263, Wyk + Wink: 58.

Asclepias latifolia WIDE-LEAVED MILK WEED / LECHONES #[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America to Central America. #[Species] í Asclepias latifolia [broad-leaved milk weed, lechones, milk weed, wide-leaved milk weed], South Dakota to Texas, southwestern United States, except Nevada. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Wide-leaved milk weed is a perennial herb, with milky acrid latex sap, and thick smooth usually unbranched stems. Leaves are

simple, opposite, nearly round to ovate (almost as wide as long), thick and leathery, very short-stemmed, with smooth margins, small pointed tips, somewhat heart-shaped at base, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are numerous, whitish-yellow to greenish, with five petals, and a typical five-part hood-like crown, and pollen fused into granular masses (pollinia); grouped together in simple axillary (rarely terminal) umbels. Fruits are erect, ovoid to lanceolate, double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture). Seeds are wind-borne, flat, and bear a tuft of long silky white down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] dermatolog-ical, disinfectant, expectorant. #[Class] The dried roots of Asclepias latifolia are sometimes used as substitute for Asclepias asperula [inmortal] (see above). Externally, the fresh sap is applied to slow-healing, frequently-scabbing skin sores, and also to help remove warts. The dried sap is chewed as expectorant for chest colds. A strong decoction of the dried roots is used as a disinfectant wash for skin infections. Internally, the same decoction is also used for chest colds and skin infections. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use internally during pregnancy; do not use with liver disease. Dried roots, strong decoction, applied externally, as needed; dried roots, strong decoction, 2-3 fluid ounces, taken internally, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 53, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Angier (1): 138, Angier (2): 228, Curtin: 110, Dunmire + Tierney: 50, 196.

Asclepias speciosa SHOWY MILK WEED
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America to Central America. #[Species] íAsclepias speciosa [common milk weed, milk weed, showy milk weed], = Asclepias cornuta, western and central North America to Michigan. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Showy milk weed is a perennial herb, with milky acrid latex sap, and thick, unbranched, erect, densely downy stems, about 3-6 feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, oval to ovate (nearly as wide as long), up to 8 inches long, leathery, densely downy on both surfaces, short-stemmed, with smooth margins, a small point at the tip, somewhat heart-shaped at base, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are numerous, pinkish-rose to magenta-purple, with five petals, a typical five-part hood-like crown, and pollen fused into granular masses (pollinia); grouped together in terminal and lateral, (rarely solitary) simple umbels. Fruits are double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), usually erect, ovoid to lanceolate, densely woolly, with small soft protruding knobs. Seeds are wind-borne, flat, and bear tufts of long silky white down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, galactagogue, pulmonary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Asclepias speciosa or showy milk weed is a ubiquitous, common plant which is found growing periodically along road sides and near water sites. The flowers are sweet, and they can be cooked up into a syrup to put on pancakes. They are purplish in California, Arizona, and Oregon, and pinker as you travel east. The stem is fuzzy on the coast, and becomes more glossy further east. The roots are about the same thickness as the stems. The roots are used medicinally. Milk weed species are quite similar – with only a few subtle differences in their properties. Asclepias speciosa [showy milk weed] is a substitute for Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root]. It has the same constituents, but it has slightly more cardiac and a little less respiratory tendencies than pleurisy root. It’s less cardiac and less reproductive than Asclepias asperula [inmortal]. #[Chemical Constituents] alpha-

amyrin (plant 45,100 ppm), alpha-amyrin-acetate (plant 462,800 ppm?), asclepain, aspecioside (plant 12 ppm), beta-amyrin (plant 22,700 ppm), beta- amyrin-acetate (plant 103,700 ppm), beta-sitosterol (plant 27,900 ppm), campe- sterol (plant 6,000 ppm), hentria-contane (plant 8,000 ppm), linolenic acid (plant 7,600 ppm), N-nona-cosane (plant 5,600 ppm), N-tri-contane (plant 7,700 ppm), oleanolic acid (plant 23,400 ppm), palmitic acid (plant 65,000 ppm), proteolytic enzymes, pseudo-taraxa-sterol (plant 13,000 ppm), qualene (plant 1,000 ppm), stigma-sterol (plant 5,800 ppm). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-30 drops; dried roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, one or two; either form, up to three times a day. Same dosages as for Asclepias asperula and Asclepias incarnata (see above). #[Moore References] Mountain West: 106, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 53, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 162, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 8. #[Other References] Angier (1): 138, Angier (2): 228, Kindscher: 56, Moerman: 77.

Asclepias subulata DESERT MILK WEED
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America to Central America. #[Species] í Asclepias albicans [white-stemmed desert milk weed] southern California, Arizona and Baja California; í Asclepias erosa [saw-tooth desert milk weed], California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah; í Asclepias subulata [awl-leaved desert milk weed, desert milk weed, milk weed], southern California, southern Nevada, Arizona, northwest-ern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Desert milk weed is a perennial herb, with milky acrid latex sap; very thin, smooth, erect, greenish- white, clustered stems; and deep, gnarled, light-brown roots. Leaves are simple, opposite, thread-like, quickly falling off, with smooth margins, pointed tips, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are cream-colored to pale green, with five petals, and a typical five-part hood-like crown, and pollen fused into granular masses (pollinia); grouped together in usually terminal, simple umbels. Fruits are double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), narrow, 3-5 inches long, ovoid to lanceolate, and downy. Seeds are wind- borne, small, narrow, flat, and bear a tuft of long silky white (turning yellowish) down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] anti-bacterial, dermatological, diaphoretic, digestive, expectorant, pulmonary, secretory, sialogogue, stimulant, stomachic. #[Class] The roots are expectorant and diaphoretic. If you’re just starting to feel sick, with a dry heat across the chest and in the sinuses, these milk weed species stimulate secretions in the lungs, sinuses, digestive tract, and skin. They pull the heat out. You should also drink water and electrolyte replacements, because secreting makes you thirsty. The tincture is best. Too much tea can cause stomach upsets. For acute disorders, as a short-term remedy, take the tincture every several hours, and alternate it with liquids. After a day or so, you will feel more relaxed. Then use some Asarum [wild ginger], Lomatium [biscuit root], Ligusticum [osha, lovage, chuchupate], or Balsamorhiza [balsam root] for several more days. G The roots of Asclepias subulata show anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus fecalis. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] Asclepias albicans – alpha- amyrin, des-gluco-syrioside, glycosides; Asclepias erosa – alpha-amyrin, asclepiadin, cardiac glycosides, des-gluco-syrioside, glycosides, labriformin (latex); Asclepias subulata – cardenolides (13+), fatty acids, flavonoids, lignan glucoside (1), quercetin, rutin, sterols, steroids, tri-terpenes. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use with a confirmed heart disease; use only for one or two

days. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-20 drops, in hot water, three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 120, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Kay: 108, Moerman: 77, Martinez: 510.

Ascepias subverticillata WESTERN MILK WEED
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America to Central America. #[Species] í Asclepias subverticillata [cow tongue, horse-tail milk weed, lechones, lechugas, lechuria, lengua de vaca, milk weed, western milk weed], = Asclepias galioides, Missouri to Idaho, Texas to Nevada and northern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Western milk weed is a perennial herb, with milky acrid latex sap, and smooth stems. Leaves are simple, mostly whorled in groups of 3-4, narrow and linear, nearly thread-like, much longer than wide, leathery, very short- stemmed, with smooth revolute (downward-curved) margins, pointed tips, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are greenish-white, sometimes tinged with purple, with five petals, a typical five-part hood-like crown, and pollen fused into granular masses (pollinia); grouped together in usually simple terminal umbels. Fruits are double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), erect, spindle-shaped. Seeds are wind-borne, flat, and bear a tuft of long silky white down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne. #[Class] This species is too toxic to use internally. The mature plants are poisonous. You should know what it looks like, and not confuse it with the more medicinal species. In New Mexico, fresh sap was applied as an analgesic to facial areas to relieve soreness and pain. A tincture of the dried roots, diluted in water, could be used for the same purposes. Supposedly, young plants were fed to female cattle, sheep, and goats to increase lactation – probably a doctrine of signatures usage – but most likely a different species was used. When about b ripe, the downy fluff from the pods was gather for spinning. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 5-10 drops, diluted in water, externally, two times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –Fourth Edition Materia 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 109, Dunmire + Tierney: 196, Moerman: 77, Mayes + Lacy: 65-66.

Asclepias tuberosa PLEURISY ROOT / BUTTER FLY WEED
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family, ~Asclepiadaceae, milk weed family. #[Genus] 100 species; North America to Central America. #[Species] í Asclepias tuberosa [butter-fly milk weed, butter-fly weed, canada root, chigger flower, flux root, indian nosy, milk weed, orange apocynum, orange milk weed, orange root, orange swallow wort, pleurisy root, rubber root, silk weed, swallow wort, tuber root, tuberous milk weed, white root, wind root], eastern and central North America, to Arizona and northern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Pleurisy root is a perennial herb, with opaque green juice (atypical of the genus: it has no milky sap); thick, unbranched, roughly-haired stems; and ridged, tuberous roots with medium-brown bark and white-pith. Leaves are simple, alternate (also not typical: not opposite), lanceolate to oblong, stemless, clasping, leathery, with smooth margins, pointed tips, and no stipules (appendages at base). Flowers are numerous and small, bright yellowish-orange to reddish-orange, with five petals, and a typical five-part hood-like crown, and pollen fused in granular masses

(pollinia); grouped together in simple umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in dense terminal cymes. Fruits are double follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), 3-4 inches long, nearly erect, downy, and lanceolate. Seeds are wind-borne, flat, and bear tufts of long silky white down or hair. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, aperient, cardiac, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, estrogenic, expectorant, hypo-tensive, pulmonary, stimulant, tonic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Pleurisy root has soapy roots which contain caustic enzymes or saponins. The dried root tincture contains cardiac glycosides which aren’t bio-active in the same way as their enzyme form. Pleurisy root is tonic and stimulant to adrenalin suppressed energies, especially in dry skin, dry mucosa, dry orifices, chronic constipation, and poor lung function. Technic-ally, pleurisy root isn’t para-sympatho-mimetic. Secretion is sympathetic. It responds to local nerves, not adrenalin. Pleurisy root stimulates those nerves. G Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] stimulates upper digestive functions, lungs, and heart, but not so much the skin. Asclepias asperula [inmortal] more noticeably affects the body below the navel in the bowel and reproductive organs. Inmortal has a stronger effect on the heart muscles. It slows and strengthens the pulse. Pleurisy root has little effect on the heart. Pleurisy root, inmortal, and Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] are three fairly useful tonics to oppose adrenalin stress habits. G Pleurisy root modifies bronchial infections and chronic pulmonary conditions. It isn’t as effective on the intestinal tract or circulatory system. It is best used for dry asthma, pleurisy, and dry percussive coughs with pain felt halfway on inhalation. The lungs may be too moist and have bubbles, or too dry with rubbing, catching and pain. Lung conditions may be acute or chronic. They usually follow bronchitis or some cardio-pulmonary deficiency. G Pleurisy root drains overly moist pleura and re-moistens the lungs when they are too dry. It’s not good for overt pulmonary edema, but for sub-clinical, low-level conditions with some breakdown in blood protein synthesis. For the initial stages of predominantly bronchial infections with pulmonary diaphoresis, try pleurisy root tea, or the tincture in hot water, with a little cayenne pepper. G Complimentary herbs include Capsicum annuum [cayenne] or Zingiber officinale [ginger] to stimulate vaso-dilation and increase blood supply. For chronic pulmonary cases, Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] would have a stronger para-sympathetic influence and be less secretory. Aristolochia [snake root], Myrica cerifera [bay berry], or Sambucus [elder] flowers could be used to stimulate circulation of the outside skin. G For vaginal atrophy in menopause, inmortal might work better than pleurisy root, although it might stimulate some hot flashes. If a woman is getting dry skin after menopause because of insufficient adreno-cortical androgens, pleurisy root would help because it’s better for the skin. Adding a little Zingiber officinale [ginger] or Capsicum annuum [cayenne] would also help. G Drinking too much pleurisy root can cause nausea and vomiting. G A water extract of the roots of Asclepias tuberosa shows anti-biotic activity against cultures of Myobacterium tuberculosis, and also uterine stimulant properties in rabbits, guinea pigs, cats, and rats. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, alpha amyrin, amino acids, asclepains (=cysteinyl protease), asclepiadin, asclepin, beta amyrin, cardenolides (12+), cardiac glycosides, choline sugars, cora-glauci-genin, coro- glauci-genin, cysteinyl protease (=asclepains), fixed oil, flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, flavonols, friedalin, frugoside [roots], gluco- frugoside [roots], glucosides, glycosides, iso-hamnetin, kaempferol, lupeol, phytosterols, pregnane glycosides (16+), quercetin, resin, resinoids, rutin, stearopten, syriogenin, tri-terpenes, uzarigenin, uzarin [roots], viburnitol. #[Physiology] NOTE – several other references to Asclepias tuberosa and Asclepias asperula being used interchangeably were given in the Physiology

section under Asclepias asperula (see above). G If you are hot, Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] makes you sweat. If you are cold, it works on the kidneys and intestinal tract to create more fluid, more bile, and softer stools. If you are hot, only in the lungs, pleurisy root acts as a lung alterative. Asclepias tuberosa performs two functions as an alterative – it produces perspiration, and it promotes lung secretions. The rest of its actions are drug or tonic functions. G Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], Zingiber officinale [ginger], Capsicum annuum [cayenne], and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] will keep the skin moist, self-protective and stimulate skin metabolism. G Pleurisy root stimulates liver, upper GI, intestinal tract, bile secretions, and fluid secretions. It slightly improves fat absorption. It stimulates secretion of fluids more in the upper GI than the lower GI. G Aristolochia [snake root] stimulates secretions in the upper GI, improves liver absorption, and facilitates utilization of fats, and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] makes the skin moist. It’s complimentary with Aristolochia, and it moves some snake root energy from the center out to the edges. G Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] helps increase cholesterol excretion by the skin. Zingiber officinale [ginger] also works well for cholesterol reduction combined with Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root]. G Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] doesn't stimulate para-sympathetics; it mimics secretions. It is a secretory drug which stimulates secretory glands. G Mahonia [oregon grape], Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], and a pinch of Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] would function as a reproductive stimulant. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Dried roots, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30- 90 drops; fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-90 drops; dried roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, one to three; all forms, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 130, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 50, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 201, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Angier (1): 138, Angier (2): 228, Felter: 222, Grieve: 647, Gilmore: 57, Hutchins: 221, Hoffmann: 213, Holmes: 198, Kloss: 297, Kindscher: 53, Lust: 313 (#346), Millspaugh: 538 (#135), Moerman: 78, Meyer: 98, Mabey: 29, Potter: 219, Sturtevant: 71, Tierra (2): 161, Wyk + Wink: 58, 400.

Asparagus officinalis ASPARAGUS / ESPARRAGO
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Asparagaceae, asparagus family. #[Genus] 140 species; Europe, Asia, Africa, introduced in North America. #[Species] í Asparagus officinalis [asparagus, common asparagus, esparrago, sparrow grass], Europe, northern Africa, North America, except Alaska. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Asparagus is a perennial herb, up to four feet tall, with thick tuberous roots, and many stout stems – leafless and edible when young, branching with leaves and becoming tough when older. Leaves are alternate, very thin, wispy, and thread-like. Flowers are small, bell-shaped, greenish-yellow to whitish, with six petals, and often drooping; grouped together in loose racemes (or occasionally solitary). Fruits are round, red berries. #[Herbal Properties] anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, aperient, cardiac, diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative, nematocidal, palliative, pulmonary, sedative, stomachic, urinary, tonic. #[Class] The root is used medicinally. A tea or tincture of either the fresh or dried roots of Asparagus produces copious, watery, malodorous urine. It would provide a suitable diuretic for the water retaining, sodium loving, anabolic, hyper-tensive, aging, mesomorph, grease ball jock. It’s especially efficient in increasing the volume of urine, although not necessarily the solid contents. In kidney and liver excess, you have decreased volume and raised

specific gravity of urine which is dark and overly acidic. The body fluids are being released through internal and external diaphoresis in the lungs, intestinal tract, and skin, making the urine scanty and too strong. Asparagus is an osmotic diuretic which antagonizes the anti-diuretic hormone activity so more water is released from the kidneys – and the sodium follows. G A different but probably complementary mechanism is found in Agropyron repens [couch grass], or in Cynodon dactylon [bermuda grass], which act to remove sodium – and the water follows. G Asparagus shouldn’t be given as a hyper-tensive diuretic to a person with weak kidneys. It’s for kidney excess and kidney strength. Asparagus lowers the level of interstitial fluid volume and blood volume. It can be used for a few weeks as a tonic for essential hyper-tension, increased blood volume, and sodium water retention – in order to get the fluid level down – and then held down indefinitely by other agents. G These would included Arctium lappa [burdock], Agropyron repens [couch grass], Tribulus terrestris [puncture vine], Harpagophytum procumbens [devil’s claw], Taraxacum officinale [dandelion], and Cichorium intybus [chicory]. Dietary change would also be advisable. Asparagus stimulates and cools down the kidneys, while these other herbs cool down the liver. G Prescription diuretics block the ability to absorb potassium and sodium – so everything is released in the urine. Herbal diuretics work by acting as a glucoside osmosis stimulant to pull fluids out, or by serving to diminish active transport. Asparagus is such a forceful diuretic, it can sometimes be used for pulmonary edema, or post-operative edema, when the kidney function ceases. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] acetate (roots), albumen (roots), alpha-amino-dimethyl-gamma–butyrothetin (rhizomes), alpha-carotene (plant), arginine, aromatic resins (seeds), aspara-saponins (plant), asparagin (roots), asparagine (shoots), asparagosides (=steroidal glycosides +9 shoots), asparagusic acid derivatives, asparagusic acid (shoots), bitter glycosides, glycosides, chlorides (roots), filicinins A (shoots), filicinins B (shoots), filicinosides C (shoots), filicinosides D (shoots), fixed oil (seeds), flavonoids, folacin (18 ppm shoots), gum (roots), inulin (roots), kaempferol (roots), malates (roots), mannan (rhizomes), methanethiol (=methyl-mercaptan), methyl-mercaptan (=methanethiol), officinalisin I, officinalisin II (roots), pentosans (70,000 ppm shoots), phenolics, phenylalanine (9,200 ppm shoots), phosphate of potash (roots), poly-saccharides, quercetin (roots), resins (roots), rutin, sinistrin plant, spargin (seeds), steroidal glycosides (=asparagosides +9 shoots), steroidal saponins, sugars (roots), sugars (seeds), tyrosine, zea-xanthin (plant). #[Physiology] For a person on thyroid suppression medication, who doesn't have overt thyroid toxicosis, Lycopus americanus [bugle weed], or Leonurus cardiaca [mother wort] would be good herbs. Also good would be a diet containing broccoli, Asparagus officinalis [asparagus], and sulfur bearing greens – which would slow down thyroid functions. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops in water; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, in water; either form, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 28, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 292, Mountain West Revision: 37, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Culpeper: 28, Duke + Ayensu: 398, Grieve: 71, Holmes: 357, Jain + DeFilipps: 384, Kadans: 42, Lust:104 (#27), Moerman: 80, Meyer: 11, Mabey: 81, Potter: 19, Quisumbing: 162, Sturtevant: 72, Tierra (2): 321, Wyk + Wink: 60, 400.

Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco QUEBRACHO
#[Family] Apocynaceae, dog bane family. #[Genus] 80 species; tropics, especially South America and West Indies. #[Species] í Aspidosperma

quebracho-blanco [common quebracho, quebracha, quebrache, quebracho, white quebracho] tropical South America, to Chile and Argentina. #[Editor] a similar species in another genus, Schinopsis quebracho-colorado, is called red quebracho, and it’s used medicinally in a similar manner. #[Appearance] Quebracho is an ever green tree, growing up to 100 feet tall, with a wide crown, and very hard wood. The name is derived from Spanish: quebrar = to break, and: hacha = an axe. The outer bark is grayish with deep fissures; the inner bark is yellowish and smooth. Pieces taste very bitter, but they have no odor. Leaves are simple, opposite (occasionally 3-4 in a whorl), elliptical to lanceolate, with white latex sap, smooth margins, and pointed at the base and tip. Flowers are yellow, regular, with five petals, grouped together in axial cymes. Fruits are ovoid drupes, with a single stone, somewhat resembling an avocado in size and shape. #[Herbal Properties] anti-asthmatic, anti-microbial, astringent, cardiac, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, febrifuge, pulmonary, respiratory, spasmolytic, stimulant, tonic, vaso-constrictor, vulnerary. #[Class] The bark is used medicinally. Many species have anti-microbial alkaloids, including yohimbine, which is found in Pausinystalia johimbe [yohimbe]. Medicinally, the genus has approximately the same properties as Haematoxylon campechianum [log wood]. If you can’t get either quebracho or log wood, then Caesalpinia gilliesii [bird of paradise] can be used as a weaker substitute. G The bark is astringent and tonic to the lungs. It acts as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant, especially for asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. It brings the heart and lungs into a mutual balance when there isn’t enough oxygen in the blood. It’s also diuretic and used as a febrifuge. Externally, it’s used to treat burns and heal wounds. If the dose is too large doses, the bark is toxic and causes nausea and vomiting. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] akuammicine, aspido-samine (C22H28N2O2), aspido-spermatine (C22H28N2O2), aspido-spermine (C22H30N2O2), eburnaminine, hypo-quebrachine (C21H26N2O2), indole alkaloids, mono-terpenes, pyrifolidine, quebrachamine, quebrachine (=yohimbine C21H26N2O2), rhazinilam, sterols, sugars, tannins, yohimbine (=quebrachine C21H26N2O2). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Use with care. Dried bark, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 15-30 drops, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Christopher: 177, Felter: 228, Grieve: 663, Potter: 230, Schultes + Raffauf: 64, Wyk + Wink: 400.

Astragalus membranaceus HUANG CHI / MILK VETCH
#[Family] Fabaceae [/Leguminosae], pea-bean-legume family, ~Papilionaceae, bean family. #[Genus] 2000 species; world wide, except Australia, especially north temperate zone. #[Species] í Astragalus americanus [american huang chi, american milk vetch, astragálo (Spanish), loco weed, milk vetch, rattle weed, yellow vetch], Alaska, western and central Canada, Montana, Wyoming and northern Colorado, into eastern Asia; í Astragalus membranaceus [chinese huang chi, chinese milk vetch, huang chi (China), huang qi (China), milk vetch], northern China, Mongolia and Manchuria; í Astragalus mongholicus [mongolian huang chi, milk vetch, mongol-ian milk vetch] = Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, northern China, Mongolia and Manchuria. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Huang chi is a perennial herb; with fibrous yellow-brown roots; growing to about two feet tall. Leaves are alternate, compound (oddly-pinnate); leaflets (7-15) are oval-ovate to elliptical, smooth above and downy below, stemless, with smooth margins, and somewhat rounded tips. Flowers are yellowish-white; with five, asymmetrical, typical, pea-family petals; usually

about 10-15 flowers grouped together in a short oblong cluster. Fruits are legumes (pods); drooping, membranous, ellipsoid, inflated at center, and short-stemmed; with somewhat rounded tips. #[Herbal Properties] adaptogen, anti-bacterial, anti- diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral, diuretic, hepato-protectant, hyper-glycemic, hyper-tensive, immuno-logical, immuno-stimulant, pulmonary, tonic. #[Class] Many Astragalus species are poisonous. Our local species in New Mexico are known as loco weed and milk vetch. They are often poisonous to live stock. The roots and stems of the northwestern species Astragalus americanus are anti-microbial, and they are used as a tonic for immunity, hyper-glycemia, and hyper-tension. Medicinally, the plant is nearly identical with the cultivated Chinese species. G Tests (thin-layer chromatography) have shown it contains the same basic constituents as Astragalus membranaceus. G Huang chi itself is a very important tonic herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is an immuno-stimulant used to treat recurring infections, chronic weaknesses, slow-healing wounds, and lesions. It raises the general metabolism, and it strengthens digestion. It’s also used for diabetes, some kidney disorders, and lung weaknesses. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] AMem-P, astra-galan, astra-glucan, astra-galoside-I (roots), astra-galoside-II (roots), astra-galoside-III (roots), astra-galoside-IV (roots), astra-galoside-IX (roots), astra-galoside-V (roots), astra-galoside-VI (roots), astra-galoside-VII (roots), astra-galoside-VIII (roots), astra-galoside-X (roots), calycosin, formononetin, iso-astra-galoside-III (roots), iso-astra-galoside-I (roots), iso-astra-galoside-II (roots), iso-astra-galoside-V (roots), iso-flavones, poly-saccharides, soya-saponin-I, tri-terpene-saponins (roots). #[Physiology] Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], are used for thyroid depression. Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], Echinacea [cone flower], Ruta graveolens [rue], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], and Alcea rosea [holly hock], have been shown to excite white blood cell clone colonies when they are inhibited by immuno-suppressants. G Echinacea [cone flower], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], Tabebuia [pau d’arco], and Castela emoryi [chaparro amargoso], are good for immunity. G With HIV, it’s desirable to stimulate innate immunity and macrophage immunity with herbs like Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], or Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi]. Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], is similar to Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] in activity, but it’s not as caustic. G For a viral infection, one may try some Echinacea [cone flower], Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate], Lomatium dissectum [biscuit root], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi]. G Inununo- stimulant herbs like Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Echinacea [cone flower], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], do not help the liver. G Cleansing herbs include Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], which are macrophage stimulants which work to clean out the lungs when other functions are alright. They are appropriate if one were a smoker, worked in a polluted environment, had a touch of silicosis, bronchitis, asthma as a child, or pneumonia and its repercussions. Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], is pretty moderate in immuno-logical effects. G Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], or Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], are used as basic tonics for an immuno-depressed constitution, but they must be given with some liver support. G Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], stimulates catabolism or cleanup. It’s a lymph and immune stimulant which happens to be anti-bacterial, as most roots are, but its function isn’t primarily anti-bacterial or anti-viral. Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], is a close relative of Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], and it contains many of the same constituents, although Baptisia is stronger. Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], acts like

Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], with an edge to it. G Baptisia is a strong stimulant to macrophage activity, phagocytosis, and to mono-cyte proliferation from the bone marrow. Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], has also been shown to stimulate mono-cyte release from bone marrow. The active glycoside constituent is the same in both plants. G Mahonia [oregon grape], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], are good innate immunity and macrophage stimulants which will give the liver energy a kick. G For a person who is immuno-suppressed, but whose life energy is basically intact, give them Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], and some Echinacea [cone flower]. For a dull person with depressed life energy, first give Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and then add Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], and Echinacea [cone flower]. Give nutrients with the Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo]. If they’re too weak physically, first give Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], then Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and then Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], and Echinacea [cone flower]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] [a] Astragalus americanus – Cold infusion or standard decoction, 2-3 fluid ounces, up to three times a day; fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops, up to four times a day. [b] Astragalus membranaceus – Dried sliced roots, cold infusion, 2-3 fluid ounces, up to three times a day; dried sliced roots, fluid extract, 1:1, 55% alcohol, 10-15 drops, up to three times a day; dried sliced roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 30-60 drops, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 292, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 457, Duke + Ayensu: 317, Mabey: 77, Reid: 144 (#161), Tierra (2): 294, Willard: 127, Wyk + Wink: 61, 400.

Atriplex canescens SALT BUSH / CHAMISO
#[Family] Amaranthaceae, amaranth family, ~Chenopodiaceae, goose foot family. #[Genus] 300 species; sub-tropical and temperate zones. #[Species] í Atriplex canescens [chamisa, chamiso, chamizo, common chamiso, four-wing salt bush, four-winged salt bush, salt bush] = Calligonum canescens, Alberta, western and central United States, northern Mexico. í Atriplex halimus [arrach, coastal salt bush, orache, salt bush], southern Europe and northern Africa; í Atriplex hortensis [arrach, garden salt bush, orache, salt bush], Europe and Asia; naturalized in North America. #[Editor] Artemisia tridentata [sage brush], = chamiso hediondo (stinking chamiso), and Ericameria (Chrysotham-nus) nauseosa [rabbit brush], = chamiso blanco (white chamiso). #[Appearance] Salt bush is an erect, branching, sort of poky-scurfy looking woody shrub; which grows to about waist high; it’s usually abundant where you find it; dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants). Leaves are simple, alternate or opposite, small, numerous, gray-silver-greenish, linear to oblong or spoon- shaped, and stemless; with smooth down-turned margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are tiny, pale green; without petals; grouped together in densely packed panicles or spikes. Male flowers without bracts (leaf-like appendages). Female flowers have very conspicuous bracts, with four wings or crests, which turn yellowish-tan. Fruits are small, one-seeded bladders. Seeds are small, flat, and brown. #[Herbal Properties] anti-diabetic, anti-emetic, expectorant, febrifuge, halo-genic, hypo-glycemic, stomachic, urinary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Atriplex canescens or salt bush grows from South Dakota to Oregon and on south into northern Mexico. The plant gets its name because if you burn the leaves, pour water through the ashes, and let the water evaporate, the acids in the leaves react with the water, and you get salt left behind. It wasn't until the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Utes and Paiutes discovered this process about 500 years ago

that they were able to live in the Great Basin and adjacent areas of the western prairies. G Salt bush isn’t a major medicinal plant, but it’s useful for what it does. The dried tops, flowering or not, are made into a tea. They are taken hot to break a fever, taken luke-warm for nausea and vomiting due to flu, or taken cold to settle upset stomachs. These properties and uses came out of the Hispanic and Pueblo traditions in New Mexico. G Several European species are used for stomach disorders, hypo-glycemia, diabetes, expectorants, and for some urinary tract problems. #[Chemical Constituents] [a] Atriplex canescens – none listed. [b] Atriplex halimus and Atriplex hortensis – amaranthine (=betalain), betalain (=amaranthine), flavonoids, oxalate, tri-terpene-saponins, vitamin C. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried herb, simple tea, any usage, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West – Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 29, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Angier (1): 156, Angier (2): 213, Alvarez: 110, Curtin: 56, Dunmire + Tierney: 62, 76, 129, Moerman: 85, Mayes + Lacy: 109, Martinez: 394, Willard: 230, Wyk + Wink: 401.

Avena fatua OATS / WILD OATS
#[Family] Poaceae [/Gramineae], grass family. #[Genus] 25 species; Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, widely cultivated. #[Species] í Avena fatua [oat, oats, wild oat, wild oats], Europe, Asia, North America; í Avena sativa [common oat, common oats, cultivated oat, cultivated oats], Europe, Asia, northern Africa, North America. #[Editor] other medicinal grasses: Agropyron repens [couch grass], Cymbopogon citratus [lemon grass], Cynodon dactylon [bermuda grass], Zea mays [corn silk]. #[Appearance] Wild oats is an erect annual grass, about 2-3 feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, linear to lanceolate, about 3-4 inches long, with narrow pointed tips, smooth margins, and clasping the stem at the base. Flowers are tiny, green, completely shielded or covered within the spikelets, three per spikelet (Avena sativa has two per spikelet); spikelets are green, about one inch long, with long thin extended tips, in turn grouped together in loose panicles. Seeds are very tiny. #[Herbal Properties] anti-depressant, anti-pruritic, anti- rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, cardiac tonic, convalescent, dermatological, emollient, laxative, nervine, nutritional, pulmonary, sedative, stimulant, sudorific, thymoleptic, tonic, urinary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Here we have Avena fatua or wild oats. Cultivated oats or Avena sativa can also be used. When you harvest wild oats, look for the unripe seeds still in the milky stage – filled with latex, and not yet turned to starch. The fresh plant tincture of the green seeds is used medicinally. The tincture is a good nervine tonic for stress, agitation, and the sensation of nothing going right today. It’s not really a sedative, but it centers a person. It tends to be more applicable to agitation and nervous exhaustion than Hypericum [saint johns wort]. It’s for people who get depressed, maybe for the first time, and they don’t have much experience with it; they don’t know how to handle the situation. Normally, they’re head strong and body strong, but maybe their marriage broke up, or a close relative died. Wild oats can also help resolve cocaine, amphetamine, or intoxicant burnouts. It can help an adrenalin-dominant, stressed-out, constipated, grumpy, nervous and exhausted person get to feel a little better about themself. This herb is very useful when you travel in a car with a large house hold, and the are-we-there-yet syndrome strikes for the ninth time. #[Chemical Constituents] albumen, amino acids, avenacines A, avenacines B, avenacosides, avenin, avenine, avenines, C-glycosyl-flavones, ergo-thioneine, fixed oil, glycosides, histamine, hordenine, magnesium salt, potassium salt, prolamines, proteins, silica, spiro-stanol-glycosides, starch, trigonelline, vitamin

E. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh unripe seeds (milky centers), tincture, 1:2, 10-20 drops (best); dried green stems (oat straw), standard infusion, 4-8 fluid ounces; either form, up to six times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 129, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 292, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Alvarez: 69, Boulos: 92, Felter: 235, Grieve: 597, Hutchins: 209, Hoffmann: 208, Holmes: 359, Jain + DeFilipps: 479, Kadans: 156, Lust: 296 (#318), Manandhar: 102, Mabey: 61, Potter: 203, Shih-Chen: 59, 164, Sturtevant: 77, Wyk + Wink: 63, 401.

Baccharis salicifolia SEEP WILLOW / YERBA DEL PASMO
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 400 species; North and South America. #[Species] í Baccharis salicifolia [batamote, common seep willow, guatamote, mule fat, seep willow, water motie, water wally, water willow, yerba del pasmo (herb of spasms)], = Baccharis glutinosa, Texas, south-western United States. #[Editor] common name: willow, applied especially to species of Salix [willow], and also to: Baccharis salicifolia [seep willow], Chamerion angustifolium [fire weed] = willow herb, Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], and Cornus sericea [red osier] = red willow. #[Appearance] Seep willow is a tall, resinous, deciduous shrub, with many stems and few lateral branches, growing to about eight feet tall; dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants). Leaves are simple, alternate, linear to elliptical-lanceolate, short-stemmed, with pronounced mid- vein and two lesser veins near edges, pointed tips, and usually serrated (saw- toothed) margins. Flowers are numerous, very small, white to cream-colored or yellowish; peripheral ray florets absent; central disc florets grouped together in numerous composite heads; female heads grouped together in terminal corymbs; male heads grouped together in terminal panicles. Fruits are compressed achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anesthetic, anodyne, anti-bacterial, anti-biotic, anti-edemic, anti-rheumatic, anti- septic, anti-spasmodic, cephalic, dermatological, digestive, disinfectant, emetic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, optic, pulmonary, vulnerary. #[Class] There are a huge number of species in the Baccharis genus. If you learn to recognize just this one, you don’t have to worry about the rest. We’ll do this in the Chiricahuas. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Seep willow leaves are used as a tea for frontal head aches, sinusitis, and for hay fever. The tea can also be used topically as needed as a mild anesthetic, and a disinfectant wash to clean wounds. The Spanish name, yerba del pasmo, implies the herb has been used for convulsions and spasms, and also for edema and swelling caused by a rapid change in temperature for hot to cold. G The cyclic terpene called: limonene, obtained from the rinds of citrus fruits, is also found in Baccharis leaves. It inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandin is made in the stomach and controls inflammation in the joints. Therefore, Baccharis leaves, as a tea, can create mild aspirin-like relief for joint pains. G The branches exhibit anti-biotic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus fecalis. #[Chemical Constituents] 4-iso-propenyl-1-methyl-cyclo- hexene (=limonene; C10H16), baccharis oxide, diterpenes, flavonoids, friedooleanan-3-beta-ol, kaempferol, limonene (=4-iso-propenyl-1-methyl-cyclo- hexene; C10H16), luteolins, myrcene, stigmasterol. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried leaves, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, up to four times a day; also topically, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 86, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Kay: 110, Moerman: 86, Morton: 911.

Balsamorhiza sagittata BALSAM ROOT
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 14 species; western North America. #[Species] í Balsamorhiza sagittata, [arrow-leaved balsam root, balsam root, oregon sun flower], British Columbia, Alberta, western United States, except New Mexico. #[Editor] common name: balsam, also applied to: Commiphora gileadensis [myrrh] = balsam of gilead, Copaifera officinalis [copal] = copaiba balsam, Impatiens balsamina [jewel weed] = garden balsam, Liquidambar styraciflua [sweet gum] = liquidambar balsam, Myroxylon balsamum [balsam] = balsam of peru and balsam of tolu, Populus balsamifera [poplar] = balsam poplar, Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium [false cud weed] = white balsam, Tsuga canadensis [hemlock spruce] = canada or canadian balsam. #[Appearance] Balsam root is a perennial herb, with leafless flower stalks about two feet tall, and thick, deep, spindle- shaped, woody, tap roots. Leaves are simple, large, arranged in basal rosettes, ovate to triangular (like an arrow-head), long-stemmed, green-hairy above and silver-woolly below, with heart-shaped bases, scalloped (wavy) to mildly serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Peripheral ray florets are female, fertile, yellow, and appear to be petals; central disc florets are perfect (male and female), fertile, slightly darker yellow-orange; all grouped together in composite heads; composite heads usually solitary. Fruits are usually smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), those from ray florets three-angled, those from disc florets four-angled. #[Herbal Properties] anti-fungal, anti-microbial, balsamic, dermatological, disinfectant, expectorant, immuno-stimulant, pulmonary, urinary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Montana] Balsam root has muco-poly-saccharides which contain balsam and other resins. The fresh or dried plant tincture is used medicinally. The main values of balsam root are as an energetic expectorant, and as an anti-microbial agent. The tincture will promote lung diaphoresis to re- moisten and cleanse stubborn mucus congestion in conditions like bronchitis. It’s a disinfectant which can be used at the beginning of a sore throat, pharyngitis, or for any pulmonary problem. It contains some of the same constituents as Echinacea [cone flower] root, which makes it somewhat a stimulant to macrophage activity and immunity. The roots act as a mild immuno-stimulant to increase white blood cell activity. You can combine balsam root with other immuno-stimulants like Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa], Aristolochia californica [california snake root], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], Oplopanax horridus [devil’s club], and Thuja plicata [arbor vitae] – along with some Lomatium dissectum [biscuit root], as an anti-viral agent. Take the tincture combination, two or three squirts, two or three times a day, as an immuno- stimulant. G You can use the leaves, as a powder, or in a salve, or as a poultice, to stimulate regeneration of skin sores, mild burns, infections, and ulcerations. The roots have anti-fungal properties, which can be used against skin tineas and athlete’s foot. G Balsam root also makes a very good diuretic and disinfectant, similar to Eriodictyon angustifolium [yerba santa], and Grindelia squarrosa [gum weed], for urinary tract infections. G In a cough syrup, balsam root provides good expectorant and mild immuno-stimulant actions. Other ingredients might include: [2] Lomatium dissectum [biscuit root], as a good anti-viral disinfectant; [3] Polygonatum [true solomon seal] root, for thick, gooey, soothing, and [4] Cynoglossum officinale [hound’s tongue] root, or Verbascum thapsus [mullein] flower, or Prunus virginiana [wild cherry] bark, as a pulmonary sedative to calm the heart and lungs. Cooked up with honey, the four herbs would make a very effective cough syrup. #[Chemical Constituents] 16(R)-22(R)-dihydroxy-cyclo- artenone (root 800 ppm), 16(R)-23-Xi-dihydroxy-cyclo-artenone (root 1,550 ppm), 16(R)-hydroxy-20-hexa-nor-cyclo-artenone (root 500 ppm), 16(R)-

hydroxy-cyclo-artenone (root 130 ppm), 22(R)-hydroxy-cyclo-artenone (root 130 ppm), 8-12-19-tri-hydroxy-geranyl-nerol-6-7-epi-oxide (plant 83 ppm), 8-deacyl- 9-beta-hydroxy-8-O-senecioate-3-epi-nobilin (plant 83 ppm), 9-beta-hydroxyl-3- epi-nobilin (plant 167 ppm), alpha-eudesmol (root 300 ppm), beta-eudesmol (root 300 ppm), ent-kaurene (root 300 ppm), muco-poly-saccharides. #[Physiology] In combination with Balsamorhiza sagittata [balsam root], Prunus virginiana [wild cherry], bark would provide a pulmonary sedative to calm the heart and lungs. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 20-50 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 20-50 drops; either form, taken in hot water, up to four times a day; also, dried leaves, powdered, with water, as poultice. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 55, Mountain West Revision: 40, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Moerman: 87, Sturtevant: 81, Willard: 206.

Baptisia tinctoria WILD INDIGO / HORSE FLY WEED
#[Family] Fabaceae [/Leguminosae], pea-bean-legume family, ~Papilionaceae, bean family. #[Genus] 30 species; eastern and central North America. #[Species] í Baptisia tinctoria [american indigo, common wild indigo, false indigo, horse fly weed, indigo broom, rattle weed, wild indigo, wild indigo root, yellow broom, yellow indigo], Ontario, eastern United States to Minnesota and Georgia. #[Editor] True indigo comes from Indigofera tinctoria, a similar pea-family plant in southern and eastern Asia, used as a dye and medicinally, but not covered in this book; common name: horse, also applied to: Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut], Agastache [giant hyssop] = horse mint, Armoracia rusticana [horse radish], Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] = horse balm, Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane] = horse weed, Mentha x rotundifolia [apple mint] = horse mint, species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm] = horse mint, and Solanum carolinense [horse nettle]. #[Appearance] Wild indigo is a bushy, erect, branching, perennial herb; with smooth, slender, bluish-green (when young) branches; growing up to about three feet tall. Leaves are alternate, compound (palmately tri-foliate), occasionally simple, gray-green, often turning black when dried, and short-stemmed; leaflets (3) are wedge-shaped at the base, short stemmed; with smooth margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are showy, yellow, and asymmetrical; with five, sepals; five irregular petals (two wings, two fused in a keel, and one banner); ten unfused stamens; grouped together in numerous, few- flowered, terminal racemes; blooming from June to September. Fruits are short- stemmed legumes (pods), surrounded by dried sepals, inflated and nearly round at the center; with pointed bases, pointed tips, and many seeds. #[Herbal Properties] anti-depressive, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-pyretic, anti-septic, anti- viral, astringent, cathartic, dermatological, emetic, febrifuge, immuno-stimulant, irritant, laxative, pulmonary, purgative, stimulant, thyroidal, tonic (short-term). #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, baptin, baptisin, (baptisine [=baptitoxine), baptitoxine (=baptisine), biochanin-A, coumarins, cytisine, flavonoids, genistein, glucosides, iso-flavones, poly- saccharides, quinolizidine alkaloids, resin. #[Physiology] Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], Bursera microphylla [elephant tree] and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] cause rapid replication of common blood leukocytes. G Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] are used for thyroid depression. G Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] can be dangerous if taken in excess. G Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] might be contra-indicated for auto-immune conditions. Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] stimulate the

response of innate immunity and proliferation of macrophages – intermediate between innate and acquired immunity – but they don't stimulate lymph cell proliferation. Acquired immunity is the source of auto-immunity. G Echinacea [cone flower] and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] are a basic treatment for shigellosis infection. G For a viral infection, try some Echinacea [cone flower], Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate], Lomatium dissectum [biscuit root], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi]. G Inununo-stimulant herbs like Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], Echinacea [cone flower], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] don’t help the liver. G Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Alcea rosea [holly hock], Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], Cupressus arizonica [arizona cypress], and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] stimulate phagocytosis with both macrophages and neutrophils. G Cleansing herbs include Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], macrophage stimulants which clean out the lungs when other functions are alright. They would be appropriate if one were a smoker, worked in a polluted environment, had a touch of silicosis, bronchitis, asthma as a child, pneumonia and its repercussions. G Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] is pretty moderate in immuno-logical effects. G Baptisia is a strong stimulant to macrophage activity, phagocytosis, and mono-cyte proliferation in the bone marrow, as well as for phagocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and mast cells. Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] has also been shown to stimulate mono-cyte release in the bone marrow. The active glycoside constituent is the same in both plants. There is some indication Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] stimulates the rate of neutrophil proliferation. If inflammation in the bone marrow is induced, and bone marrow pulp is made more permeable, then stored neutrophils are released more quickly, and stem cells clone a new batch. G Tanacetum vulgare [tansy] and Tanacetum parthenium [fever few] would help initiate a response to an antigen confrontation in a very tired person. A little Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], Eupatorium perfoliatum [bone set], Tanacetum parthenium [fever few], or Echinacea [cone flower] would also trigger the basophil mast cell response in such a person. G Mahonia [oregon grape], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], are good innate immunity and macrophage stimulants which give liver energy a kick. G Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] or Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] may be used as a basic tonic for immuno-depressed constitutions, but they need to be given with some liver support. G For an immuno-suppressed person whose life energy is basically intact, give Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] and Echinacea [cone flower]. For a dull person with depressed life energy, first give Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo]; then add Commiphora and Echinacea. Give some nutrients with the Baptisia. If he’s too weak physically, first give Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], then Baptisia, and then Commiphora and Echinacea. G Baptisia and Astragalus are closely related; they contains many of the same constituents, but Baptisia is stronger. It’s like Astragalus membranaceus with an edge to it – a strong catabolic and metabolic stimulant, and a short-term tonic. It can be used in small doses in any shot-gun poly-pharmacy formula. Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] is best used as a strong metabolic stimulant for a person seriously ill with a chronic disease and depressed vital energy. Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] is not just a catabolic stimulant, but stimulates bio-activity and proliferation in the liver and lymph. Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] is too strong for long term use; it’s best used for a day to a week, until the person is moving around and starting to clear up. G Polygala senega [seneca snake root, milk wort], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Aristolochia [snake root] stimulate macrophages in innate immunity defense responses. G Baptisia tinctoria [wild

indigo] tends to be an irritant to innate immunity. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Use with care; best used long-term, in small doses, in formulas. Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 10-25 drops; fresh whole plant, tincture, 1:2, 10-25 drops; either form, up to three times a day; NOTE – same general usages as for Thermopsis montana [mountain pea]. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 9. #[Other References] Felter: 237, Grieve: 432, Hutchins: 163, Hoffmann: 229, Holmes: 684, Lust: 397 (#481), Millspaugh: 204 (#52), Meyer: 136, Mabey: 77, Potter: 282, Sturtevant: 82, Tierra (2): 197, Wyk + Wink: 401.

Berberis vulgaris BAR BERRY / PALO AMARILLO
#[Family] Berberidaceae, bar berry family. #[Genus] 500 species, 600 if Mahonia included; Europe, Asia, northern Africa, North and South America. #[Species] í Berberis fendleri [fendler bar berry], Colorado, New Mexico and Utah; í Berberis fremontii [fremont bar berry, fremont mahonia], = Mahonia fremontii, southwestern United States; í Berberis vulgaris [bar berry, bar bery, berberidis, colorado bar berry, ber berry, common bar berry, european bar berry, jaundice berry, palo amarillo, pepperidge, pepperidge bush, rocky mountain bar berry, sow berry], = Berberis dumetorum, = Berberis vulgaris var. canadensis, Europe, naturalized in Canada and northern United States to New Mexico. #[Editor] see also: Mahonia [oregon grape] – identical herbal uses described under Mahonia are not repeated here. #[Appearance] Bar berry is a spiny, deciduous shrub; with gray-brown bark, and yellow roots; growing up to eight feet tall. Leaves are simple, mostly alternate (sometimes whorled), leathery, obovate to oblong; with sharp bristly spines, serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are yellow, showy, and symmetrical; with six, over-lapping petals, arranged in two rows of three each; flowers grouped together in axillary racemes. Fruits are edible, usually red berries; with few seeds. #[Herbal Properties] amoebicidal, anti-amoebic, anti-bacterial, anti-choleric, anti- cholinesterase, anti-convulsant, anti-diarrheal, anti-dysentery, anti-fungal, anti- hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neo-plastic, anti-pyretic, anti-septic, anti- tubercular, bactericidal, bile stimulant, bitter, cholekinetic, cytotoxic, dermatological, digestive, hepatic, hypo-tensive, liver stimulant, ophthalmic, oral, refrigerant, secretory, sedative, tonic, trypanocidal, uterine stimulant. #[Class] Medicinally speaking, bar berry and oregon grape are nearly interchangeable. The botanical differences between Berberis and Mahonia are as follows – Berberis has spiny stems, simple leaves, and red berries, but Mahonia has smooth stems, pinnately compound leaves, and blue or white berries. Since the flowers and other details are similar, they are often placed together in the genus Berberis, which has priority in the nomenclature wars. G Bar berry has numerous uses. It’s anti- pyretic (febrifuge) used to lower fevers, and to alleviate inflammatory situations. It also strengthens the intestines, and acts as a laxative. A rounded teaspoon of the roots, boiled in a pint of water, and taken in the evening, stimulates peristalsis. The same dose works very well in the morning to treat a hangover. Bar berry is used externally as an anti-bacterial skin wash. It’s also a liver stimulant. G The intensely bitter yellow alkaloid called berberine colors the roots and produces many of the physiological and medicinal effects. It is also found in Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal], and the two plants have numerous properties in common. G People recovering from hepatitis who have an occasional elevation of bilirubin, can use a tablespoon of bar berry and a table spoon of Linaria vulgaris [toad flax], boiled together in a quart of water, and drunk during the day for several days. This generally returns the blood to normal. G #[Field Notes] –.

#[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, berbamine (plant), berberin (=berberine; C20 H17 NO4 – plant 10,000 to 30,000 ppm), berberine (=berberin; C20 H17 NO4 – plant 10,000 to 30,000 ppm), berberrubine, berberubine (plant), berbina vinetina (=oxy- canthine; C32 H46 N2O11 – plant), bervulcine, calcium (roots 30,000 ppm), chelidonic acid (plant), columbamine (plant), columbianine (plant), hydrastine (plant), iso-quinoline, iso-tetrandine (plant), jateorrhizine (plant), magnesium (roots 1,430 ppm), magno-florine (plant), malic acid (berries), oxy-canthine (=berbina vinetina; C32 H46 N2O11 – plant), palmatine (plant), potassium (roots 4,370 ppm), proto-berberine alkaloids, resins, tannins, vulvracine (plant), yatroricine (plant), zeaxanthin (plant). #[Physiology] Berberis and Mahonia species are especially good stimulants for liver deficiency. G With a hypo-thyroid condition, use Centella asiatica [gotu kola], Fucus vesiculosus [bladder wrack], and Mahonia [oregon grape] – rather than Berberis [bar berry]. In this case, Berberis is a little too strong, and Mahonia would make a better and more subtle medicine. G In Europe, the fruits, either fresh or dried, the stem bark, root bark, and roots have all been used medicinally. I prefer to use the dried roots. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-60 drops; dried roots, cold infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces; dried roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, one to three; all forms, up to three times a day. NOTE – same general dosages as for Mahonia [oregon grape]. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 32, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 63, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 46, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 76, 351, Bremness: 94, Christopher: 429, Culpeper: 23, Duke + Ayensu: 190, Dastur: 35 (#52), Felter: 245, Grieve: 82, Hutchins: 23, Hoffmann: 168, Holmes: 287, Lust: 106 (#29), Lad + Frawley: 102, Millspaugh: 53 (#15), Moerman: 91, Meyer: 12, Mabey: 29, Potter: 24, Rodale: 20, Sturtevant: 88, Tierra (2): 205, Wyk + Wink: 66, 401.

Betula occidentalis WATER BIRCH / WESTERN BIRCH
#[Family] Betulaceae, birch-alder family. #[Genus] 35 species; northern hemisphere. #[Species] í Betula glandulosa [resin birch], Alaska, Canada, western United States, except Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico; í Betula lenta [sweet birch, black birch, cherry birch, mahogany birch,, mountain mahogany, spice birch, sweet birch], Ontario, eastern United States; í Betula nana [dwarf birch], Alaska, western Canada, western United States, except Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico; í Betula nigra [black birch, river birch], eastern and central United States; í Betula occidentalis [birch, water birch, western birch], = Betula fontinalis, Alaska, western and central Canada, western United States; í Betula papyrifera [canoe birch, paper birch], Alaska, Canada, northern United States; í Betula pumila [bog birch], Canada, northern United States, to California. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Birches are deciduous, erect shrubs and usually trees, some up to 100 feet tall, with characteristic shedding papery bark; monoecious (male and female flowers located on the same plant, but placed at separate sites, and having different structures). Leaves are simple, alternate, stemmed, ovate to elliptical or triangular, with dentate (toothed) or serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers in are tiny, inconspicuous, and greenish; male flowers, with sepals and no petals, grouped together in drooping, cylindrical, solitary catkins; female flowers, with no sepals or petals, grouped together in erect, spreading solitary catkins; both types appearing in spring before or with the first leaves. Fruits are small and compressed, with two wide-winged nutlets, and one seed. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anthelmintic, anti-diarrheal, anti- inflammatory, anti-pruritic (tar oil), anti-rheumatic, astringent, counter-irritant,

diuretic (leaves), saluretic (?), sialogogue, urinary, vermifuge. #[Class] Betula lenta [sweet birch] is a common tree back east which contains methyl salicylate. Our most common birch is Betula occidentalis or western birch. Oil distilled from the wood of sweet birch makes a good substitute for the oil obtained from Gaultheria procumbens [winter green]. Methyl salicylate is anti-inflammatory and a prostaglandin inhibitor. When applied topically, sweet birch oil is a cold, counter-irritant, analgesic. It doesn't create heat; it stimulates through irritation. G Therefore, it is usually combined with Zingiber officinale [ginger] or Capsicum annuum [cayenne]. Because the oil is absorbed through the skin, an excess application will cause constipation and vision disturbances. You need to use it sparingly and dilute it with vegetable oil. G By contrast, Populus candicans [poplar] buds, are a hot counter-irritant which give local heat and internal cool. They contain far more complex compounds which stay on the surface of the skin. G Taken internally, sweet birch oil is a strong, efficient anti-rheumatic for occasional acute episodes. It reduces rheumatoid-arthritis symptoms, including aching, swelling, and inflammation in the joints, muscles, eyes, abdominal area, pelvis, or intestinal tract. A rheumatoid factor is a low-level auto-immunity. A person may have had rheumatic fever as a child, is now middle-aged, and has an overt allergic response to certain joint proteins. It’s different than osteoarthritis and bursitis. Rheumatoid factor can lead to pre-menstrual joint pains and make the uterus dull, aching, and painful. G Certain types of food make the stomach sore with a dull sense of heaviness in the lower back. Sometimes there is pain on breathing, but it isn’t pleurisy. Rheumatoid arthritis – where it aches behind the eyes or in the orbits – is surprisingly common in people with rheumatoid factor. Rheumatoid arthritis also manifests in the bones in the ear and is characterized by a roaring and whistling in the ears. Because sweet birch oil is caustic, two to five drops are given in a capsule. Taken with half a banana or another starch, it will be time-released. It’s a good short-term medicine – for two or three days, three doses a day – to reduce inflammation. G Harpagophytum procumbens [devil’s claw] would also help, but it would take a minimum of five to ten days to begin to work. Classic herbs for pain and dull ache of rheumatoid type symptoms include: Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh], Actaea rubra [bane berry], and Ruta graveolens [rue]. If continued for any length of time, sweet birch oil would paralyze the intestinal tract. A tea or tincture of the leaves, fresh or dried with aromatics intact, is a medication that can be repeated for a longer period of time. It could be a regular tonic or aspirin substitute. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alpha-betulenol (plant), avicularins (leaves 8,000 ppm), beta- betulenol (plant), betulin (bark 2,000 to 10,000 ppm), betulinic acid (plant), betulol (buds), essential oil (bark 2,300 to 6,000 ppm; buds 40,000 to 60,000 ppm), flavone methyl esters, flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids (leaves 25,000 to 33,000 ppm), galactosyl-3-myricetol (leaves 1,000 to 4,000 ppm), glucuronyl-3- quercetol (leaves 2,000 to 3,600 ppm), guajacol (tar), hyperoside (leaves 6,000 to 8,000 ppm), kresol (tar), methyl-salicylate (bark 2,000 to 6,000 ppm), mono- tropitoside (bark), phenolics (tar), phenyl-propanoids, pyrogallol (tar), quercetin (leaves 1,000 to 1,500 ppm), resins, salicylates, steroidal saponins, tar, tar oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried bark, strong decoction, 1-2 fluid ounces, up to four times a day, used as an external wash; also, dried leaves, standard infusion, for bath or wash, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 36, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 293, Mountain West Revision: 52, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 5, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Angier (1): 34, Angier (2): 57, Bremness: 39, Grieve: 104, Gilmore: 23, Hutchins: 36, Kloss: 175, 187, Lust: 118 (#44), Moerman: 92, 93, Meyer: 15, Mayes + Lacy: 16, Rodale: 44, Sturtevant: 95, Tierra (2): 235, Willard: 70, Wyk + Wink: 67, 153.

Bidens pilosa TICK SEED / BUR MARIGOLD / ACEITILLA
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 240 species; nearly world wide. #[Species] í Bidens bipinnata [bipinnate tick seed, spanish needles], Ontario, New York, southern United States, to Arizona and California; í Bidens cernua [nodding beggar ticks, nodding tick seed], North America; í Bidens connata [purple-stem beggar ticks, swamp tick seed], eastern North America to North Dakota and Kansas; í Bidens frondosa [devil’s beggar ticks, devil’s ticks, leafy tick seed], North America; í Bidens pilosa [aceitilla, beggar ticks, bur marigold, hairy beggar ticks, shaggy tick seed, spanish needles, te de coral, tick seed], Quebec and Ontario, eastern and southern United States to California and southern Oregon; í Bidens tripartita [bur marigold, burr marigold, common tick seed, tick seed, water agrimony], Alaska, eastern and western Canada, United States. #[Editor] common name: marigold, also applied to: Calendula officinalis [european marigold]; Caltha leptosepala [marsh marigold]; Dyssodia papposa [fetid marigold]; and Tagetes florida [french marigold]. #[Appearance] Tick seeds are erect, branching, annual or perennial herbs, 1-6 feet tall, depending on species and moisture. Leaves are opposite, simple or pinnately compound, short to long-stemmed, sometimes with additional leaves growing from the initial leaf axils; leaflets usually three, sometimes five, with short-stems, serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers numerous, small, golden-yellow to pale yellow, sometimes white; peripheral ray florets sometimes female only, or sterile, or absent; central disc florets yellow, perfect (male and female); combined together in round, flat, axillary or terminal composite heads, subtended by bracts (leafy appendages); composite heads in turn solitary or grouped together in panicles. Fruits are small, flat, long-pointed, achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), with 2-4 small, rigid, horn-like awns – which stick to animal fur and clothes like ticks. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anti-allergenic, anti-asthmatic, anti- bacterial, anti-diarrheal, anti-edemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, astringent, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, ophthalmic, optic, oral, prostatic, pulmonary, stomachic, styptic, sudorific, tonic, urinary, vulnerary. #[Class] Although widely hated as a weed, tick seed is a very useful medicine. It’s a great remedy for bleeding, irritation, pain, and inflammation in the urinary tract mucosa. Capsella [shepherd’s purse] may stop the bleeding more quickly, and Malva [mallow] may stop the pain more quickly, Bidens [tick seed] does both, and it also heals the membranes. G For cystitis or urethritis – with several closely spaced occurrences, with anti-biotics helping briefly but the irritation returning when the regimen ends, try several days of the tea or tincture. If the pain goes away (it usually does), continue for several more days until the membranes heal. G Tick seed is also a great herb for benign prostate hyper-trophy. It usually deceases membrane irritability in the urinary tract and the rectum, and often (after several weeks of use), it noticeably shrinks the prostate, and gives it’s connective tissue better tone. For this purpose, it combines well with equal parts of Salvia apiana [white sage]. G For elevated uric acid in the blood, a history of gout, or urate kidney gravel, tick seed increases the efficiency of uric acid excretion through the kidneys, which decreases the chances of a gout attack. It also acts as a diuretic and dilutes the urine, which decreases the chances of further urate stone precipitations. G Unlike Oplopanax [devil’s club], Panax [ginseng], Arctium [bur dock] root, or Tribulus [puncture vine], tick seed doesn’t effect the production of uric acid. The mechanism for stimulating excretion is different than for Capsella, so the two can be combined for an increased effect. G The herb is active against staph infections. It can be used as a wash, sitz bath, or eye wash. It’s astringency also helps reduce the pain and inflammation. the astringency and anti-

inflammatory effects on mucous membranes make it a tonic and preventative for gastritis, ulcers, diarrhea and ulcerative colitis. G For respiratory infections and irritated membranes caused by shouting, smoking, or dust – the tea or tincture soothes membranes, increases mucous secretions, assists expectoration, and decreases edema or swelling. For asthma aggravated or induced by infection, tick seed may turn the problem around without drug side effects. The tea often helps with hay fever and sinus head aches caused by allergies, infections or pollution. G For mucus discharges – including cloudy urine, vaginal discharges, mucus colitis, mucoid conjunctivitis, chronic throat or nasal discharges – use the tea, two or three times a day, for one week. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] acetylenes, ascorbic acid (=vitamin C), chalcone glucosides, flavonoids, gallic acid, iso-coreopsin, oxalic acid, phenolic astringents, poly-acetylenes, sterols, tannins, tocopherol, vitamin C (=ascorbic acid), volatile oils, xanthophylls. #[Physiology] Tick seed, Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa], and Myrica californica [california bay berry] tighten, shrink, and tonify structural cells in the mucous membranes. thus, they prevent edema and congestion, and simultaneously increase circulation, metabolism, and healing energy in the functional cells of the same tissues. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried herb, cold infusion or standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; fresh herb, tincture, 1:2, 45-90 drops; dried herb, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 45-90 drops; all forms, up to two or three times a day, for one week. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 68, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Ayensu (1): 101, Ayensu (2): 78, Duke + Ayensu: 153, 154, Grieve: 14, 15, 16, Hutchins: 272, Hoffmann: 176, Honychurch: 30, Moerman: 93, Meyer: 123, Morton: 913, Manandhar: 111, Mors + Rizzini + Pereira: 57, Martinez: 21, Potter: 51, Quisumbing: 962, Shih-Chen: 68, Wyk + Wink: 401.

Bistorta bistortoides BISTORT / BISTORT ROOT
#[Family] Polygonaceae, knot weed-buck wheat-dock family. #[Genus] 50 species; north temperate zone; formerly included in Polygonum [knot weed, smart weed, etc.]. #[Species] í Bistorta bistortoides [american bistort, bistort, bistort root, western bistort], = Polygonum bistortoides, = Persicaria bistortoides, British Columbia and Alberta, western United States; í Bistorta officinalis [adder wort, bistort, bistort root, common bistort root, dragon wort, easter giant, english serpentary, european bistort, european bistort root, osterick, patience dock, red legs, snake weed, sweet dock], = Polygonum bistorta, = Persicaria bistorta, = Bistorta major, Europe, Asia, Massachusetts, Nova Scotia. #[Editor] formerly included in (unrestricted) Polygonum [knot weed], later separated into Persicaria [smart weed], and recently separated further into Bistorta; see also: Fallopia multiflora [he-shou-wu], Persicaria hydropiper [smart weed], and Polygonum aviculare [knot weed]. #[Appearance] Bistort is a perennial herb; with creeping, fleshy, horizontal roots; single, erect, slender, smooth, flowering stems; stems regularly interrupted by characteristic ocreas (nodes covered by translucent, leaf- like, sheathing appendages which create a knot-like appearance); growing to about two feet tall. Leaves are simple, mostly basal, oblong to lanceolate, long- stemmed, with wide mid-veins, smooth margins, and pointed tips, and a typical ocrea (sheath around stem base). Upper leaves on flowering stems are smaller, stemless, and lanceolate. Flowers are small, numerous, delicate, bright pink or white, with sepals appearing to be petals; grouped together in a single, terminal, elongated, cylindrical spike, with unbranched jointed stems; blooming in May and June. Fruits are pale brown, shining, three-angled, achenes (small, dry, hard,

closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] alterative, anti-bacterial, anti- catarrhal, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-septic, astringent, dermatological, diuretic, oral, pulmonary, respiratory, styptic, vulnerary. #[Class] Bistort is used in a lot of formulas. It’s a strong astringent with anti-septic properties – a good tonic herb for strengthening deficiencies. The European species has been introduced in some places back east, but our species grows all across the west, especially in higher damp elevations. The dried roots are used in the same manner as Heuchera [alum root]. G Externally, powdered bistort roots combine well with an equal amount of powdered roots of Echinacea [cone flower], Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal], Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate], or Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] – as a first aid dressing or anti-septic powder for cuts, scrapes, and abrasions. Mixed with clay or with Symphytum officinale [comfrey] root – powdered bistort roots are used as a drawing poultice for abscesses, sprained joints – and even injured tendons or a broken finger. Add enough hot water to make mush; apply it uncovered or under a hot cloth, and change the application every two or three hours. G Internally, use about one teaspoon of the powdered roots in a tea as an astringent for mouth lesions, bleeding gums, and sore throats. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 5-glutinen-3-one, albumin, anthra- quinones (trace), catechins, catechol (tannin), ellagic acid, emodin, flavonoids, friedelanol, galloyl (tannin), oligomeric proantho-cyanidins, phlobaphene, poly- phenolic compounds, silicic acid, starch. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Internally: dried roots and lower stems, powdered, one teaspoon, strong decoction, 1-4 fluid ounces; dried roots and lower stems, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol and 10% glycerin, 30-90 drops; either form, up to four times a day. Externally, either form, diluted in water, for mouth wash, gargle, or topical application, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 37, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 303, Mountain West Revision: 53, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 18, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 30. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 94, Brooker + Cambie + Cooper: 80, Christopher: 161, Culpeper: 48, Duke + Ayensu: 506, Grieve: 105, Hoffmann: 170, Kloss: 204, Kadans: 59, Lust: 121 (#48), Moerman: 357, Meyer: 17, Mabey: 97, Potter: 32, Shih-Chen: 341, 344, Sturtevant: 449, Tierra (2): 341, Willard: 75-76, Wyk + Wink: 233.

Borago officinalis BORAGE / BORRAJA
#[Family] Boraginaceae, borage family. #[Genus] 3 species; Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, introduced in North America. #[Species] í Borago officinalis [borage, borraja, bugloss, burrage, common borage, common bugloss, garden borage, star flower, star flower oil (seeds)], Europe, Asia, introduced in Alaska, Canada, northern United States, south to Tennessee and coastal California. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Borage is an annual herb, about three feet. Leaves are simple, alternate, large, coarse, and hairy, obovate (pear-shaped) to oblong, with numerous veins, dentate (toothed) wavy margins, and pointed tips; lower leaves with stems, upper leaves stemless. Flowers are clear blue to blue- violet, with short-tubes, five petals, and curving stems, grouped together in loose cymes. Fruits are erect, ovoid to ellipsoid nutlets, excavated at base. #[Herbal Properties] anti-colic, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, aperient, convalescent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emulcent, expectorant, febrifuge, galactagogue, nervine, ophthalmic, optic, pectoral, pulmonary, sedative (mild), stomachic, tonic. #[Class] Commercial borage is useless. Borage has to be home grown and fresh. It’s used as a remedy for fevers. It should be taken as a simple tea, warmed, but not hot. It makes a good eye-wash, especially for sore dry eyes and wind

irritation, but it has to be very carefully strained, because the leaves have many tiny fuzzy hairs. The tea also helps settle upset stomachs, and in New Mexico it’s sometimes combined with Lavandula [lavender, alhucema] for colic in babies. G Borago officinalis [borage], has more than twice the amount of GLA (=gamma- linolenic acid) in its seed oil (about 21%) than Oenothera biennis [evening prim rose] has in it’s seed oil (about 9%). #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] acetyl derivatives, amabiline (plant), choline, essential fatty acids (seed oil), gamma-linolenic acid (=GLA; 21%; seed oil), GLA (=gamma-linolenic acid; 21%; seed oil), intermedine (plant), linolenic acid (seed oil), lycopsamine (plant), mucilage (plant), oleic acid (seed oil), pyrrolizidine alkaloids (plant), supinidine (plant), supinine, unsaturated gamma-linolenic acid (=GLA; 21%; seed oil), unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (plant). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – not for extended use with a history of liver disease. Fresh herb, simple tea, up to three times a day; fresh herb, simple tea, in isotonic solution (Ω teaspoon salt in 1 pint water) as eye wash. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 22, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Alvarez: 88, Boulos: 37, Grieve: 119, Hoffmann: 175, Holmes: 390, Kloss: 208, Kadans: 73, Lust: 132 (#64), Meyer: 23, Morton: 707, Mabey: 32, Martinez: 49, Potter: 41, Rodale: 52, Sturtevant: 97, Tucker + Debaggio: 174, Tierra (1): 110, Tierra (2): 211, Wyk + Wink: 68.

Brickellia grandiflora BRICKELL BUSH / PRODIGIOSA / HAMULA #[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 110 species; western United States, Mexico, Central America, West Indies, to Argentina. #[Species] í Brickellia californica [california brickell bush], Texas and Oklahoma to Idaho, Oregon and California, northern Mexico; í Brickellia grandiflora [amarga, atanasia, brickell bush, hamula, large-flowered brickell bush, prodigiosa, tassel-flowered brickell bush], British Columbia and Alberta, western United States to Missouri and Arkansas, northern Mexico; í Brickellia incana [silver brickell bush, woolly brickell bush], California, Nevada and Arizona; í Brickellia multiflora [many-flowered brickell bush], southern California, Nevada and Arizona. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Brickell bushes are mostly shrubby perennial herbs, some with woody bases, up to six feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate or opposite, mostly ovate to wedge-shaped, with prominent veins, often dotted with resin glands, smooth or serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and usually pointed tips. Flowers are small, numerous, whitish to cream- colored, tubular, and perfect (male and female parts in same structure), with five fused petals; peripheral ray florets absent, only central disc florets present; grouped together in composite heads; composite heads in turn drooping, bushy, and grouped in corymbs, panicles or racemes. Seeds are smooth achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] anti-cholesterol, bitter, cholagogue, digestive, hyper-glycemic, secretory, stimulant (bile, hydrochloric acid), stomachic. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Brickell bush is quite common in the western states. The herb is bitter. It has three distinct areas of use – [1] it lowers blood sugar levels in insulin-resistant adult-onset diabetes; [2] it stimulates hydrochloric acid secretions in the stomach; and [3] it stimulates bile synthesis and gall bladder evacuations. G Four species in particular (as listed above) form a basic and reliable herbal approach to insulin-resistant adult-onset diabetes. When a person makes insulin, but it doesn't function normally in the body, Brickellia is a basic maintenance medicine. The tea is the most practical form of the herb, and a cup may be taken mid-afternoon, and sometimes mid-

morning, between meals. It can also be used as a tincture. In the case of adult- onset diabetes, it always helps to watch the diet. G Epinephrine (adrenalin) induces the liver to break down stored glycogen and turn it into glucose – the sugar carried in the blood. Excess stress triggers the same response. The pancreas secretes insulin to get the sugar level back to normal. Excess sugar gets stored in body cells as fat or starch. If the cells become too engorged with stored fuel, they ignore the insulin, and blood sugar levels start to stay permanently elevated. Brickell bush mildly inhibits the stimulation of the liver to produce glucose caused by epinephrine. G Brickell bush strongly affects the stomach lining. It increases the quantity and acidity of secretions. In achlorhydria (poor hydrochloric acid synthesis) some foods like butter fat and proteins remain in the stomach too long before they can pass to the duodenum. The longer they stay, the more likely acid indigestion will occur. A person then becomes hyper-sensitive to proteins. Heavy drinkers often have similarly impaired stomach functions. Also, older people are more likely, regardless of habits. G Brickell bush helps increase fat digestion and gall bladder evacuations. It can help prevent gall stones and gall bladder attacks. The longer bile stays in the gall bladder, the more likely it will precipitate cholesterol into gall stones. #[Chemical Constituents] benzofuran, dehydro-nerolidol derivative, di-terpenes, flavone-glucoside, labdanes, penduletine, penduline. #[Physiology] Brickelia tea is good for adult-onset insulin-resistant diabetes and pathologic hyper-glycemia. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried herb, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, up to two times a day, between meals for AOIR diabetes; dried herb tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, up to three times a day, as a tonic. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 94, Los Remedios: 48, Pacific West: 293, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Moerman: 96.

Bryonia dioica WHITE BRYONY
#[Family] Cucurbitaceae, cucumber-gourd family. #[Genus] 12 species; Europe, Asia, northern Africa. #[Species] í Bryonia alba [bastard turnip, bryonia, bryony, black-berried bryony, devil turnip, devil’s turnip, tetter berry, white bryony, white-flowered bryony, white-rooted bryony, wild bryony, wild hops, wild vine, wood vine], eastern Europe; í Bryonia dioica [bryony, cretan bryony, english mandrake, european bryony, red-berried bryony, white bryony], = Bryonia alba, = Bryonia cretica, = Bryonia cretica var. dioica, Europe, California, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Manitoba. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Bryony is a perennial vine; with creeping, succulent, branches; tendrils on the stems, and large tuberous roots with milky juice; dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants). Leave are simple, alternate, rough-surfaced, with short prickly hairs, curved stems, no stipules, five palmate lobes (middle one longest), smooth margins, and pointed lobe tips. Flowers are small, greenish-white, dark- green veined, and long-stemmed; with five, unfused petals; male flowers grouped together on long-stalked, loose, axillary cymes (3-8 flowers); female flowers grouped together on short-stalked, loose, axillary cymes (2-5 flowers). Fruits are bright red, pea-sized, juicy berries, with 3-6 grayish-yellow (mottled with black) seeds. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anti-asthma, anti-constipation, anti-edemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, bitter, cathartic, caustic, cephalic, counter-irritant, cyto-toxic, expectorant, emetic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hydro- gogue, hyper-tensive, irritant, laxative, parturient, pectoral, poisonous, pulmonary, purgative, rubefacient [myalgia], tannins. #[Class] Bryonia dioica is a European hedge-row plant, a vine with large cucumber-like leaves. It grows wild in a few places in Montana, Idaho and Utah, but it’s very difficult to find.

The plant is caustic and poisonous, and a related plant, Tamus communis [black bryony] is even more caustic and poisonous. We won’t see black bryony or use it. Medicinally, Bryonia dioica is best when used fresh, although the English also use it dried. G Bryonia could be classified with Gelsemium [yellow jasmine], Aconitum [monks hood], and Veratrum [green hellebore] as constitutionally oriented, acute medicines. G It’s used for post-operative conditions after chest and abdominal surgery, with fluid buildup in the viscera. Bryonia draws out moisture from connective tissues. It can be used for water on the knees, bursitis with fluid, bubbling lungs, and peri-carditis. Fluids accumulate in the lungs in pulmonary edema, which generally is a cardiac problem, but sometimes due to extended bronchitis, bronchiectasis, or pneumonia. Bryonia is also helpful in relieving intestinal blockage with fluid congestion. It draws fluids out of serous membranes in the intestinal tract into the liver, and the liver re-absorbs most of the visceral fluids. G It’s a short-term medicine. It works on conditions which would heal on their own or are part of a medical problem. The exception would be joint pains such as water on the knees, or fluid buildup in the shoulder due to stress or acute injuries. Bryonia is good for local edema, not systemic edema due to poor kidney blood supply or cardiac dysfunction. It’s for injury, trauma, or local inflammation. G Bryonia has a febrile modification mechanism. The parameters are sharp, cutting pains in the lungs or chest, usually with fever or flushed face. It doesn't matter what the illness is, as long as those symptoms are present. Bryonia isn’t for the disease; it’s for the disease response. It’s not like Veratrum [green hellebore] or Aconitum columbianum [uncured monks hood]. G Bryonia mainly affects tough, secretory, serous membranes – where tone is stimulated and suppressed by para-sympathetic and sympathetic nerves. It’s hard to monitor serous membranes. They’re not abstract sheath covers. They contain sensory nerves which expand, contract, and initiate pain. That includes sharp pains of the pleura which line the inside of the chest cavity, the top cover of the diaphragm, and the pericardium. G Bryonia is good for post-operative hepatitis and ascites, especially with sharp pain aggravated by motion. There may be hyperemia in the right side of the face, in the scalp, or in the shoulders. Lymph drainage on the right side is different than on the left. Symptoms of hyperemia are flushed face, red eyes, and redness along the trigeminal. Bryonia is best used for fever with redness of face and sharp, cutting pains in the muscles or cartilage. G It’s good for edema of the nerves. Some cranial nerves exit through small pinpoint orifices in the skull. They respond strongly to edema. Sometimes the sharp eye pain of iritis, chronic conjunctivitis, or even migraines can cause some moderate nerve edema. G Bryonia has side effects, cardio-pulmonary depression is one. Excess Bryonia causes tissues to dehydrate – to a point where you feel like you have sand in the joints. G The poly-hydroxy acids create activity resembling prostaglandin – platelet aggregation, smooth muscle preparation, and hypo- glycemia; cucurbitacins have cyto-toxic and anti-tumor activity. An ethanolic extract of Bryonia dioica has anti-viral activity. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] bitter glycosides, bitter tri-terpenoids, bryonin, cucurbitacin-B, cucurbitacin-D, cucurbitacin-E, cucurbitacin-I, cucurbitacin-J, cucurbitacin-K, cucurbitacin-L, cucurbitacins, di-hydro-cucurbitacin, glycosides, poly-hydroxy acids, tetra-hydro-cucurbitacin, tri-terpenoids. #[Physiology] Herbs to stimulate excess fluids with lymph congestion in the pelvic region include: Iris [blue flag], Phytolacca americana [poke root], and Bryonia dioica [white bryony]. G Iris versicolor [blue flag], Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root], Bryonia dioica [white bryony], and Phytolacca americana [poke root] increase evacuation of substances from the gall bladder. In excess, they tend to increase synthesis of bile to the point of diarrhea. G Phytolacca americana [poke root] and Bryonia dioica [white bryony] are strong respiratory depressants. G Bryonia dioica [white

bryony] tends to dry out the large intestine. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; otherwise, use with great care; best in a formula with small doses. Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 2-10 drops; recently dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 2-10 drops; either form, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 113, 351, Boulos: 73, Felter: 250, Grieve: 132, Kadans: 189, Lust: 136 (#69), Meyer: 104, Potter: 44, Sturtevant: 122, Tierra (2): 230, Wyk + Wink: 72, 402.

Bupleurum americanum HARES EAR / OX RIB
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 180 species; Europe, Asia, northern Africa (178); northern North America (1); southern Africa (1). #[Species] í Bupleurum americanum [american hares ear, american ox-rib, bupleurum, hares ear, ox-rib, thorow wax, throw wax] Alaska, western Canada, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; í Bupleurum falcatum [chinese hares ear], = Bupleurum chinense, = Bupleurum scorzoneraefolium, Eastern Asia. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Hares ear is a smooth-stemmed annual herb, with single flowering stalks. Leaves are simple, mostly basal, long and linear, with short stems clasping the stalk, smooth surfaces, no prominent veins, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow to bright yellow, with five petals; grouped together in umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in umbels. Fruits are capsules, oblong, turning purplish-brown, with slender ribs, concave side faces, and small flat tops. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anti-diabetic, anti-histamine, anti- inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-ulcer, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepato-protectant, hyper-tensive, immuno-regulatory, laxative, pulmonary, sedative, stimulant (bile), tonic. #[Class] A closely related chinese species – Bupleurum falcatum – is used in many oriental tonics and formulas. The constituents of both species are virtually identical. G Hares ear is used as a bile stimulant, laxative, anti-histamine, and febrifuge. It’s also a tonic for high blood pressure, and for Type-II diabetes (i.e. non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). It’s used for influenza, malaria, pneumonia, and common colds. It helps protect the liver from hepatitis and other problems. It has also been used to treat amenorrhea. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] bupleuran-2IIb, fatty acids, immuno-binder, poly-acetylenic compounds, poly-saccharides, saiko- genin-A, saiko-genin-B, saiko-genin-C, saiko-genin-D, saiko-genin-E, saiko- genin-F, saiko-genin-G, saiko-saponin-A, saiko-saponin-B, saiko-saponin-C, saiko-saponin-D, saiko-saponin-E, saiko-saponin-F, saikosides (=tri-terpenoid saponins), terpenoid saponins, tri-terpenoid saponins (=saikosides). #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use with alcohol, sedatives, or central nervous system depressants. Whole fresh plant (especially root), tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 293, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 68, Duke + Ayensu: 79, Lu: 100, Manandhar: 124, Reid: 87 (#16), Shih-Chen: 76, Sturtevant: 122, Tierra (1): 174, Tierra (2): 162, Wyk + Wink: 73, 402.

Bursera microphylla ELEPHANT TREE / TOROTE
#[Family] Burseraceae, myrrh-frankincense family. #[Genus] 80 species;

tropical North and South America. #[Species] í Bursera microphylla [copal, elephant tree, elephant tree gum, little-leaved elephant tree, small-leaved elephant tree, torote, torote blanco, torote colorado], southern Arizona, southern California, northwestern Mexico. #[Editor] common name: gum, also applied to: Acacia senegal [gum arabic], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh (gum)], Eucalyptus globulus [blue gum], Grindelia squarrosa [gum weed], Liquidambar styraciflua [sweet gum], Prosopis julifera [mesquite (gum)], and Styrax officinalis [benzoin (gum)]. #[Appearance] Elephant tree is a long-lived, deciduous, aromatic, desert tree, with reddish brown bark, and a bloated central trunk somewhat similar to an African baobab tree (Adansonia baobab). Leaves are mostly alternate, compound (oddly pinnate), and usually winged central stems; leaflets (7-33), with no stipules (leafy appendages at stem base), very small, stemless, oval to ovate, with smooth surfaces, one central vein, smooth margins, and round tips. Flowers are small, pale-yellow, long-stemmed, and symmetrical; with five sepals; five, unfused petals; ten stamens; sometimes solitary, usually grouped together in loose panicles. Fruits are dry, berry-like drupes; with 1-5 stones, each covered by aromatic pulp. #[Herbal Properties] anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti- microbial, anti-tumor, aromatic, astringent, dermatological, disinfectant, excretory, expectorant, immuno-stimulant, incense, mucolytic, oral, pulmonary, stimulant (white blood cells), urinary. #[Class] Medicinally, Bursera microphylla is analogous to Commiphora myrrha [myrrh]. Every property of Commiphora is also a property of Bursera. It’s a hot, strong, fetid medicine. It produces a gum which is a viable North American substitute for Commiphora gum from Africa, and Styrax officinalis [benzoin] gum from Europe and Asia. These three herbs contain the same basic substances. G An extract made of the branches showed bio-activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] This is an elephant tree. It looks like a jaundiced boa constrictor wearing a tree costume filled with mice shedding their skin. It expands and contracts to some degree with moisture – an adaptation to living in an environment with nearly constant drought and an occasional deluge of over abundant rain water. #[Chemical Constituents] aromatic oleo-resins, B-sito- sterol, burseran, deoxy-podophyllo-toxin, lignins, myrrins, podophyllo-toxin. #[Physiology] Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], Bursera microphylla [elephant tree], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], all cause rapid replication of common blood leukocytes. G Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] gum, Bursera microphylla [elephant tree] gum, and Styrax officinalis [benzoin] gum, help relieve mouth pain and sore gums – not necessarily chronic – including herpes, chancres, and stomatitis sores. They are used as mouth washes and gargles. G Bursera produces a gum which smells like tangerines. Aromatic resins stimulate the initial inflammatory response of mast cells and basophils. That would be undesirable for asthma conditions, but desirable for immuno- suppression. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy – it may over-stimulate uterine blood supply; do not use with kidney diseases – it may induce inflammation; do not use during any necessary immuno-suppressant therapy. Dried gum, tincture, 1:5, 80% alcohol, 5-20 drops, up to five times a day; dried gum, tincture, 5-20 drops, diluted with water, for mouth wash, as needed; fresh leaves and twigs, tincture, 1:2, 10-30 drops, up to five times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 50, Los Remedios: 78, Pacific West: 293, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Kay: 117, Martinez: 498.

Caesalpinia gilliesii BIRD-OF-PARADISE

#[Family] Fabaceae [/Leguminosae], pea-bean-legume family, ~Caesalpiniaceae, brazil wood family. #[Genus] 100 species; tropics and sub- tropics. #[Species] í Caesalpinia gilliesii [bird-of-paradise, gillies bird-of- paradise], = Poinciana gilliesii, southwestern United States to Texas and Oklahoma; Georgia; introduced from South America. #[Editor] the well-known bird-of-paradise of the tropics is Strelitzia reginae, which isn’t used medicinally. #[Appearance] Bird of paradise is a shrub, growing up to ten feet tall. Leaves are alternate, compound (twice pinnate), large, and long-stemmed; leaflets () are numerous, small, ovate, stemless; with pinnately arranged sub-leaflets, smooth margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are large, showy, and asymmetrical; with five, yellow, irregularly-shaped, pea-like petals (2 wings, 2 keels, 1 standard); numerous, extremely long, bright red, stamens and pistils extending far beyond the petals; grouped together in large, showy, terminal racemes. Fruits are large, flat, elongated, short-stemmed, legumes (pods); yellowish-green with red tinges; with pointed tips. Seeds are several, flat, and round. #[Herbal Properties] astringent, pulmonary, tonic. #[Class] This is a local shrub. Medicinally, it’s is used as an astringent and tonic to the lungs. It has approximately the same properties as Haematoxylon campechianum [log wood], and Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco [quebracho], only it’s much weaker. If you can't get quebracho or log wood, you can use bird of paradise as a substitute. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried leaves, flowers and green twigs, cold infusion, 2-6 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] –.

Calendula officinalis EUROPEAN MARIGOLD
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 30 species; origin uncertain; southern Europe, north-ern Africa, western Asia to Iran, widely cultivated, some species naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Calendula officinalis [common marigold, european marigold, golden marigold, holigold, marigold, mary bud, pot marigold, ruddles, scotch marigold], Europe, naturalized in British Columbia, Washington, and California; also in eastern Canada, and northeastern United States; widely cultivated. #[Editor] common name: marigold, also applied to Bidens pilosa [bur marigold]; Caltha leptosepala [marsh marigold]; Dyssodia papposa [fetid marigold], and Tagetes florida [french marigold]. #[Appearance] Marigold is an annual aromatic herb (some other species are perennial), with many branches, growing to about one foot tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, soft, glandular, oblong to ovate, with short stems which clasp the main stalk, smooth margins, and usually round but sometimes mildly pointed tips. Flowers are pale yellow to deep orange; peripheral ray florets are female and fertile; central disc florets are male or mostly sterile; grouped together in solitary heads, with long stems. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), greatly curved, with small bumps and ridges on the back. #[Herbal Properties] anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, anti- microbial, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, anti-ulcer, aperient, cholagogue, circulatory, dermatological, diaphoretic, digestive, estrogenic, gynecological, hepato-stimulant, oral, prurient, spasmolytic, stomachic, styptic, vaso-contractor, vulnerary. #[Class] Externally, marigold is anti-inflammatory and anti- spasmodic. It is used to treat slow healing wounds, dry skin, eczema, rashes, bruises, burns, scalding, ulcers, abscesses, acne, itching, oral thrush, sore throats, sore nipples, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids. it acts as a vaso-contractor at the

level of the mucous tissues of the skin. it is not irritating or poisonous. it helps prevent the formation of excessive pus and inflammation, and it lessens the amount of external scaring. the tincture usually enhances the external effects by taking it internally at the same time it is applied to the skin. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alpha-amyrin, alpha-ionone, arnidol, beta-amyrin, beta- ionone, bi-desmosidic saponins, brein, cadinol, calendula-diol, calendulin, calenduloside-A (roots), calenduloside-B (roots), calenduloside-C (roots), calenduloside-D (roots), carotenoids, chloro-genic acid, coumarins, erythro-diol, essential oil, esterified tri-terpenes, fara-diol, faradol, flavonoids, helian-triol-C, helian-triol-F, helianthriol, hydroxylated tri-terpenes, iso-rhamnetin, iso- rhamnetin glycosides, kaempferol, longi-spino-genine, lupeol, mono-desmosidic saponins, narcissin, penta-cyclic alcohols, poly-saccharides, quercetin glycosides, quercetin O-glycosides, rutin, saponins, scopoletin, sesqui-terpenoids, taraxa- sterol, tri-terpenes, ursa-triol, volatile oil. #[Physiology] Internally, marigold is used to improve blood quality by stimulating and improving liver metabolism and by synthesizing building materials that feed the skin. Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root], Mahonia [oregon grape], and Panax [ginseng] species have similar properties and uses. G Calendula specifically stimulates peptides synthesized in the liver and utilized in the muco-epithelium of the skin. G It’s also used to improve digestion, stimulate bile production, and heal gastric ulcers. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – use small to moderate doses of the tinctures; not for extended use. Fresh flowers, tincture, 1:2, 5-30 drops; dried flowers, tincture, 1:5, 70% alcohol, 5-30 drops; either form, up to four times a day; also, either form, diluted with several parts water, for topical use. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 79, Boulos: 60, Battaglia: 313, Duke + Ayensu: 156, Dastur: 42 (#60), Felter: 262, Grieve: 517, Hoffmann: 202, Holmes: 565, Jain + DeFilipps: 157, Kadans: 151, Lust: 143 (#81), Meyer: 79, Morton: 916, Mabey: 46, Martinez: 457, Potter: 184, Rodale: 60, Shih-Chen: 80, Tucker + Debaggio: 182, Tierra (1): 114, Tierra (2): 277, Wyk + Wink: 74, 402.

Caltha leptosepala MARSH MARIGOLD / COWS LIP
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 32 species; arctic and north temperate zones (20); New Zealand and temperate South America (12). #[Species] í Caltha leptosepala [cow slip, cows lip, marsh marigold, thin- sepaled marsh marigold, white-flowered marsh marigold, white marsh marigold] Alaska, western Canada, western United States, usually at higher elevations; í Caltha palustris [american cowslip, american cowslips, american marsh marigold, common marsh marigold, colt foot, colt’s foot, cow slip, cows lip, cow’s lips, cowslip, elk slip, elks lip, elkslip, european marsh marigold, king cup, king’s cup, mare blebs, mare’s blebs, mare blobs, mare’s blobs, marsh marigold, may blob, meadow bouts, palsy wort, water bouts, water dragon, yellow marsh marigold], = Caltha artica, Europe, Asia, Alaska, Canada, Washington to California, north-central and northeastern United States. #[Editor] common name: marigold, also applied to: Bidens pilosa = bur marigold, Calendula officinalis = european marigold, Dyssodia papposa = fetid marigold, and Tagetes florida = french marigold; common name: cowslip, also applied to: Primula veris [prim rose]. #[Appearance] Marsh marigold is a succulent, smooth-stemmed perennial herb, appearing in mountain meadows in the very early spring, growing up to 1Ω feet tall. Leaves are simple, mostly basal, heart-shaped, shiny, sometimes blue-veined below, with long stems, smooth margins, and pointed tips.

Flowers are symmetrical, showy, white or yellow, petals absent but 5-9 sepals appear to be petals, sometime blue-veined below, with numerous yellow central stamens and pistils, solitary, long-stemmed, or a few per stem. Fruits are follicles (capsules which open at maturity along only a single front suture), and many seeded. #[Herbal Properties] acrid, anti-spasmo-dic, analgesic, anodyne, anti- paralytic, anti-tussive, dermatological, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, irritant, pulmonary, rubefacient, secretory, uterine. #[Class] Marsh marigold is an acrid irritant, rubefacient, and secretory stimulant. It functions erratically for some people, but it can help others. G It stimulates the flow of moist mucus in the lungs, digestive tract, and uterus; and it also stimulates the flow of dried mucus in the bronchi and sinuses. It’s an energetic expectorant, but it doesn’t cause nausea. G Combined with Eriodictyon [yerba santa] or Grindelia [gum weed], it can help during recovery from sinus or bronchial infections. It’s especially useful when a sinus infection was triggered by a tooth infection in the upper jaw. One cup of hot tea, followed by a very hot and then a very cold shower, can quickly lessen the pain. G The hot tea also has anti-spasmodic functions. The hot tea is useful as a hot poultice used for facial paralysis, but Heracleum lanatum [cow parsnip] is more effective. G The eastern species Caltha palustris contains moderate amounts of toxic alkaloids (pyrrolizidine and aporphine) which seem to be absent in Caltha leptosepala. G The fresh plant can be used as a topical poultice for bruises, insect bites, and inflamed wounds, but practically speaking, this means only on site – in the spring, in a high mountain meadow – because the fresh plant tincture doesn’t retain much medicinal strength. G When cooked, the plant loses its acrid principles, and it can be eaten as spring pot herb. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 2-oleanene glycosides (plant), alkaloids (absent in Caltha leptosepala), anemonin, aporphine (absent in Caltha leptosepala), iron chloride, lead acetate, proto-anemonin (plant), pyrrolizidine (absent in Caltha leptosepala), ranunculin, tannins. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – handling fresh plant can irritate the skin; for short-term use only (3-4 days), in small doses only; extended use or larger doses can cause liver or kidney inflamation. Completely dried flowering plant, tea or standard infusion, Ω to one scant teaspoon, in one cup hot water, [a] one to two times a day, as mucus expectorant; [b] once, with baths, for sinus infection, [c] vapors inhaled every three hours, up to four times a day, with humidified air, for bronchial infections. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 105, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 160, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Angier (1): 64, Angier (2): 168, Allen + Hatfield: 70, Duke + Ayensu: 530, Grieve: 519, Lust: 166 (#113), Millspaugh: 23 (#7), Moerman: 98, Meyer: 7, Manandhar: 129, Sturtevant: 127, Willard: 9, 93, Wyk + Wink: 402.

Campsis radicans TRUMPET CREEPER
#[Family] Bignoniaceae, trumpet flower family. #[Genus] 2 species; as below. #[Species] í Campsis grandiflora [chinese trumpet creeper, eastern trumpet creeper, large-flowered trumpet creeper] eastern Asia; í Campsis radicans [american trumpet creeper, cowitch, small-flowered trumpet creeper, trumpet creeper, western trumpet creeper], = Bignonia radicans, = Tecoma radicans, eastern and central United States; introduced in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and southern California. #[Editor] common name: trumpet, applied to: Campsis radicans [trumpet creeper], Datura stramonium [jimson weed] = angel trumpet, and Tecoma stans [trumpet flower]. #[Appearance] Trumpet creeper is prolific woody vine or prostrate shrub. Leaves are dark green, shiny, opposite, long-

stemmed, pinnately compound with an odd number of leaflets, and climbing via aerial rootlets; leaflets are stemless, about 7-11, ovate to lanceolate, with smooth surfaces, serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are large, showy, bright reddish-orange to scarlet, elongated, tubular to funnel-shaped or trumpet-shaped, with five fused somewhat asymmetrical petals, curved stamens, and short stems; grouped together in terminal corymbs. Fruits are capsules, long- stemmed, elongated, oblanceolate, narrow at both ends, somewhat flattened at center, ridged above and below, with two compartments, and a middle partition. Seeds are flat, laterally winged, in several rows, attached to both partition surfaces. #[Herbal Properties] anti-candida, anti-fungal, dermatological. #[Class] Medicinally, Campsis radicans resembles Tecoma stans [trumpet flower], Catalpa bignonioides [indian bean], and also Tabebuia [pau d’arco] – all in the same family. It’s a useful topical anti-candida agent, as well as an anti-fungal. G The herb is used as a douche for candida infections and for concurrent hemo- philus infections. Take an isotonic solution (Ω teaspoon salt in one pint warm water), and add 4 tablespoons of vinegar tincture. You can also add one teaspoon of Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa] or Echinacea [cone flower] tincture, especially if the infections have lingered. Use the douche every other day for a week or two. G Traditionally, the plant is also used for athlete’s foot and various other similar kinds of skin funguses and tineas. The tea, or the powdered herb as a simple dust, may be applied topically. Either form may be applied alone, or combined (tea with tea, dust to dust....) with Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], Larrea tridentata [chaparral, creosote bush], Juglans major [arizona black walnut], or Cupressus arizonica [arizona cypress]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 3,4,5-tri-methoxy-cinnamic acid, alkanes, boschniakine, cyanidin- 3-rutinoside, mono-terpene pyridine alkaloid, salicylic acid, squalene. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – contact with the fresh plant may cause skin rashes or dermatitis; with sensitive skin, use gloves when collecting; once dried, there won’t be a problem. Fresh flowering herb, vinegar tincture, 1:2; as a douche (see above); dried flowering herb, cold infusion or standard infusion, used externally, as needed, or internally, 1-3 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 124, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Duke + Ayensu: 199, Shih-Chen: 68, 384, 429.

Cannabis sativa MARIJUANA / HEMP
#[Family] Cannabaceae, marijuana-hemp family, ~Urticaceae, nettles family, #[Genus] 1 species; central Asia, naturalized and cultivated wherever legal, and often where illegal. #[Species] í Cannabis sativa [bhang, cannabis, common marijuana, dagga, ganja, grass, hash, hashish, hemp, indian hemp, marihuana, marijuana, mary jane, mowie zowie, pot, weed, etc.], = Cannabis indica, = Cannabis sativa var. indica, = Cannabis sativa subsp. indica, = Cannabis sativa var. sativa, = Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa, central Asia, naturalized in eastern and central Canada, United States, Mexico, etc. #[Editor] Species of Apocynum [dog bane] are called: black, indian or canadian hemp. #[Appearance] Marijuana is an erect, somewhat downy, annual herb, growing up to 12 feet tall when cultivated, and producing a resinous oil (the source of hashish). The herb is dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants); stems are unbranched up to the flower clusters. Leaves are alternate, palmately compound, with long stems; leaflets (usually 5-9) are elongated, linear to lanceolate, narrow at the base but stemless, with prominent veins, coarsely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are very small and green; male flowers

grouped together in axillary panicles; female flowers grouped in axillary racemes. Fruits are oval, brown achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded). #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anesthetic, anodyne, anti-asthmatic, anti-biotic, anti-depressive, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neuralgic, anti-rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, anti-tussive, cataleptic, cephalic, choline, hallucinogenic, hypnotic, intoxicant, laxative, lipotropic, nervine, ophthalmic (glaucoma), orexigenic, oxytocic, preventative, recreational, sedative, soporific, spasmolytic, stimulant (appetite), tranquilizer, urinary. #[Class] Marijuana, of course, has been used for centuries as a recreational drug and hallucinogen, but it also has numerous other advantageous properties. Regardless of how you feel about it’s current legal status, it ought to be available to those who could benefit by using it medicinally. Traditionally, it has been used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medical treatments since ancient times. G The plant is analgesic, anti- inflammatory, and sedative. In western medical models, it has been used for rheumatism, asthma, and menstrual pain. In modern treatments, it is also used as an anti-emetic in chemo-therapies for cancer, for depression and lack of appetite in AIDS patients, and to lower the intra-ocular pressure in glaucoma. G The hallucinogen effect is caused solely by THC (tetra-hydro-cannabinol), but many other alkaloids and phenolic terpenoids are also present; these account for the other medicinal properties. G In modern Chinese treatments, marijuana is also used to treat constipation in elderly people. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 3,4'-di-hydroxy-bibenzyl, alkaloids, calcium carbonate, cannabene, cannabichromene, cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, cannabigerol, cannabin, cannabine (C18H20), cannabine hydride (C18H22), cannabinoids, cannabinol, cannabinon, cannabipinol, cannabis oil, cannabisativine, carboxylic acids, choline, delta-9-tetra-hydro-cannabinol (=tetra-hydro-cannabinol; =THC), essential oil, flavo-cannabiside, flavo-sativaside, flavonoids, glycosides, inositol, iso-vitexin, isomers, mono-terpenes, muscarine, olivetol, oxy-cannabin (C20H20N2O7), phenolic terpenoids, phyto-sterols, resins, sesqui-terpenes, stilbene derivatives, tetra-hydro-cannabinol (=delta-9-tetra-hydro-cannabinol; =THC), THC (=tetra-hydro-cannabinol; =delta-9-tetra-hydro-cannabinol), THC acid, trigonelline, vitexin, volatile oil. #[Physiology] Cannabis sativa [marijuana] is non-alkaloidal and makes a good fluid extract. G Cannabis sativa [marijuana] is estrogenic, but it will only work to inhibit testosterone in the blood stream, not in the testes. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – In most places, possession of marijuana is illegal, even for medicinal purposes. Fresh flowering herb, tincture, 1:2, 5-30 drops; dried flowering herb, tincture, 1:5, 95% alcohol, 5- 30 drops; either form, once a day; cigarette smokers may require a higher dose. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 73, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 173, Boulos: 40, Duke + Ayensu: 231, Dastur: 44 (#64), Felter: 270, Grieve: 396, Honychurch: 26, Jain + DeFilipps: 220, Kay: 122, Lust: 145 (#84), Millspaugh: 615 (#154), Moerman: 99, Meyer: 45, Manandhar: 131, Oliver-Bever: 78, Potter: 152, Reid: 89 (#23), Shih-Chen: 90- 91, Sturtevant: 132, Schultes: 30-41, Tierra (2): 173, Wyk + Wink: 77, 402.

Capsella bursa-pastoris SHEPHERD'S PURSE / BURSA
#[Family] Brassicaceae [/Cruciferae], mustard-cabbage family. #[Genus] 5 species; temperate and sub-tropical zones. #[Species] í Capsella bursa-pastoris [coco wort, common shepherd’s purse, bursa, bolsa de pastor, capsella, pick pocket, saint james weed, shepherd heart, shepherd’s heart, shepherd purse, shepherd’s purse, shepherd sprout, shepherd’s sprout, thlaspi, toy wort], = Thlaspi

bursa-pastoris, Europe, Asia, naturalized in North America. #[Editor] shepherd’s weather-glass is Anagallis arvensis [scarlet pimpernel]. #[Appearance] Shepherd’s purse is a small, erect, annual herb, with a single central flowering stalk, growing up to two feet tall. Leaves are simple, mostly in basal rosettes, oblong to lanceolate, long-stemmed, with deeply cleft lobes or serrated (saw- toothed) margins, and pointed tips; stem leaves are fewer in number, much smaller, stemless, lanceolate, and eared at bases, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white to pinkish, with four petals, slender stems; grouped together in elongated, thin-stemmed racemes. Fruits are characteristically triangular to heart-shaped (purse-like), flattened, straight-sided silicles (short capsules, with two compartments, separated by a central inner partition between seed rows, which split open from the bottom – found in the mustard family). Seeds are small, numerous, narrow, brownish, and smooth. #[Herbal Properties] anti-diarrheal, anti-dysenteric, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, anti- rheumatic, anti-septic, anti-tumor, anti-ulcer, astringent, digestive, diuretic, gynecological, hemo-static, hyper-tensive, hypo-tensive, laxative, ophthalmic, oxytocic, stimulant, stomachic, styptic, tonic, urinary, vaso-constrictor, vulnerary. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Montana] Capsella bursa-pastoris is a hemo-static used for hyper-uricemia, and a tonic for kidney excess. Capsella would be useful for an anabolic excess person with moist, greasy skin, for a woman who has short cycles, for a person with excessive muscle mass, a rapid transit time, and a high level of adreno-cortical and gonad hormones. It would also be helpful for a person in his 50's or 60's with gout who finds his condition is aggravated by food, particularly greasy food, high protein food, and organ meat. Capsella will not directly affect gout, but it can be used as a preventative measure, and in the recuperation process. G Excess uric acid, a waste product created during the break down of non-recyclable proteins, is excreted through the urinary tract. Capsella helps the kidneys release uric acid and dilute the urine. It is a urinary tract hemo-static and urinary tract astringent. It stops blood in the urine resulting from a lower urinary tract infection which developed into an ulcer in the front part of the bladder. G As a hemo-static, it functions throughout the body, so Capsella is also useful for post-partum bleeding, spotting in the last trimester, extended and poorly organized menses as a result of trauma, hemorrhoids, and bleeding from spasmodic coughing. During the progression of inflammation moving through congestion, blisters, ulcers, and bleeding, Capsella is appropriate for the acute, slow bleeding phase. G Capsella is a mild oxytocin synergist. It slightly stimulates contractions during birthing, and it helps separate the placenta from the uterus. Gossypium thurberi [cotton root] also predictably acts as an oxytocin synergist to facilitate arousal and orgasm. Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh] would be a third choice. #[Chemical Constituents] acetyl-choline, amines, amino acids, bursic acid, bursinic acid, camphor, choline, diosmin, fixed oil, flavonoids, fumaric acid, gluco-sinolates (=sinigrin), hesperidin, histamine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, mono-terpenoids, poly-peptides, proline, quercetin-3-rutinoside, resin, rutin, saponins, sinigrin (=gluco-sinolates), terpenoids, tyramine, volatile oil. #[Physiology] As a tonic, Capsella bursa- pastoris [shepherd's purse] is good for both kidney excess and kidney deficiency. Kidney enervation should be cholinergic. Capsella will modify hyper-tensive and hypo-tensive states, modify vascular changes, and facilitate good tubular drainage in the kidneys. G Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd’s purse] is another good lower urinary tract astringent. G Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd’s purse] is a good kidney astringent; it helps decrease leaching of blood. G Kidney nephrons can be strengthened with amino acids, ascorbic acid, bio-flavonoids, flavonoids and silica; and also with Equisetum [horse tail], Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd’s purse], and Chimaphila umbellata [pipsissewa]. #[Medical Usage] –.

#[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; herb may stimulate uterine contractions; do not use with overt kidney disease or kidney stones; do not use with high blood pressure; . Fresh whole plant, tincture, 1:2, 20- 60 drops; recently dried whole plant, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 20-60 drops; recently dried plant, simple tea; all forms, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 108, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 293, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Angier (1): 202, Angier (2): 78, Allen + Hatfield: 120, 351, Boulos: 71, Duke + Ayensu: 208, Felter: 274, Grieve: 738, Hoffmann: 220, Holmes: 559, Jain + DeFilipps: 200, Kloss: 313, Lust: 354 (#414), Millspaugh: 95 (#25), Moerman: 99, Meyer: 115, Manandhar: 132, Mabey: 53, Potter: 250, Sturtevant: 134, Tierra (2): 267, Willard: 99, Wyk + Wink: 78, 402.

Capsicum annuum CAYENNE / PIMENTO / BIRD PEPPER
#[Family] Piperaceae, pepper family. #[Genus] 10 species; tropical and sub- tropical North and South America, widely cultivated in tropics. #[Species] í Capsicum annuum [african pepper, american pepper, annual cayenne, bird pepper, capsicum, cayenne, chili, chili pepper, common cayenne, hot cayenne, hot pepper, paprika, pimento, spanish pepper] tropical South America, widely cultivated in tropics; also California to Florida, Georgia to NewYork; í Capsicum frutescens [africa bird pepper, africa cayenne, africa pepper, african bird pepper, african cayenne, african pepper, american bird pepper, american cayenne, american pepper, bird pepper, capsicum, cayenne, chili, chili pepper, chilli, chilli pepper, common cayenne, cock spur pepper, goat pepper, goat’s pepper, hot cayenne, hot pepper, paprika, perennial cayenne, pimento, pod pepper, red pepper, shrubby cayenne, spanish pepper, tabasco pepper, zanzibar pepper], tropical South America, widely cultivated. #[Editor] common name: pimento, also applied to: Pimenta dioica [all spice]; common name: pepper, also applied to: Mentha x piperita [pepper mint], Persicaria hydropiper [smart weed] = marsh pepper or water pepper, Pimenta dioica [all spice] = jamaica pepper, Piper angustifolia [matico pepper], Piper cubeba [cubeb pepper] = java pepper, Piper methysticum [kava pepper], Piper nigrum [black pepper] = madagascar pepper or white pepper, Umbellularia californica [pepper wood, california bay], and Vitex agnus-castus [chaste tree] = monk pepper. #[Appearance] Cayenne is usually a perennial herb or small shrub in the tropics, but often annual when cultivated in the sub-tropics, with small angular branches, somewhat purplish at the nodes. Leaves are simple, opposite, ovate to lanceolate, with thin stems, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are white to yellow, with six petals, long slender stems, and cup-shaped sepals; solitary, paired, or in groups of three. Fruits are pods, yellow or red, ovate to linear, upright or drooping, many-seeded, with rounded or pointed tips. Seeds are small and flat, about 10-25 per pod. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic (topical), anti-arthritic, anti-flatulent, anti-neuralgic, anti-rheumatic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, appetizer, cardio-stimulant, carminative, carrier, circulatory, counter-irritant, culinary, diaphoretic, digestive, irritant, oral, orexigenic, prurient, rubefacient, sialogogue, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vaso-dilator, vesicant. #[Class] Capsicum [cayenne] and Zingiber [ginger] dilate capillaries and make them more permeable. They get blood out to the tissues when the tissues aren't being fed very well, and they act as a carrier to get medicine to the mucosa and skin. G Vaso-dilation occurs in the circulatory system in a sequence of steps or levels of depth. Capsicum [cayenne] dilates the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries, found in or near the skin. Zingiber [ginger] is more efficient on the slightly larger and deeper metarterioles. Zanthoxylum

[prickly ash] dilates the arterioles or small arteries, and Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root] stimulates circulation in the deepest major arteries. G The culinary pimento is a variety of Capsicum annuum, also called: cherry pepper or pimiento. It’s fleshy, sweet, aromatic, and succulent, but not very hot, and not at all medicinal. The name is derived from Portuguese: pimentão = bell pepper. Pimento has one of the lowest Scoville scale heat ratings of any chili pepper. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens – alkaloids, calcium, capsacutin, capsaicin, capsaicitin, capsanthin, capsicidins, capsicin, capsicinoids, capsicum red (coloring), capsorubin, carotene, carotenoids (coloring), carotin (coloring), citric acid, di-hydro-capsaicin, fatty oil, homo-di-hydro-capsaicin, iron, nor-di-hydro-capsaicin, palmitic acid, pectin, pentosans, phosphorus, pyrazines, saponins, solanine, starch, steroidal saponins, vitamin-A, vitamin-B, vitamin-C, volatile oil. #[Physiology] We already talked about Zingiber officinale [ginger] and Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], vaso-dilators which effect the blood and vascular system. We want to dilate the blood vessels, increase blood quality, and decrease destructive high blood pressure pulses. Capsicum annuum [cayenne] can help. Blood goes through dilated vessels more slowly and in a greater volume. The transport, feeding, and cleansing of tissues is more efficient. G Zingiber, Capsicum, and Zanthoxylum are all long term vascular tonics and strengtheners. Most health deficiencies are caused by life long habits. A tonic can help undo some of the damage. G Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], Zingiber [ginger], Capsicum [cayenne], and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] help keep the skin moist, self-protective and stimulate skin metabolism. G Capsicum annuum [cayenne] dilates capillary beds and gets the blood out to the skin, especially in cases of strong-bodied, pounding, essential hyper-tension. Capsicum also works in thin, bristly hyper-tension from cardio-vascular excess and not from kidney deficiency. G If the gastro-intestinal tract is dry, Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], Capsicum annuum [cayenne], and Zingiber officinale [ginger] would be helpful. G Although Capsicum annuum [cayenne] increases blood supply to the skin, with a tendency toward inflammatory responses, it is sometimes better to leave Capsicum alone and go for Zingiber officinale [ginger]. G Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Capsicum annuum [cayenne], Guaiacum officinale [lignum vitae], Stillingia sylvatica [queen’s root], Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], and Zingiber officinale [ginger] are all tonic vaso-dilators. The first five herbs are circulatory stimulants and very skin specific. G In a way, Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut] acts in a manner opposite to Capsicum annuum [cayenne] and Zingiber officinale [ginger] – it’s an endothelial tonic which decreases permeability in capillary beds. It increases strength and tone of congested, leaking tissues. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried fruit, tincture, 1:5, 95% alcohol, 5-15 drops; dried fruit, powdered, in capsules, #0, one to two; either form, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West – Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Alvarez: 127, Boulos: 164, Curtin: 62, Grieve: 628, Lad + Frawley: 110, Holmes: 322, Jain + DeFilipps: 564, Lust: 151 (#92), Morton: 789, Manandhar: 133, Martinez: 414, 583, Oliver-Bever: 204, Potter: 66, Quisumbing: 835, 836, Rodale: 75, Shih-Chen: 92, Sturtevant: 136, Schultes + Raffauf: 426, Tucker + Debaggio: 193, Tierra (1): 89, Wyk + Wink: 79, 402.

Carthamus tinctoria SAF FLOWER / AZAFRAN
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 13 species; southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, widely

cultivated. #[Species] í Carthamus tinctoria [american saffron, azafran, bastard saffron, common saffron, dyer’s saffron, fake saffron, false saffron, hong hua (China), mexican saffron, parrot seed, saf flower, saf flowers, saffron, wild saffron], as above. #[Editor] common name: thistle, applied to: Argemone platyceras [prickly poppy] = thistle poppy, Centaurea benedicta [blessed thistle] = holy thistle, Cirsium undulatum [plumed thistle], Salvia carduacea [thistle sage], and Silybum marianum [milk thistle]; other medicinal thistles: Carthamus tinctoria [saf flower], and Cynara scolymus [artichoke]. #[Appearance] Saf flowers are erect, annual thistles, with smooth spineless stems, growing to about three feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, stemless, bright green without white blotches, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, with pointed tips, and dentate (toothed) margins (teeth are small spiny-prickles). Flowers are bright yellow-orange to red- orange; peripheral ray florets absent; central disc florets with five fused narrow petals; grouped together in a long-stemmed, solitary, composite head; bracts (leafy appendages) under heads appear to be whorled leaves; heads in turn often solitary or sometimes grouped together in corymbs. Fruits are smooth, shining, whitish, mostly four-ribbed achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), with no fluff. #[Herbal Properties] anti-cholesterolic, anti-inflammatory, anti- rheumatic, culinary (oil), diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, gynecological (China), immuno-stimulant, laxative, tonic. #[Class] Saf flower grows in the northern plains and the southern United States. After the flower heads are picked, the seeds are used as a source of saf flower oil. Carthamus has nothing to do with Crocus sativus [true saffron]. Mexican saffron is used for food coloring. Saf flowers have no major medicinal properties, but a hot tea made from the dried flowers is a good sensible diaphoretic for breaking fevers. Mexican folks also use it to resolve exanthematous viral disorders by inducing perspiration – it speeds up skin eruptions like measles and chicken pox. Sometimes it quickly resolves hives. These sores are the eruptive cleansing stage after an infection. The sweating is the resolution. For a child, chicken pox is systemic; for an adult, it’s neurologic and a different mechanism. If you get chicken pox in late childhood (ages 12-14), you have a late stage of the same disorder, and it may recur later in life (ages 40-60) as shingles or herpes zoster. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] 2- hydroxy-arctiin, alpha-tocopherol, arabinose, benzo-quinone (coloring), carthamic acid (=carthamin; C14H16O7), carthamin (=carthamic acid; C14H16O7), carthamone, cellulose, di-hydro-flavones, fixed oil, flavonoids, fructose, galactose, glucose, glucosides, glucosylated di-chalcones, helianol, hydroxy- safflor yellow-A (coloring), lignans, luteolin, mataire-sinoside, neo-carthamin, pigments, poly-saccharides, proteins, quercetin, rhamnose, safflomin-C (coloring), safflor red (coloring), safflor yellow-B (coloring), sugars, tetra- cheloside, tinctormine, tri-terpene alcohols, uronic acid, xylose. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowers, 1 tablespoon, standard infusion, 4-8 fluid ounces, take hot, for fevers, up to three times a day; dried flowers, 2 tablespoons, steeped Ω hour in 4-8 fluid ounces cold water, take frequently, for measles. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 20, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 401, Battaglia: 311, Curtin: 37-38, Duke + Ayensu: 158, Dastur: 48 (#67), Felter: 279, Grieve: 698, Jain + DeFilipps: 157, Kloss: 306, Lust: 340 (#391), Lu: 123, Meyer: 109, Martinez: 375, Potter: 239, Quisumbing: 967, Reid: 130 (#123), Rodale: 436, Shih-Chen: 94, Sturtevant: 144, Tucker + Debaggio: 203, Tierra (2): 276, Wyk + Wink: 81, 403.

Carum carvi CARAWAY SEED / ALCARAVEA / CARVI

#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 30 species; temperate and sub-tropical zones. #[Species] í Carum carvi [alcaravea (plant), caraway, caraway fruit, caraway seed, caraway seeds, carvi (seeds), common caraway, common caraway seeds] = Apium carvi, Mediterranean, central Europe, widely cultivated. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Caraway is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb, with smooth, erect, hollow, furrowed, widely branched stems, growing up to three feet tall, with white tuberous carrot-shaped roots. Leaves are feathery, opposite, long-stemmed (with an expanded base) near the ground, nearly stemless and clasping higher up, twice or three times pinnately compound (deeply-incised, finely-divided); leaflets are thread-like or linear. Flowers are small, white to pale yellow (rarely pink), with small sepal teeth; grouped together in umbels; umbels in turn grouped together in a terminal umbel, some stems unequal in length. Fruits (incorrectly called seeds) are small, aromatic, dark brown, ovate to oblong, somewhat compressed on one side, and smooth, with five inconspicuous pale ribs, and two seeds. Seeds are flattened in back. #[Herbal Properties] anesthetic, anti-flatulent, anti-microbial, anti- spasmodic, appetizer, aromatic, bitter, carminative, culinary, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactagogue, orexigenic, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachic, uterine. #[Class] Carum carvi is a bitter aromatic and anesthetic. People in many countries use caraway oil for settling the stomach. Caraway seeds are mildly anti-spasmodic and carminative. Caraway seeds as a tea are given for dyspepsia. In Anglo-Saxon traditions Mentha x piperita [pepper mint] oil, and Nepeta cataria [catnip] oil are preferred over caraway seed oil. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] (+)-carvone, bergapten (trace), caffeic acid, calcium oxalate, carveol, carvone, chlorogenic acid, di-hydro -carveol, di-hydro -carvone, essential oil, fatty oil, fixed oil, flavonoids, flavonol-glycosides, furano- coumarins (trace), iso-quercetin, limonene, phenyl-propanoids, pinene, poly- saccharides, proteins, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, thujone, volatile oil. #[Physiology] Carum carvi [caraway] seeds and Coriandrum sativum [coriander] seeds are mildly anesthetic. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Spirit of caraway (one part essential oil of seeds to ten parts ethanol), 10-20 drops, in water; dried seeds, two or three, chewed; dried seeds, simple tea; all forms, for indigestion, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Boulos: 180, Duke + Ayensu: 80, Felter: 279, Grieve: 157, Hoffmann: 178, Holmes: 470, Jain + DeFilipps: 118, Kloss: 213, Lust: 146 (#85), Meyer: 69, Manandhar: 138, Mabey: 120, Potter: 59, Sturtevant: 144, Tucker + Debaggio: 205, Tierra (1): 89, Tierra (2): 250, Wyk + Wink: 82, 403.

Castanea dentata CHEST NUT / SWEET CHEST NUT
#[Family] Fagaceae, beech-oak family. #[Genus] 12 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Castanea dentata [american chest nut, eastern chest nut, sweet chest nut], eastern North America; í Castanea sativa [chest nut, common chest nut, european chest nut, european sweet chest nut, spanish chest nut, sweet chest nut], = Castanea edulis, = Castanea vesca var americana, , = Castanea vesca, = Castanea vulgaris, = Fagus castanea, Europe, western Asia, widely introduced. #[Editor] see also: Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut]. #[Appearance] Chest nuts are usually large, deciduous trees, with gray rough bark, growing up to 100 feet tall; monoecious (male and female flowers located on the same plant, but placed at separate sites, and having different structures). Leaves are simple, alternate, dark green above and lighter below, nearly stemless, oblong to lanceolate, with smooth surfaces, parallel veins, distinctly serrated (saw-toothed)

margins, round bases, and pointed tips. Flowers are all very small and greenish, with six petals; male flowers are numerous and bell-shaped; grouped together in long, thin, erect, cylindrical, whitish-yellow, axillary aments (catkins); female flowers are fewer and urn-shaped; grouped together in short, rounded, greenish, axillary aments (catkins), with prickly bur-like covers, and located at the base of the male aments. Fruits are rounded, spiny-prickly, bur-like capsules, containing 1-5 seeds. Seeds are large, dark brown, sweet, edible nuts. #[Herbal Properties] anti-diarrheal, anti-rheumatic anti-tussive, astringent, culinary, oral, pulmonary, respiratory, sedative, tonic. #[Class] Chest nut leaves are mildly tonic and astringent. The fresh leaves are slightly irritating. A tincture of the dried leaves works best. Castanea is used as a mild lower intestinal tract astringent for diarrhea and lower GI deficiency. I would lean toward Juglans major [arizona black walnut], and Juglans nigra [eastern black walnut], Rheum palmatum [rhubarb], and Rumex crispus [yellow dock] for those purposes. A decoction of the leaves has been used for whooping cough, and other pulmonary complaints. The leaf infusion makes a good gargle. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] albumen, calcium salt, ellagi-tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, gums, iron salt, magnesium salt, mucilage, myricetin, myricitrin, organic acids, plasto- quinones, potassium salt, quercetin, quercitrin, resins, rutin, tannins, tellimaggrandin-II, tri-terpenoids, ursolic acid. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried leaves, standard infusion, 1-4 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Bremness: 43, Felter: 281, Grieve: 193, Hutchins: 86, Jain + DeFilipps: 346, Kloss: 176, Millspaugh: 634 (#158), Moerman: 104-5, Potter: 73, Shih-Chen: 97, Sturtevant: 152, 153, Wyk + Wink: 83, 403.

Castela emoryi CHAPARRO AMARGOSA / CHRIST THORN
#[Family] Simaroubaceae, quassia family. #[Genus] 15 species; tropical and sub-tropical North and South America. #[Species] í Castela emoryi [amargosa, arizona chaparro amargosa, chaparro, chaparro amargosa, christ thorn, christ’s thorn, corona de cristo, crucifixion thorn, emory chaparro amargosa], = Holacantha emoryi, = Holacantha stewardii, southern Arizona, southeastern California (?), northern Mexico; í Castela texana [texas chaparro amargosa], southern Texas, northeastern Mexico. #[Editor] a somewhat similar looking plant, Koeberlinia spinosa [all-thorn, junco], placed in the Capparidaceae, or caper family, or separated into the Koeberliniaceae or all-thorn family, as no recorded medicinal uses, but it might be mistaken for Castela. #[Appearance] This is one of the scariest plants you’ll ever see. It’s nothing but long sharp spines. It’s definitely a minimalist. It’s a large, grotesque, intricately branched shrub, growing up to twelve feet tall; and dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants). Leaves on female plants reduced to tiny, quickly deciduous scales, absent on male plants. Photosynthesis occurs in the yellow- green stem bark. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow, with seven or eight petals; male and female flowers distinguishable only under a field lens. Fruits are reddish-brown, drupe-like, and arranged in rings, each with five or more unfused, one-seeded segments. #[Herbal Properties] anti-amoebic, anti-bacterial, anti- diarrheal, anti-dysenteric, anti-giardia, anti-microbial, anti-protozoic, bitter, immuno-stimulant. #[Class] Castela emoryi grows at elevations of about 2,000 feet or less in the deserts and canyons southwest of Tucson. It’s intensely bitter, nasty, and parasitic. The plant is a shrub with sharp, gnarly, unbelievably intense spines. Everything about it is intense. We will get it on the Arizona field trip –

when we get to Why. So, the question is – why go to Why? The answer is – only to get chaparro. You will under-stand what I mean – only after we get to Why. It’s sort of like – whose on first? (The town of Why, Arizona, turned out to be a single gas station – in the middle of nowhere – with an average summer temperature of 115E). G Chaparro is an anti-amoeba and anti-giardia agent. Amoebic dysentery is caused by a little amoeba called Entamoeba histolytica, and giardia is caused by a protozoa called Giardia lamblia. Chaparro is in the same family (Simaroubaceae) as Ailanthus altissima [tree of heaven], and Picrasma excelsa [quassia], and it has similar medicinal properties. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] castelanolide, chaparolide, chaparrin, chaparrinone, chaparrol, chaparrol lactones, ellargic acid, glaucarubol, iso-chaparrol, neo- chaparrol. #[Physiology] Picraena excelsa [quassia], Castela emoryi [chaparro amargosa], Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], and Ulmus rubra [slippery elm], all work well in a cold infusion. G Echinacea [cone flower], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], and Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], Tabebuia [pau d’arco], and Castela emoryi [chaparro amargoso], are used to strengthen immunity. G Tabebuia [pau d’arco], and Castela emoryi [chaparro amargoso], work well for people with chronically impaired innate immunity and over-grown candida. G Castela emoryi [chaparro amargoso], grows only in southwestern Arizona and Sonora in the low desert, mostly without leaves. Castela texana grows south of El Paso and down to Big Bend. The other species in the genus grow in the tropics, yet they produce nearly the same effects. Another plant, Koeberlinia spinosa [all thorn], has a very similar shape and spines, but it grows at higher elevations, and it isn’t used medicinally. G For bacteria and protozoa infections, the strongest medicine you can find is Castela emoryi [chaparro amargosa]. If it isn't available, you can use Picraena excelsa [quassia], or Frangula purshiana [cascara sagrada]. It’s a protozoa-cide, and it also inhibits gram-negative anaerobes. If you must drink water from a questionable source, add some Castela as a preventative. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2; dried plant, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol; either form, 5-10 drops (bitter tonic), or 10-15 drops in Ω cup water (preventative), or 20-50 drops (anti-microbial). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 29, Los Remedios: 33, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] –.

Castilleja integra PAINT BRUSH / FLOR DE SANTA RITA
#[Family] Orobanchaceae, broom rape family, ~Scrophulariaceae, fig wort family. #[Genus] 200 species, North and South America, mostly in western United States (198); northern Europe and Asia (2). #[Species] í Castilleja integra [entire-leaved paint brush, flor de santa rita (flower of saint rita), indian paint brush, mexican paint brush, paint brush, painted cup, whole-leaved paint brush], Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Paint brush is a perennial herb (some species are annual), with erect, downy, whitish stems, growing to about one foot tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, long and linear, stemless, with smooth incurved margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are tubular, two-lipped, bright red (some other species are yellow, purple or white), very asymmetrical, with a long upper lip and a much shorter lower lip, surrounded by bright red bracts (leafy appendages) usually larger and brighter than the flowers; grouped together in terminal spikes. Fruits are capsules, oblong to ovoid, with many net-veined seeds. #[Herbal Properties] diuretic. #[Class] Indian paint brush is dried, used as a tea, and it’s a remedy for water retention due to variable weather patterns and abrupt temperature changes. The

plant is a partial root parasite. It absorbs nutrients from the surrounding soil, but it also often attaches its root to the roots of nearby shrubs or trees. So, try to find plants growing as far away from nearby trees and shrubs. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not pick plants growing in selenium bearing soils. Dried whole plant, moderately strong simple tea, one cup, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 45, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 85, Dunmire + Tierney: 212, Moerman: 105.

Catalpa bignonioides INDIAN BEAN / CANDLE TREE
#[Family] Bignoniaceae, trumpet flower family. #[Genus] 11 species; eastern Asia and North America. #[Species] í Catalpa bignonioides [candle tree, catalpa, catawba, cigar tree, common indian bean, indian bean, smoking bean], = Bignonia catalpa, southeastern United States. #[Editor] see cross reference for common name: indian (i.e. indian hemp, indian root, indian turnip, indian paint brush, etc.). #[Appearance] Indian bean is a deciduous tree, with spreading branches, thin flaky bark, growing to about 60 feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, mostly ovate, long-stemmed, smooth above and downy below, strongly scented, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are large and showy, white, numerous, spotted with yellow and purple inside, asymmetrical and two- lipped, with five petals, fused and tubular at the base and flared at the apex, bell- shaped or trumpet-shaped; grouped together in large, erect, terminal panicles. Fruits are capsules, thin, linear, elongated, cylindrical, and drooping, with two compartments, and opening at the sides. Seeds are flat, with two, large, lateral, fringed wings. #[Herbal Properties] anti-candida, anti-fungal. #[Class] As a medicine, Catalpa bignonioides resembles Campsis radicans [trumpet creeper], Tabebuia [pau d’arco], and Tecoma stans [trumpet flower]. They are all in the same family. They are all useful topical anti-candida agents, as well as anti- fungals. The dried leaves and seed pods are used medicinally. We will cover the details in greater depth when we get to Tabebuia. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] none listed; probably similar to Campsis radicans [trumpet creeper], Tabebuia [pau d’arco], and Tecoma stans [trumpet flower]. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried herb (leaves and pods), cold infusion or standard infusion; externally, as needed; internally, 1-3 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 124, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Duke + Ayensu: 199, Shih-Chen: 68, 384, 429.

Caulophyllum thalictroides BLUE COHOSH / SQUAW ROOT
#[Family] Berberidaceae, bar berry family, ~Leonticaceae, leontice family. #[Genus] 3 species; northeastern Asia and eastern North America. #[Species] í Caulophyllum thalictroides [beech drops, blue berry, blue cohosh, blue ginseng, common blue cohosh, papoose root, squaw root, yellow ginseng], = Leontice thalictroides, = Leontopetalon thalictroides, eastern and central North America, except Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. #[Editor] common name: cohosh, also applied to Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh], and two species of Actaea [bane berry], Actaea alba [white cohosh], and Actaea rubra [red cohosh]. #[Appearance] Blue cohosh is an erect perennial herb, growing to about three feet tall, with thick roots, and a distinctive single bract (leafy appendage) sheathing each stem at the base near the ground. Leaves are few, ternately com-

pound (three leaflets, each with three sub-leaflets); sub-leaflets are oval to oblong, with smooth margins, three to five small lobes near the apex, and round bases. Flowers are few, yellowish-green with purple tinges, with six sepals alternating with six petals; grouped together in a small terminal panicle. Fruits are the flower ovaries, which quickly rupture and wither away, to expose two naked erect expanding seeds. Seeds are round, blue, drupe-like or berry-like, grouped as the flowers in a small terminal panicle. #[Herbal Properties] anthelminthic, anti- inflammatory (uterus), anti-rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, gynecological, oxytocic, parturient, spasmolytic, uterine, vermifuge. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, anagyrine, baptifoline, caulophyllin (resinoid), caulophylline (alkaloid; =methyl-cytisine), caulosapinin, glucosides, lupins, magnoflorine, methyl- cytisine (alkaloid; =caulo-phylline), N-methyl-cytisine, quinolizidine alkaloids, saponins. #[Physiology] The dry root tincture of Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh] is fairly strong, and a fluid extract is also good. Both may be used during birthing, but not during pregnancy. G The best tonic herb to strengthen uterine tissue, structure and function is Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh]. It acts as a strong stimulus to tone the myometrium (middle muscle) and endometrium (inner mucous membrane lining). A short-term stimulus of uterine muscles obtained from Gossypium thurberi [cotton root] synergizes oxytocin and helps define ovulation in terms of the uterus. Oxytocin is strongly defined in the uterine cycle, but not in the ovarian cycle. Caulophyllum gets the brain thanked chemically. It strengthens the uterine cycle as opposed to the ovarian cycle. G Serenoa repens [saw palmetto], Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], and Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] are helpful for enlarged prostate. G Gossypium thurberi [cotton root] is predictably helpful as an oxytocin synergist to facilitate arousal and orgasm. Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd's purse] would be an alternate choice. Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh] would be a third possibility. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Vitex agnus-castus [chaste tree] berries, and Aristolochia watsonii [arizona snake root], all increase anabolic strength going into ovulation, so there is stronger liver and reproductive function. They would stimulate estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone production. G These herb are very useful as tonics: Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla], Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh], and Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; best if used in small regular doses in a formula; fresh berries are poisonous; skin contact with the fresh plant can cause dermatitis. Dried rhizomes and roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 5-20 drops, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Christopher: 290, Felter: 282, Grieve: 212, Hutchins: 56, Hoffmann: 173, Holmes: 637, Kloss: 206, Lust: 129 (#60), Millspaugh: 56 (#16), Moerman: 106, Meyer: 21, Mabey: 29, Potter: 84, Tierra (1): 109, Tierra (2): 281, Wyk + Wink: 66, 403.

Ceanothus americanus EASTERN RED ROOT / JERSEY TEA
Ceanothus fendleri MOUNTAIN RED ROOT / DEER BUSH
Ceanothus greggii DESERT RED ROOT / PALO COLORADO
#[Family] Rhamnaceae, buck thorn family. #[Genus] 55 species; North America, especially western United States. #[Species] í Ceanothus americanus [eastern red root, jersey tea, new jersey tea, mountain sweet, spangles, walpole tea, wild

pepper, wild snow ball], eastern and central North America; í Ceanothus cordulatus [heart-leaved red root, snow bush, sweet birch], Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada and California; í Ceanothus cuneatus [buck brush, wedge-leaved red root], California and Oregon; í Ceanothus fendleri [deer brush, deer bush, fendler red root, mountain red root], Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and South Dakota; í Ceanothus greggii [chaquerilla, desert red root, gregg red root, palo colorado], Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada and California; í Ceanothus integerrimus [deer brush, deer bush, entire-leaved red root], New Mexico, Arizona, California, Oregon and Washington; í Ceanothus prostratus [mahala mat, mahala mats, prostrate red root, squaw carpet], northern California, Oregon and Washington; í Ceanothus sanguineus [blood-colored red root, oregon tea tree], California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, British Columbia; í Ceanothus spinosus [green bark, red heart, spiny red root], coastal: southern California, and Baja California; í Ceanothus thyrsiflorus [blue brush, california lilac, lilac bush, mountain lilac, thryse-flowered red root], central and northern California, and southern Oregon; í Ceanothus velutinus [mountain balm, snow brush, sticky laurel, tobacco brush, velvet red root], British Columbia, Alberta, South Dakota, western United States, except Arizona and New Mexico. #[Editor] common names: deer brush and deer bush, also applied to Cercocarpus montanus [mountain mahogany]. #[Appearance] Red root species are many-branched, often spiny shrubs, usually evergreen in the west and deciduous in the east, with red roots (duh). Leaves are simple, alternate or opposite, usually small, oval to ovate, with small stipules (leafy appendages at the base), smooth or often serrated (saw-toothed) margins, rounded or pointed tips, and usually three conspicuous veins. Flowers are small, symmetrical, usually white (also pinkish, lavender, bluish or purplish), aromatic, with five sepals united at the base, and five unfused, hooded, long-clawed petals; grouped together in usually showy, rounded, long or short stemmed, terminal or axillary panicles. Fruits are capsules, three-lobed, three-celled, separating at maturity into three parts. Seeds are smooth, and convex on one side. Ceanothus fendleri has alternate leaves and spiny branches; Ceanothus greggii has opposite leaves and smooth branches. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Western species of red root usually form ugly, scraggy, spiny, shrubby masses, but they’re one of our best medicinal plants. The roots and root bark are used. The roots have a burgundy, cheap-red-wine color. Non-red sections are also usable. In some environmentally abused areas, the roots are incredibly red. G The plant has a complicated chemical structure. Ceanothic and phosphoric acids increase according to stress on the plant. The greater the stress, the nastier the root color, and the stronger the medicine. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Medicinally, Ceanothus shouldn’t be confused with Sanguinaria canadensis [blood root], which is a strong and dangerous medicine. Red root isn’t dangerous. It stimulates and clarifies electrical charges in blood proteins and blood corpuscles. It’s used to treat many frontal head aches induced by poor blood fats and poor liver function, with symptoms such as a light yellow coating on the tongue, blood shot somewhat yellowish eyes, and a head ache over the eye balls. G Basically, excess blood fat decreases protein charges. Blood proteins stick together, blood becomes sticky, and it doesn't flow well. If the blood vessels have a weak charge, it takes longer for blood to get to the brain. Therefore, you get a liver related head ache – and a coated tongue caused by increased liver stress due to decreased fat absorption by the lymph system. G The pancreas quickly and easily secretes juices into the duodenum which contain alkaloid and digestive enzymes. Simultaneously, the gall bladder secretes juices into the common duct. If excess fats exist in the upper small intestine, they stimulate secretion of substances which inhibit stomach evacuation. You get bile acids secreted into the duodenum which are literally

upstream from the stomach. The light weight bile acids float upwards in the otherwise static duodenum, and they drip down into the stomach. G Since they weight less than the food in the stomach, they float to the top, and they can regurgitate into the back of the throat. This is acid indigestion or dyspepsia. Once stuck in the esophagus, pigment oozes uphill in the mucous membrane secretions. In the morning, you wake-up with a yellow-brown, butter-scotch colored tongue. Even with good digestive function, you may still have too many blood fats in the blood stream. These are bound up in protein. They are basically transport phospho-lipids, either low or high in density. G Low density phospho-lipids are less bound in the proteins, and they maintain a double charge. They are bipolar fats, and they tend to cut down the electrical charge in the blood stream. When you have thick, viscous blood, the brain induces the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterones which tell the kidneys to retain blood, sodium, and water so the blood can thin out. Part of the mechanism of kidney excess is thick, viscous blood. G Red root acts as a strong, safe, mechanical stimulus which tells the brain the blood isn’t as thick as the brain thinks it is, and the brain doesn’t stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterones. Red root increases negative electrical charges and electrical differential in the blood, which makes blood proteins thinner, more slippery, and less sticky, so the blood flows better. G Taraxacum officinale [dandelion] and Arctium lappa [burdock] facilitate sodium release. They can be used with red root. G For poor blood fat absorption and liver dysfunction, red root could be combined with Iris [blue flag] for the pancreas, Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root] for the gall bladder, and Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo] for fat absorption. G Excess blood fats stimulate mast cells, heparin release, and complex histamines – all part of mast cell degranulation. The process increases the inflammatory response of white blood cells. Inflammation induced by mast cells allegedly stimulates healing by making capillaries more permeable, but capillary electrical charges are reduced due to the excess blood fats and inflammation. Red root reduces unnecessary inflammation. G When blood proteins lose their charge, they aren’t repelled magnetically, and they start sticking to capillary walls – as is the case in atherosclerosis. By increasing the inner and outer charge of the capillaries, red root increases lymph drainage, improves fluid transport quality within and between cells, and promotes better absorption and transport of excess fluids and waste products. G Red root can be used for poor lymph drainage, inflamed lymph nodes, scrofula, ovarian cysts, breast cysts, testicular cysts, enlarged spleen, pre-menstrual bogginess, and also slow viruses like chronic fatigue syndrome, and chronic mononucleosis. G Red roots helps re-absorb blister fluids from unresolved irritations or cysts. The fluids can’t be absorbed into the blood stream; they must be absorbed via the lymph system. Red root works better in conjunction with another herb that stimulates the metabolism of the blister area. For the lower body, try Angelica sinensis [dong quai]. For the upper body, try Gossypium thurberi [cotton root], Phytolacca americana [poke root], or Asclepias asperula [inmortal]. G Red root is also a structural tonic for lymph tissues. It’s a lymphagogue. Lymph nodes need to be strong, tight and rigid. They provide areas for innate lymphocytes, macrophages, and T-cells to scavenge. With boggy lymph nodes, red root cleans the house so feeding can proceed in a mixture of acquired and innate immunity. G Ceanothus [red root], along with a dietary kick, strengthens the lymph tissue and lymph pulp, but it doesn't stimulate lymph function or lymphocytes directly. It only affects lymph structure. Acquired immunity cells in the lymph and thymus have a crude memory, like neurons and muscles. They don't proliferate; they clone themselves. G In addition, you may need some Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], or Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] to effect the functional white blood

cells made in innate immunity, and also Echinacea [cone flower] for acquired immunity. G Red root is good for extended, sub-acute, or chronic lymph tissue inflammation, and also for viruses which seem lymphatic. G Ceanothus greggi has a pleasant winter green scent. The twigs expand when moistened. For throat inflammations, sub-acute tonsillitis, inflamed adenoids, and respiratory distress caused by dry, spasmodic coughing, Ceanothus greggi works a little better than Ceanothus fendleri. A tea of the dried root is a respiratory sedative. G To heal a tissue injury, you need extra blood containing oxygen, glucose, amino acids, fats, and other building materials. G The mechanism or organization of edema into a blister is universal in the body. A cyst is disorganized fluid isolated and confined to a pocket. Stimulating lymphatic transport helps to stimulate the removal of fluid inside the cyst, as long as you also speed up tissue metabolism. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] or Asclepias asperula [inmortal], Phytolacca americana [poke root], and Ceanothus [red root] will stimulate tissue metabolism in cyst treatments. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Allium sativum [garlic], Ceanothus [red root], and Populus [aspen- cotton wood-poplar] bark all decrease blood viscosity. G For hepatitis, it’s necessary to stimulate liver energy outside the liver. Ceanothus [red root] and Mahonia [oregon grape] stimulate liver energy in all body cells. Mahonia may irritate the liver somewhat, but it will broaden liver functions and relieve some of the load place directly on the liver. G Stillingia sylvatica [queen’s root] and Guaiacum officinale [lignum vitae] help stimulate lymph transport through the lymph tissues. They handle congestion and impaired movement of the mother ocean. Ceanothus [red root] also strengthens lymph tissues. Stillingia or Guaiacum stimulate a more rapid lymph uptake. Ceanothus gives better quality and tone to lymph tissues, because Ceanothus also affects the blood. Stillingia and Guaiacum work better if some Ceanothus [red root] is added. G If Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] is used in a poly-pharmacy formula, it needs support of other herbs like Ceanothus [red root], and Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo], as well as herbal irritants. G Ceanothus strongly stimulates peristalsis, gall bladder and bile duct evacuations. It specifically stimulates fat sensitive cells in the duodenum which produce secretin and other hormones which stimulate pancreatic, liver, and intestinal secretions. G Ceanothus affects the repelling charges inside the endothelial lining of the whole vascular system. It stimulates and clarifies colloidal response inside blood vessel walls. It’s really a blood medicine, but its greatest use is for the lymph system – to promote good lymph drainage by giving the blood a stronger, more clarified charge. G Ceanothus [red root] and Tanacetum parthenium [fever few] reduce the load on the heart by changing the quality of blood tissues. G Angelica sinensis [dong quai] and Ceanothus [red root] help reduce hydroceles or testicular fluid cysts via increased metabolism and lymph drainage. G Ceanothus [red root] and Mahonia [oregon grape] make protein digestion in the stomach more efficient, decrease lipids and carbohydrates, and create a feeling of well-being. Then lipids (rather than proteins) are utilized as glucose. Together, they facilitate the somatotropin dominant phase, stimulate protein utilization, and liver transamination. G Ceanothus [red root], Allium sativum [garlic], Populus [poplar], and Salix [willow] all help modify blood charge. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-90 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-90 drops; all forms, up to four times a day, but especially in the evening just before retiring. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 140, Desert and Canyon West: 99, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 212, Mountain West Revision: 220, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Angier (1):

154, Angier (2): 174, Bremness: 97, Felter: 283, Grieve: 673, Gilmore: 50, Hutchins: 235, Holmes: 557, Kloss: 303, Kadans: 169, Kindscher: 231, Lust: 292 (#310), Moerman: 107, Meyer: 105, Potter: 233, Rodale: 398, Sturtevant: 154, Tierra (2): 342, Willard: 136, Wyk + Wink: 86, 403.

Cedronella canariensis CANARY BALM / TORONJIL
#[Family] Lamiaceae [/Labiatae], mint family. #[Genus] 1 species; Canary Islands, widely cultivated, introduced and naturalized in Mexico. #[Species] í Cedronella canariensis [balm of gilead, canary balm, cedronella, common canary balm, dragon head, lemon balm, mexican canary balm, mexican cedronella, mexican dragon head, toronjil], =Agastache mexicana (?), =Brittonastrum mexicanum (?), =Cedronella mexicana (?), =Cedronella triphylla, =Dracocephalum canariense, =Dracocephalum mexicanum, as above. #[Editor] Scientific name: Cedronella mexicana, used by Michael Moore in Los Remedios, and by Maximino Martinez in Las Plantas Medicinales de Mexico, is apparently invalid and must refer to a different annual plant, because the genus Cedronella is limited to one species, as given above, a shrubby perennial. Common name: toronjil, also applied to: Melissa officinalis [lemon balm] and Mentha aquatica [water mint]. Similar common name: toronja, applied to Citrus paradisica [grape fruit]. see also: balm, in cross reference (bee balm, horse balm, lemon balm, mountain balm, wood balm). Common name: balm of gilead, also applied to Commiphora gileadensis [myrrh], and Populus balsamifera [poplar]. #[Appearance] Canary balm is an aromatic (camphor-lemon-cedar), perennial herb (woody at the base), with square stems, growing up to about five feet tall. Leaves are opposite, compound (trifoliate), and short-stemmed; leaflets are lanceolate to ovate, nearly stemless, smooth above and somewhat hairy below, with serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are hairy, pale pink to lilac (rarely white), asymmetrical, with five petals (two upper petals fused in an upper lip, and three lower petals fused in a lower lip); grouped together in round, solitary, terminal cymes, each cyme having many bracts (leafy appendages). Fruits are nutlets, four per flower, fused in a group, each one- seeded. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Canary balm is a little stronger than either Melissa officinalis [lemon balm] or Mentha aquatica [water mint], which are also both called: toronjil – because they have lemon-like scents. Canary balm is anti-spasmodic and anesthetic for stomach pain, gastro-enteritis, and diarrhea. It helps relieve intestinal gas and severe menstrual cramps. It has also been used as an aromatic diaphoretic – similar to Hedeoma nana [american penny royal, poleo chino] and Artemisia ludoviciana [worm wood, estafiate]. NOTE: Tucker and Debaggio also cite recent uses against pulmonary infections, and respiratory congestion. The oil is active against bacteria and fungi, especially in cases of whooping cough, and meningitis. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried plant, simple tea, 4 fluid ounces, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 78, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Bremness: 97, Martinez: 329, Sturtevant: 155, Tucker + Debaggio: 207.

Cedrus atlantica CEDAR
#[Family] Pinaceae, pine family. #[Genus] 4 species; northern Africa and southwestern Asia. #[Species] í Cedrus atlantica [atlantic cedar, atlas cedar, cedar], = Cedrus libani var. atlantica, = Cedrus libani subsp. atlantica, northern Africa (Atlas Mountains); í Cedrus libani [cedar of lebanon, lebanon cedar],

southwestern Asia (Lebanon). #[Editor] common name: cedar, erroneously applied to species of Juniperus [juniper], and also to: Thuja plicata [arbor vitae] = red cedar. #[Appearance] Cedars are aromatic, flat-topped, ever green trees, with fissured bark, horizontal branches (ending in long terminal shoots and short lateral shoots, both bearing needles), growing to about 165 feet tall. Leaves are short, slender, stemless needles, about 1Ω inches long, with no sheaths surrounding needle bases (as in genus Pinus [pines]), blue-green to gray-green, grouped in spherical clusters. Male cones are small, solitary, erect, yellowish, ovoid, and axillary. Female cones are large, solitary, erect, yellow-green with brown fringes, barrel-shaped, attached to short shoot tips, with over-lapping closely wrapped scales; each scale carries two exposed seeds, which mature in two to three years. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Cedars give off a fragrant resin primarily used for incense and cosmetics. The wood is used for lumber. In ancient Egypt, the resin was used to embalm mummies. It has also been used for leprosy (mostly unsuccessfully) and parasites (moderately successful). Cedar is also one of several herbs which produce an essential oil used as an insect repellant. Others include: Cinnamo-mum camphora [camphor], Cymbopogon citratus [lemon grass], Hedeoma nana [american penny royal], Lavandula angustifolia [lavender], and Mentha pulegium [penny royal]. The oil is also inhaled as a vapor for bronchial problems, and it is used as an external wash for skin problems. The oil may possibly inhibit cell division in tumors. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Essential oil, diluted in water, used externally, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Alvarez: 107, Boulos: 142, Bremness: 44, Battaglia: 176, Grieve: 177, Hughes: 108, Jain + DeFilipps: 471, Manandhar: 143, Sturtevant: 155, Wyk + Wink: 242, 403.

Centaurea benedicta BLESSED THISTLE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 500 species; Mediterranean and Turkey (390); tropical Africa (100); northern Europe and northern Asia (7); North America (2), Australia (1). #[Species] í Centaurea benedicta [blessed thistle, common blessed thistle, holy thistle] = Cnicus benedictus, Europe, naturalized in North America. #[Editor] This species was originally placed in the poorly defined genus Cnicus of Linnaeus; and recently moved into the much larger genus Centaurea [star thistle]; common name: thistle, also applied to: Argemone platyceras [prickly poppy] = thistle poppy, Cirsium undulatum [plumed thistle], Salvia carduacea [thistle sage], and Silybum marianum [milk thistle]; other medicinal thistles include: Carthamus tinctoria [saf flower] and Cynara scolymus [artichoke]. #[Appearance] Blessed thistle is an annual herb, with branching stems. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong to lanceolate, and covered with small prickly hairs; with wavy margins (either cleft and spiny-lobed or dentate and spiny-toothed), conspicuous veins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, yellow, and tubular (five fused petals); peripheral ray florets absent; central disc florets numerous; grouped together in large, stemless, solitary, terminal, composite heads; each with numerous spiny bracts (leafy appendages) beneath. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), cylindrical, striated, attached at sides, with ten teeth at tip, ten stiff elongated pointed awns, and no fluff. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Centaurea benedicta is a European plant containing some slightly toxic alkaloids. It has been used for reproductive deficiencies and recommended for women's diseases, including delayed menses and cramps. It’s a liver irritant

which interferes with phospho-lipid metabolism in the liver. Therefore, like some Senecio [rag wort] species, it creates the appearance of a false excess by increasing the length of time hormones like estrogen circulate. G My personal opinion is Centaurea benedicta isn’t a good herb for reproductive problems because it induces false extended transits of estrogen and, presumably, of other steroids. It’s effect is like drinking three shots of whiskey in the middle of the night. G We have other southwestern thistles which contain similar but less toxic alkaloids better suited to treat women's reproductive deficiencies. I don't trust the mechanism of this particular herb. G Centaurea is a biliary or para-sympathetic bitter, like Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root] and Brickellia [brickell bush]. These three herbs neurologically trigger bile synthesis by the liver and the evacuation of the gall bladder. Sometimes bile stimulation can act as both a laxative and a diaphoretic. Blessed thistle is sometimes used to bring on sweating in a fever, although I’d stick with Sambucus [elder], Mentha pulegium [penny royal], or Eupatorium perfoliatum [bone set]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Centaurea benedicta [blessed thistle] could be made into a fluid-extract. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowering herb, cold infusion, 4-6 fluid ounces, once a day; fresh flowering herb, tincture, 1:2, 20-40 drops; dried flowering herb, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 20-40 drops; either tincture, in hot water, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 283, Christopher: 286, 451, Grieve: 795, Hoffmann: 172, Holmes: 278, Kloss: 247, Lust: 343 (#395), Meyer: 110, Morton: 920, Mabey: 45, Potter: 144, Tierra (1): 108, Wyk + Wink: 87, 403.

Centaurium umbellatum CENTUARY / CANCHALAGUA
#[Family] Gentianaceae, gentian family. #[Genus] 20 species; northern hemisphere, Australia, Chile. #[Species] í Centaurium calycosum [canchalagua, centuary, large-calyxed centuary], = Erythraea calycosa, western Texas to Utah, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, northern Mexico; í Centaurium exaltum [tall centuary], = Erythraea exalta, California to Washington, Nevada and Utah; í Centaurium texense [texas centuary], = Erythraea texensis, Texas to Missouri. í Centaurium umbellatum [canchalagua, centuary, common centuary], = Erythraea centaurium, = Gentiana centaurium, Europe, eastern and central North America, California to Washington. #[Editor] generic name Erythraea ruled invalid. #[Appearance] Centuary species are usually annual herbs (some are biennial or perennial), with round, smooth, erect, branching stalks, growing to about two feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, stemless or clasping the stalk, ovate to elliptical, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are usually pinkish-rose to magenta, symmetrical, usually with five keeled sepals, five spreading petals (fused at base); grouped together in short-stemmed (sometimes stemless), terminal cymes (sometimes spikes or panicles). Fruits are capsules, oblong to spindle-shaped, and two-valved. Seeds are tiny, brownish, oblong or rounded, and net-veined. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Centuary is a good-natured, clear-cut bitters. It’s supposed to be a better bile stimulant than some other gentians. Just put one drop of the tincture on your tongue, and you’ll see what I mean. It’s intensely bitter. It’s used as a bitter tonic, before meals, to stimulate saliva and other gastric juices. That’s it. What more can I say. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh whole plant, tincture, 1:2, 10-20 drops; dried whole plant, cold infusion, 1-2 fluid ounces; either form, taken before meals. #[Moore References] Mountain West –,

Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 294, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 194, Boulos: 89, Christopher: 448, Grieve: 182, Hoffmann: 180, Lust: 185 (#140), Meyer: 40, Mabey: 59, Potter: 69- 70, Tierra (2): 208, Wyk + Wink: 89, 403.

Centella asiatica GOTU KOLA / PENNY WORT
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family, ~Hydrocotylaceae, pennywort family. #[Genus] 40 species; tropics and sub- tropics, mostly in southern Africa. #[Species] í Centella asiatica [brahmi, common gotu kola, gotu kola, penny wort], = Centella repanda, = Hydrocotyle asiatica, = Hydrocotyle repanda, tropics, sub-tropics, New Zealand, Chile, cultivated. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Gotu kola is a low-growing, trailing, perennial herb, with prostrate, succulent stems, which root at the nodes. Leaves are simple, whorled at the stem nodes and sheathing them, long-stemmed, rounded to kidney-shaped, with seven veins, smooth or slightly scalloped margins, and round tips. Flowers are small, white, and stemless; grouped together in 2-4 flowered, terminal, long-stemmed umbels; each umbel with two conspicuous bracts (leafy appendages) beneath, and arising from the stem nodes with the leaves. Fruits are schizocarps (two partially fused one-seeded compartments, each splitting open at maturity), each round to kidney-shaped, laterally compressed, and ribbed. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Centella asiatica is a tropical marsh plant cultivated commercially in Hawaii and Oregon, with some related species found in the southern United States. The herb needs to be fresh or recently dried. G Centella is primarily used thyroid depression. It does for low thyroid what Lycopus americanus [bugle weed] and Leonurus cardiaca [mother wort] do for high thyroid. Lycopus and Leonurus are used in thyroid excess, and Centella in thyroid deficiency – sub-clinical hypo-thyroid cases, emotional depression, and the effects of drug abuse and thyroid depressing foods. G Symptoms of thyroid depression include eating only cabbage and brussel sprouts, talking too slowly, having a puffy face, a pad of fat between the shoulder blades, and grade-school math-teacher upper arms. Graves's disease is acute thyroid toxicosis where the eyes bug out, the skin drips perspiration, food is recycled in ten minutes to the other end, and the person becomes shaky, sleepy, and sleazy. G Centella is especially good for a sluggish thyroid with doughy, waxy skin which doesn't respond well to the outer environment. Centella is also indicated for skin deficiencies manifested as dry skin, dry and oily skin, cool and damp skin which doesn't heal well, or sections of skin that form scales. G Research on Centella done in Asia showed it stimulated rates of basal metabolism and epithelial proliferation. G Too much Centella would cause the complexion to become reddish. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] As a fluid extract, Centella asiatica [gotu kola] gives you enough medicine to be practical. G Panax [ginseng], Jateorhiza palmata [columbo], Centella asiatica [gotu kola], Gentiana [gentian], and Swertia radiata [green gentian] are all bitter tonic plants. G For hypo-thyroid conditions, in addition to Centella asiatica [gotu kola], use Fucus vesiculosus [bladder wrack], and more subtly Mahonia [oregon grape], as opposed to Berberis vulgaris [bar berry]. Centella and Fucus help create a greater desire for food. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 15-30 drops, up to three times a day; dried plant, standard infusion, 1-2 fluid ounces, once a day; dried plant, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 20- 40 drops, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 11. #[Other

References] Duke + Ayensu: 80, Dastur: 53 (#75), Grieve: 425, Lad + Frawley: 170, Morton: 643, Manandhar: 144, Mabey: 122, Oliver-Bever: 67, Potter: 150, Quisumbing: 684, Shih-Chen: 210, 281, Tierra (1): 128, Tierra (2): 200, Wyk + Wink: 90, 403.

Centranthus ruber RED VALERIAN / BOUNCING BESS
#[Family] Valerianaceae, valerian family, ~Caprifoliaceae, honey suckle family. #[Genus] 9 species; Europe, northern Africa, southwestern Asia; one introduced in California. #[Species] í Centranthus ruber [bouncing bess, common red valerian, delicate bess, drunken sailor, fox brush, pretty betsy, red-spur valerian, red valerian], as above. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Red valerian is a perennial herb, with smooth, hollow, branching stems, somewhat shrubby at the base, growing up to about two feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate to ovate, stemless, somewhat succulent, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, tubular, fragrant, crimson-red to bright pink (rarely white), with five petals (fused at the base, and spreading at the apex), forming a slender spur arising from the base; grouped together in densely crowded clusters. Fruits are small, dry, narrow, one-seeded, nutlets, with a feathery crown at apex. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] This is a European plant, but in various places in California it has escaped from cultivation and gone wild. The leaves in the spring are supposed to be good in salads. The roots can be used like valerian as a sedative, but they are not as strong. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – constant use of dried roots can induce mental agitation. Fresh whole plant, tincture, 1:2, 30-90 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 70% alcohol, 30-90 drops; dried roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, two or three; all forms, up to three times a day. NOTE: Same dosages as for Valeriana [valerian]. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Grieve: 830, Sturtevant: 156, Tucker + Debaggio: 499, Wyk + Wink: 403.

Cephalanthus occidentalis BUTTON BUSH
#[Family] Rubiaceae, coffee-madder family. #[Genus] 6 species; tropics and North America. #[Species] í Cephalanthus occidentalis [button bush, western button bush], North America. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Button bush is a deciduous shrub or small tree, with grayish bark, reddish young twigs, and smooth stems, growing up to twenty feet tall (usually eight). Leaves are simple, opposite (sometimes whorled in threes), oblong-ovate to lanceolate, short- stemmed, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are very small, numerous, stemless, and funnel-shaped; with four white to pale yellow, narrow petals; and four short green sepals; grouped together in dense, spherical, stalked, terminal or axillary heads. Fruits are small and dry, splitting upward from the base into 2-4 one-seeded achene-like sections. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Cephalanthus occidentalis or button bush is used as a cholagogue (gall bladder and bile stimulant) and also as a bitter tonic. All parts of the plants are used, fresh or dry. Cephalanthus stimulates bile secretions in a person who doesn't digest fats very well – someone who needs an appetite stimulant, but not a laxative or an inflammatory stimulant to the colon. It’s very good for stimulating bile secretions that have been suppressed by using medical or other drugs. It can be used as a bitter tonic before eating a fatty meal. In Europe, it was used before doing an olive oil and lemon juice liver flush. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical

Dosage] CAUTION – Best for short-term use. Fresh bark and twigs, tincture, 1:2, 10-30 drops; dried bark and twigs, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-30 drops; either form, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Grieve: 492, Millspaugh: 299 (#76), Moerman: 110, Meyer: 52, Martinez: 443.

Cercocarpus montanus MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY
#[Family] Rosaceae, rose family. #[Genus] 8 species; western and southwestern North America. #[Species] í Cercocarpus montanus [alder-leaved mountain mahogany, common mountain mahogany, deer brush, deer bush, hard hack, mountain mahogany, palo duro, palo ludo, ponil, poñil], western United States except Washington, South Dakota to Texas. #[Editor] common name: ponil or poñil, usually applied to: Fallugia paradoxa [apache plume]; common name: deer brush or deer bush, also applied to Ceanothus integerrimus [red root]. #[Appearance] Mountain mahogany is an evergreen shrub, with reddish stems and gray lower bark, short spur-like branchlets, and hard, dark, red-brown heart wood, growing up to twenty feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate or bundled on spur shoots, oval to ovate, leathery, downy below, short-stemmed, with a prominent central vein and smaller side veins, smooth margins on the two basal sides, but serrated (saw-toothed) across the rounded tips. Flowers are small, usually solitary or in pairs, axillary, short-stemmed, petals absent, with five small yellowish sepals forming a small tube, flared at the apex, and enclosing 15-25 stamens and one style. Fruits are usually solitary, downy achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), with a characteristic single, long, feathery, style extending 2-4 inches beyond the fruit apex (a wind borne dispersal mechanism). Seeds are small, linear and membranous. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Mountain mahogany isn’t just another simple-minded, mild, rose family astringent. The leaves, bark, and wood are strong astringents with additional anti- microbial effects. It’s also a laxative used for constipation. As an astringent, it will help shrink an inflamed (but not actively bleeding) hemorrhoid, and it will also help shrink an inflamed prostate gland. Externally, a simple tea is used as a wash or a dressing for burns, abrasions, skin sores, and muscle traumas. Internally, it is used for sore gums, sore throats, diarrhea, upset stomachs and gastritis. The odd thing is, it’s used both as a laxative for constipation and as an astringent for diarrhea. However, Rumex crispus [yellow dock] roots, Plantago ovata [psyllium] seeds, and also Rheum barbarum [rhubarb] roots are also used to treat both intestinal extremes. In New Mexico, the leafy branches are placed under mattresses to help repel bed bugs. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried twigs, stems and leaves, strong decoction, 2-3 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 111, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 169, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Curtin: 147, Dunmire + Tierney: 62, 136-138, Moerman: 112, Mayes + Lacy: 68- 69.

Cetraria islandica ICELAND MOSS [Lichen]
#[Family] Parmeliaceae, shield-lichen family. #[Genus] 15 species (approximately); Arctic and northern temperate zones, especially at higher elevations on mountains; exact distributions for most lichen species have not been accurately mapped. #[Species] í Cetraria ericetorum [heath ice land moss], as

above; í Cetraria islandica [common iceland moss, caribou lichen, caribou moss, cetraria, iceland lichen, iceland moss], as above. #[Editor] Lichens are now classified according to their fungal component; hence, Cetraria islandica is placed in the Ascomycota or sac-fungus division. #[Appearance] (see below). #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] First off, Iceland moss isn’t a moss; it’s a lichen. It doesn’t produce true leaves, flowers, fruits, or seeds. It doesn’t even look very much like a moss. It’s not even considered to be a plant. It’s a fungus with an algae component growing inside in a symbiotic relation-ship. It grows on rocks, directly on the ground, and sometimes on the bases of tree trunks. Pieces of the thallus (organism body) look like a bunch of thick withered olive-brown leaves with gray mangy undersides, all raked together in a little pile ready for burning. It’s used in a manner very similar to Usnea barbata [tree moss] – another lichen mistakenly called a moss. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] Iceland moss is anti-tussive; it’s used as a soothing emollient and expectorant for coughs, sore throats, catarrh, bronchitis, hoarseness and similar irritations. It has also been used as a bitter tonic to treat loss of appetite. #[Medical Dosage] Dried lichen, 2-4 grams (about 1/15 ounce to 1/8 ounce), boiled in 8 fluid ounces of fruit juice, drunk warm. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Angier (1):106, Angier (2): 76, Grieve: 552, Hoffmann: 196, Holmes: 364, Lust: 237 (#224), Mabey: 96, Potter: 153, Sturtevant: 159, Tierra (2): 323, Wyk + Wink: 91, 404.

Chamaelirium luteum FAIRY WAND / BLAZING STAR
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Melanthiaceae, bunch flower family. #[Genus] 1 species; Ontario, eastern United States to Arkansas. #[Species] í Chamaelirium luteum [blazing star, common fairy wand, devil’s bit, fairy wand, false unicorn root, helonias, true unicorn root, unicorn root], = Chamaelirium carolinianum, = Helonias luteum, = Veratrum luteum, as above. #[Editor] Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] was often called: false unicorn root, and Aletris farinosa [star grass] was called: true unicorn root; however, Chamaelirium had better medicinal properties, and Aletris was sold as a substitute for it; therefore, ignore those common names. The former generic name: helonias, is now used correctly only as a common name; common name: blazing star, also applied to: Liatris punctata [gay feather] and Mentzelia albicaulis [stick leaf]. #[Appearance] Fairy wand is an erect perennial herb, with bitter tuberous rhizomes and roots; dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants), male plants grow up to 2Ω feet tall; female plants to 4 feet. Leaves are [1] basal and spoon-shaped, with long stems, and rounded tips; or [2] located on the stalk and lanceolate to linear, with no stems, and pointed tips; all have smooth margins. Male flowers are very small, with six, tiny, linear, white sepals that turn yellow with age, no petals, six thread-like stamens, and six round anthers; female flowers are larger, lack sepals or petals, have three compartments, and three short styles; both grouped together in long, narrow, erect (female) or somewhat drooping (male), terminal, spike-like racemes, both lacking bracts (leafy appendages). Fruits are erect, oblong, somewhat three-lobed, three-valved capsules. Seeds are small, widely winged at both ends, narrowly winged on the sides, with 6-12 in each compartment. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] The specific epithet: luteum, means: yellow because the male flowers have thin white sepals that look like petals and gradually turn yellow. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Chamaelirium works well as a fluid- extract. G Perhaps to some degree Chamaelirium will increase sensitivity to

estrogen. G The ovarian cycle is best handled by Angelica sinensis [dong quai], although Chamaelirium seems to be a fairly good ovarian stimulus. It’s is the closest herb in the west to Angelica sinensis [dong quai]. G It’s also helpful for enlarged prostate. It relieves painful testes the same way it relieves ovarian pain and neuralgia. G Chamaelirium and Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh] are used as synergists with Adiantum pedatum [maiden hair fern] for pelvic congestion and chronic uterine bogginess, where the uterus has poor tone, poor enervation and poor blood supply. The herbs are tonic to the structure, and when incorporated into connective tissue synthesis, they help strengthen the uterine lining. G Serenoa repens [saw palmetto], Angelica sinensis [dong quai], Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh] and Chamaelirium luteum [fairy wand] help with an enlarged prostate. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – Best if used in small doses as part of a formula. Otherwise, dried rhizomes and roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-40 drops, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Christopher: 287, 465, Felter: 404, Grieve: 823, Hoffmann: 189, Holmes: 308, Millspaugh: 716 (#177), Meyer: 57, Mabey: 81, Potter: 272, Tierra (1): 126, Wyk + Wink: 404.

Chamaemelum (Anthemis) nobile ROMAN CHAMOMILE
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 6 species; Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, Canary Islands, widely cultivated. #[Species] í Chamaemelum nobile [camomile, common camomile, common chamomile, common roman chamomile, garden chamomile, low chamomile, roman camomile, scotch chamomile, white chamomile], = Anthemis nobilis, Europe, naturalized in California and northeastern United States to Iowa and North Carolina. #[Editor] common names: chamomile and camomile, also applied to: Matricaria recutita [german chamomile] = Matricaria chamomilla. #[Appearance] Roman chamomile is an aromatic, branching, perennial herb, with creeping basal shoots, growing up to two feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, elongated, with pointed tips, and margins divided pinnately into numerous, narrow, 2-3 lobed segments. Flowers are small; peripheral ray florets are white, 10-15, appearing to be petals; central disc florets are yellow, numerous, each with five fused narrow petals; both grouped together in solitary, terminal, bare-stemmed, composite heads. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), somewhat cylindrical, ten-ribbed, with no fluff. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] In outward appearance, roman and german chamomile resemble each other, but roman chamomile is a stronger medicine – if it’s fresh. However, roman chamomile is so delicate, it’s therapeutic effects don't last very long in commerce. German chamomile is more durable, so it’s more widely used. The time between picking and purchase is much shorter. So, if you grow your own, wait until the afternoon, and harvest the flowers with less moisture and more aromatics. G Roman chamomile is bitter, and it acts as a stronger liver stimulant and intestinal tract anti-spasmodic than german chamomile. It contains a blue aromatic substance called azulene – also found in Achillea millefolium [yarrow] – which stimulates the synthesis and proliferation of liver enzyme producing cells. So, it’s very good for people who have had hepatitis, or extended liver stress, typhus, cholera, or lower GI infections with concurrent stress on the liver. It’s complementary with Silybum marianum [milk thistle]. G During an illness such as diarrhea, gastro-enteritis or colon infection, the liver absorbs a lot of blood toxins. With ulcerative colitis, the mucous membrane lining of the colon breaks down and becomes infected. Bacteria and waste products present in the portal

blood are sent to the liver. Liver toxicity causes a dull, depleted condition for two weeks following a case of diarrhea caused by salmonella, giardia, and bad foods. Chamomile helps the liver recover strength and function during recuperation from such illnesses. G German chamomile has virtually no effect on the liver. It’s only a mild sedative. G Both Roman and German chamomile steeped in olive oil make an excellent anti-inflammatory and soothing ointment. The semi-fresh or recently dried flowers are packed in a jar, covered with olive oil, and allowed to sit for two or three weeks before the oil is squeezed out. The resulting oil reduces inflammation, softens up the skin, and relieves redness, heat, and pain. It’s good for sprained, pained, or bruised muscles and joints, abdominal pain, and recent, painful surgical wounds. It decreases but won’t remove stretch marks. If applied topically, it decreases a tendency for adhesions after abdominal surgery. It’s good for skin that hurts and throbs. It’s for sharp aches, not dull aches. Roman chamomile works much better than german chamomile, but german chamomile helps if necessary. Physical exercise is also recommended. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowering herb, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces (as bitter tonic); dried flowering herb, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces (as diaphoretic). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 4, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 7. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 302, Boulos: 60, 198, Battaglia: 182, Christopher: 218, Felter: 189, Grieve: 185, Hoffmann: 180, Holmes: 462, Jain + DeFilipps: 71, 159, Kloss: 212, Kadans: 90, Lust: 144 (#82), Lad + Frawley: 111, Millspaugh: 331 (#84), Moerman: 41, Martinez: 454, Potter: 70, Rodale: 79, Sturtevant: 53, Tierra (2): 358, Wyk + Wink: 92, 404.

Chamerion (Epilobium) angustifolium FIRE WEED
#[Family] Onagraceae, evening prim rose family. #[Genus] 10 species; north temperate and arctic zones; formerly included in Epilobium with 165 species. #[Species] í Chamerion angustifolium [chamaenerium, chamerion, epilobium, fire weed, giant willow herb, great willow herb, narrow-leaved fairy wand, rose bay, wickup, willow herb], = Chamaenerion angustifolium, = Epilobium angustifolium, north temperate and arctic zones. #[Editor] common name: willow, usually applied to species of Salix [willow], but also to: Baccharis salicifolia [seep willow], Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], and Cornus sericea [red osier] = red willow; Erechtites hieracifolia is also known as fire weed. #[Appearance] Fire weed is a tall, erect, perennial herb, somewhat woody at the base, usually with a single stem, often found in aggregate colonies connected by underground roots, growing up to seven feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, stemless, long and narrow to lanceolate, dark green above, pale silver-green below, with a characteristic prominent light-colored central vein, many small lateral net-veins, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous, showy, slightly asymmetrical, bright lavender-pink-carmine-purple (rarely white), long-stemmed, with four unfused colored petals (rounded, spreading, and notched at apex), four unfused colored sepals (linear and alternating with petals), eight stamens (alternating from short to long); all grouped together in usually solitary, terminal, tall, spike-like racemes, with the newest flower buds at the tip. Fruits are long, thin, narrow, cylindrical capsules, with four compartments. Seeds are numerous, wind-borne, and bear a feathery tuft of hair at tip. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Fire weed grows all across the west, from Alaska to New Mexico, especially at higher elevations on mountains. It’s also the state flower of Alaska. In midsummer, the bright fire-like flowers cover whole mountain sides. G The tea

is safe but bland. You can take fairly large doses. The herb has one particular indication. It’s used for chronic, pasty, greenish to yellowish diarrhea, without heat or fever, especially in the spring time. This often happens up north where people tend to shift from a diet of predominantly meat and potatoes in the winter, to a diet with more green and red plants in the spring. A lot of semi-oxidized, green bile pigments end up in the feces. The condition might be called spring fever. It occurs more frequently in children and older people, than to the great moral majority in the middle. It occurs in kids on camping trips, or in adults who are changing their diet. It’s what the Chinese call cold diarrhea, an innocuous, non-infectious, non-inflammatory diarrhea. It’s characterized by rapid transport, rapid hepatic bile secretions, and short-term hyper liver functions. G Fire weed is also mildly anti-inflammatory – gentle but eventually effective – for mouth, throat, stomach and intestinal inflammations. It’s good for piles and hemorrhoids that flare up for a few days after eating food you’re hyper-sensitive to – like chili cheese dogs that leave you with rectal itching, two days of aching pains, and lingering heat. G Some prescription drugs taken for ulcers, colitis, and arthritis can cause lingering, low-level, swelling and dryness in the descending colon, and in men, a low-grade prostrate heaviness. G Fire weed seems to have no counter- indications when used with drugs. It decreases boggy swelling caused by the unwanted but unavoidable side-effects of some otherwise appropriate drugs. G Fire weed can improve colon tone and act as a laxative. The tea can be used for douches, enemas, and infant washes – any inflamation of an orifice or tender folded skin. G Externally, fire weed soothes, cools, and brings down swelling, but some other herbs are more dramatic, for example Arnica montana [arnica], Helenium hoopesii [sneeze weed, yerba del lobo], and Hyoscyamus niger [hen bane]. However, these herbs all have dangerous aspects. Fire weed is totally harmless. If you use an arnica poultice for a sprain, you could also drink a good amount of fire weed tea as an adjunct. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowering herb, standard infusion, as needed (diarrhea); 2-3 cups a day, for one week (inflammation). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 136, Mountain West Revision: 119, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 10, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 17. #[Other References] Angier (1): 80, Angier (2): 130, Felter: 353, Grieve: 847- 848, Jain + DeFilipps: 457, Moerman: 162, 163, Sturtevant: 255, Willard: 146, Wyk + Wink: 135, 409.

Chelidonium majus CELANDINE / SWALLOW WORT
#[Family] Papaveraceae, poppy family. #[Genus] 1 species; temperate and sub- arctic Europe and Asia, naturalized in eastern North America, south to Georgia, west to Manitoba and Nebraska, also in Montana, Utah, Washington and British Columbia. #[Species] í Chelidonium majus [common celandine, celandine, greater celandine, swallow wort], as above. #[Editor] According to Aristotle and other Greek naturalists, mother swallows bathed the eyes of their young offspring with the saffron juice from the plant to strengthen their vision. #[Appearance] Celandine is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb; with smooth, round, hollow, branching, but brittle stems, swollen at the joints; above ground plant contains an acrid-bitter yellow-orange (saffron-colored) juice that turns red when exposed to air; finger-sized roots are reddish-brown on the outside, yellowish-orange on the inside, with a whitish milky juice. Leaves are alternate, simple and pinnately divided, or else pinnately compound, with 3-5 leaflets; leaves and leaflets ovate to obovate (pear-shaped), with irregular rounded or scalloped lobed margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are bright yellow to yellow-orange, symmetrical, with four

round unfused petals, two sepals; grouped together in sparsely-flowered, long stemmed umbels. Fruits are smooth, long, linear, cylindrical, two-valved capsules, opening from the bottom upward. Seeds are crested. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] If used externally, the fresh juice can cause skin poisoning, so always dilute it with vinegar before an application. If used internally, an excess dose can cause lung congestion, liver damage, a narcotic effect on the nervous system, and poisoning. Just handling the fresh or crushed plant while gathering it or while preparing medicine can produce these effects, so use gloves. The roots are best gathered in the spring before the plant flowers. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Chelidonium majus [celandine] is a local vascular relaxant which stimulates bile secretion by relaxing arterial capillary walls as they pass over the bile ducts, making it easier for the liver to pour out bile. It also relaxes the bile ducts leaving the liver, the gall bladder duct, and the common duct. Chelidonium majus [celandine] stimulates a para-sympathetic response, which is opposite to tubular secretions under sympathetic adrenergic function. G In general, herbs to facilitate portal congestion include Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo], Collinsonia canadensis [stone root], small amounts of Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root], Euonymus [wahoo], Chelidonium majus [celandine], and also Chionanthus virginicus [fringe tree] bark. They help as short-term aids to drain congested venous blood into the lymph system. G Chelidonium majus [celandine] or Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root] increase permeability of bile vessels in the liver. Iris versicolor [blue flag] might be useful as a substitute for Chelidonium majus [celandine] for liver excess. G Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] is a synergist for liver stimulant herbs, especially for Chelidonium majus [celandine]. G If available, Chelidonium majus [celandine] is for gall bladder problems. Otherwise, use Chionanthus virginicus [fringe tree] or Iris versicolor [blue flag]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – handle with care; use with care. Fresh whole plant, including roots, tincture, 1:2; as a solitary medicine, use moderate doses, 10-25 drops, once a day, short-term; in a formula, use smaller doses, 5-10 drops, long-term. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 78, 351, Alvarez: 109, Duke + Ayensu: 472, Felter: 285, Grieve: 178, Hutchins: 73, Hoffmann: 194, Holmes: 156, Lust: 152 (#93), Millspaugh: 80 (#21), Meyer: 29, Mabey: 92, Potter: 68, Shih-Chen: 41, Sturtevant: 160, Tierra (2): 209, Wyk + Wink: 93, 404.

Chelone glabra BALMONY / TURTLE HEAD
#[Family] Plantaginaceae, plantain family, ~Scrophulariaceae, fig wort family. #[Genus] 6 species; eastern North America. #[Species] í Chelone glabra [balmony, common balmony, shell flower, snake head, turtle bloom, turtle head, white balmony, white turtle head], Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Georgia and Arkansas; í Chelone lyoni [pink balmony, pink turtle head] southern Maine to eastern Tennessee and Georgia; í Chelone obliqua [red balmony] Florida to Maryland, Arkansas to Minnesota. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Balmony is a perennial herb, with simple, erect, smooth, square stems, growing up to three feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, short-stemmed, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, with mildly serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are asymmetrical, nearly stemless, with five fused rounded green sepals, five fused tubular elongated colored petals (forming a two-lipped structure resembling a turtle’s head), white to cream, pink-rose-magenta, or purplish-red; grouped together in short, dense, axillary or terminal spikes. Fruits are ovoid capsules.

Seeds are numerous, compressed and winged. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Chelone glabra grows back east. The flowers resemble those of others plants in the same family – Scrophularia [fig wort], Penstemon [beard tongue], or Pedicularis [louse wort]. The plant grows in damp soils, and it flowers in August or September. You can chew on a fresh leaf. The herb is intensely bitter, and it tastes horrible. Chelone stimulates the gall bladder and liver to increase bile secretions. As a bitter tonic and bile stimulant, it is particularly useful for impaired fat digestion. It’s specific for individuals who over indulge in fatty foods or who don't digest fat very well. It’s highly effective in stimulating secretory reflexes in the mouth, stomach, and gall bladder. The infusion is used as a bitter tonic. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 10-20 drops, up to three times a day; dried plant, cold infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces, up to three times a day; dried plant, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Christopher: 458, Felter: 286, Grieve: 77, Hutchins: 21, Hoffmann: 167, Holmes: 170, Kloss: 200, Kadans: 47, Lust: 382 (#457), Millspaugh: 441, 442 (#113), Moerman: 114, Meyer: 128, Mabey: 112, Potter: 24, Wyk + Wink: 404.

Chilopsis linearis DESERT WILLOW / MIMBRE
#[Family] Bignoniaceae, trumpet flower family. #[Genus] 1 species; southwestern United States, Texas to Kansas, Georgia, northern Mexico. #[Species] í Chilopsis linearis [desert willow, flor de mimbres, flowering willow, linear-leaved desert willow, mimbre], = Catalpa linearis, as above. #[Editor] common name: willow, usually applied to species of Salix, and also to: Baccharis salicifolia [seep willow], Chamerion angustifolium [fire weed] = willow herb, and Cornus sericea [red osier] = red willow. #[Appearance] Desert willow is an erect, deciduous, shrub or small tree, with spreading branches, growing to about 40 feet tall. Leaves are willow-like, simple, mostly alternate (lower ones sometimes opposite), linear and elongated (sometimes slightly curved), nearly stemless, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are aromatic, large, showy, numerous, usually pink, often with purplish streaks or spots, and asymmetrical; with five fused petals, tubular at the base, flared at the apex, two-lipped, bell-shaped or trumpet-shaped; grouped together in short, erect, terminal racemes. Fruits are thin, linear, elongated, cylindrical capsules, with two compartments, one central seed-bearing partition, opening at the sides, and persisting after the leaves have fallen. Seeds are numerous, and flat, with two, lateral, dissected or frayed, hairy wings. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Chilopsis linearis [desert willow] is very common in the American southwest, usually found at elevations between 2,000 and 6,000 feet. Desert willow, is also called mimbre. It grows where water is located between five to ten feet below the ground. G Medicinally, it’s similar to Tabebuia [pau d’arco]. It’s just as strong, although very few people know about it, and it can be used as a reliable substitute. It has anti-fungal and anti-microbial properties. It’s used especially as a douche for candidiasis. G Sometimes, after anti-biotic therapy, or anti- inflammatory drugs, many people have episodic cases of foul burps, acid indigestion, loose or abnormal stools, hemorrhoids, rectal itching, or varicose veins. These various symptoms can be caused by a subtle, intransigent candida infection located in the upper and lower ends of the intestinal tract. Desert willow, used by itself, or in combination with Echinacea [cone flower] and/or Castela emoryi [chaparro amargosa], makes a sensible treatment. G Desert willow tea is

also used as an enema. G The dried powdered leaves, applied externally, act as a first aid treatment for general skin problems – infections, ring worm, tinea, scrapes, and scratches, etc. The tincture also works, but it stings. G A tea made from the flowers, drunk hot or placed in a moist hot poultice, is used for tight, dry, sore throats, accompanied by hectic coughing, a flushed face, thin rapid heart beats, and a feeling of weakness in the chest and lungs. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Echinacea [cone flower], Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], Tabebuia [pau d’arco], and Castela emoryi [chaparro amargoso] are all good for immunity. G Echinacea [cone flower] and Chilopsis linearis [desert willow] are used for candida. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried bark and twigs, strong decoction or cold infusion, 3-6 fluid ounces, up to three times a day; dried leaves and stems, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, up to four times a day; also dried whole plant, powdered, for topical applications. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 44, Los Remedios: 58, Pacific West: 294, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Martinez: 458.

Chimaphila umbellata PIPSISSEWA / WINTER GREEN
#[Family] Ericaceae, heath family, ~Pyrolaceae, shin leaf family. #[Genus] 5 species; Europe, Asia, North America, south to tropical South America. #[Species] í Chimaphila maculata [spotted pipsissewa, spotted winter green, spotted prince’s pine, striped prince’s pine], eastern North America, Arizona and northern Mexico; í Chimaphila umbellata [common pipsissewa, pipsissewa, prince's pine, wax flower, winter green], Europe, Asia, Alaska, Canada, western United States, northern Mexico, north central and northeastern United States, to Georgia. #[Editor] common name: winter green, also applied to: Gaultheria procumbens [eastern winter green], Gaultheria shallon [salal] = western winter green, and most species of Pyrola [shin leaf]. #[Appearance] Pipsissewa is a low- growing, perennial, ever green, herb, partially woody near the base; with creeping, interconnected, white roots; slender, angular, trailing stems; erect flowering stalks which grow to about one foot tall. Leaves are simple, usually whorled, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, thick, shiny, leathery, and short-stemmed, with serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. (Chimaphila maculata has mottled/spotted leaves with white streaks or blotches along the veins, and sharply pointed tips; Chimaphila umbellata has leaves without white colorations, and more rounded tips). Flowers are waxy, symmetrical, white to pink, with purple centers, five sepals, five petals fused at the base and spreading at the apex (not urn-shaped); grouped together in long-stemmed, terminal corymbs. Fruits are erect, round capsules, with five compartments, splitting downward from the apex. Seeds are tiny and numerous. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Chimaphila umbellata grows in the north country all across the United States and Canada. Snip off the stems where they turn root-colored, dry the leaves, break them up a bit, and put them in a sealed mason jar with a tablespoon of brandy. The constituents are fairly water-soluble, but they usually need to be soaked over- night to be totally accessible. However, after about twenty minutes in the alcohol fumes, you can make a tea with the leaves. You can make either a fresh plant or dried plant tincture, and the dried plant is used for tea. G The dried plant is a urinary tract medicine. The fresh plant is used more as a skin alterative and sub- cutaneous medicine, but it also works on the urinary tract. Taken internally, the fresh plant tincture acts as a skin alterative for dry patches, fissured skin, tinea, dry skin funguses, dry exfoliated dermatitis, and dry psoriasis. A person with a strong skin deficiency generally also has a strong kidney deficiency with frequent

urination and constipation. All the natural moisture left the skin. G Pipsissewa brings heat and nutritive blood supply back to the skin, and it stimulates skin regeneration. The main skin blood supply goes through connecting arterial and venous capillary beds. Often, the whole beds have collapsed. Chimaphila dilates the arterial venous bed below the skin and gets more blood into sub-cutaneous sinus beds. Occasionally, it makes the skin red and inflamed. G It works well internally with Mahonia [oregon grape] and Berberis [bar berry] for liver protein synthesis, and with Larrea tridentata [chaparral, creosote bush] for improved fat and liver metabolism. It’s complementary with Capsicum annuum [cayenne], Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], or Zingiber officinale [ginger] as a circulatory stimulant. It’s also amicable with Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root] as a sympathetic cholinergic skin stimulant. Most sympathetic functions aren’t flight- or-fight. They involve local metabolism. Therefore, they make acetylcholine, and not adrenalin. They don't respond to brain stress, only to overall body stress. G Pipsissewa is astringent, diaphoretic, and diuretic. It’s very good for chronic, recurring cystitis and urethritis. G The dried herb is commonly used as a urinary tract disinfectant. Because it doesn't contain much tannin, you can use it for extended periods of time, for several months, even during pregnancy. However,
in the same family, you also have
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [bear berry] and Arctostaphylos pungens [manzanita], which are very strong and effective, but you can't use them for more than four days, or you start to tan your stomach and get membrane constriction. G Chimaphila is most active in alkaline urine, but it also works in acid urine. In women, nearly 90% of urinary tract infections have alkaline urine; in men, only 50%. #[Field Notes] [Montana] Chimaphila prefers acid soil. The leaves contain alkaloids not present in the stems, and one ingredient used to make root beer. G The dried leaves act on the kidneys and lower urinary tract as a diuretic. They’re sometimes used for sub-acute or chronic kidney inflammation. The fresh leaf tincture is a topical counter-irritant used as a skin wash. Internally, the tincture acts as a skin tonic and alterative – an agent which stimulates a change already in progress and brings normal metabolic changes to resolution. G Pipsissewa would be good for skin dysfunction such as eczema, psoriasis, waxy skin, proliferate skin disorders, and dermatitis. For sub-acute or chronic skin deficiencies, such as cracks that don't heal or seborrhea in the scalp, pipsissewa stimulates blood supply, metabolism, and healing. A tea made of dried stems of Solanum dulcamara [bitter sweet] gives the same effect, only stronger. When used as a skin alterative, pipsissewa should be supported with proper, nutrients, evacuation, and metabolism. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Chimaphila umbellata [pipsissewa] works well as a fluid extract. For acute urinary problems such as urethritis or cystitis, bathe the parts often in fluid containing Chimaphila, and drink the tea regularly. G Kidney nephrons can be strengthened with amino acids, ascorbic acid, bio-flavonoids, flavonoids and silica – also with Equisetum [horse tail], Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd’s purse], and Chimaphila umbellata [pipsissewa]. G For deficient skin diseases like eczema, dermatitis, or psoriasis, Chimaphila umbellata [pipsissewa] and Solanum dulcamara [bitter sweet] act as tonic alteratives to stimulate skin regeneration. Bitter sweet and pipsissewa are special case circulatory stimulants for conditions where the skin is the first area of complaint. G Stillingia sylvatica [queen’s root] is a good basic liver tonic. It’s an immuno-stimulant that strongly stimulates the lungs and bile secretions. It’s an alterative for joint problems and dry skin. It’s like Chimaphila, but it’s more active on the liver. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] NOTE: same dosages as for Pyrola [shin leaf]. Fresh plant, tincture, 1:2, 20-50 drops; dried plant, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 20-50 drops; either form, up to four times a day; also, dried plant, standard infusion, 4-8 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 127, Desert and Canyon West –, Los

Remedios –, Pacific West: 294, Mountain West Revision: 197, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Felter: 288, Grieve: 639, 850, Hutchins: 217, Holmes: 588, Lust: 310 (#341), Millspaugh: 408 (#104), Moerman: 115-117, Meyer: 96, Rodale: 415, Tierra (1): 149, Tierra (2): 224, Willard: 230, Wyk + Wink: 404.

Chionanthus virginicus FRINGE TREE / SNOW FLOWER
#[Family] Oleaceae, olive family. #[Genus] 100 species; tropics, sub-tropics, eastern Asia, eastern and southern United States. #[Species] í Chionanthus virginicus [gray beard tree, fringe tree, old man’s beard, poison ash, snow flower, virginia fringe tree, white fringe], eastern and southern United States. #[Editor] #[Appearance] Fringe tree is a deciduous, shrub or small tree, with downy twigs, growing to about twenty-five feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, oval to oblong, usually downy below and smooth above, with downy stems, narrow bases, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are conspicuous, white, and fragrant, covering the entire tree before or as the leaves first appear, with four small sepals, four long, linear fringe-like petals, fused only near the base; grouped together in large, loosely arranged, axillary, drooping panicles. Fruits are oblong to ovoid, bluish-purple to black, usually one-seeded drupes. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Fringe tree is related to common ash trees of the genus Fraxinus. Bark from one or two smaller roots or small strips of the tree bark can be collected without killing the whole tree. These are used mostly used as a cholagogue to treat liver and gall bladder problems – gall stones, hepatitis, jaundice, and cirrhosis. G The roots are also used in a general sort of way as a bitter tonic, diuretic, febrifuge, or laxative. Externally, the tea or tincture is applied as a wash to infected or inflamed wounds, sores, and bruises. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] In general, herbs to facilitate portal congestion include Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo], Collinsonia canadensis [stone root], small amounts of Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root], Euonymus [wahoo], Chelidonium majus [celandine], and Chionanthus virginicus [fringe tree] bark. They help as short-term aids to drain some waste products in congested venous blood into the lymph system. G If available, Chelidonium majus [celandine] is for gall bladder problems. Otherwise, use Chionanthus virginicus [fringe tree] or Iris versicolor [blue flag]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried bark, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; fresh bark, tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops; dried bark, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 30-60 drops; dried leaves, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; all forms, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 12. #[Other References] Bremness: 45, Felter: 286, Grieve: 328, Hutchins: 129, Hoffmann: 190, Holmes: 168, Kloss: 189, Lust: 201 (#164), Millspaugh: 544 (#136), Moerman: 117, Meyer: 90, Mabey: 89, Potter: 120, Tierra (2): 206, Wyk + Wink: 95, 404.

Chlorogalum pomeridianum AMOLE LILY / SOAP LILY
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Hyacinthaceae, hyacinth family. #[Genus] 5 species; western United States. #[Species] í Chlorogalum angustifolium [narrow-leaved amole lily] northern California; í Chlorogalum parviflorum [small-flowered amole lily] southern California; í Chlorogalum pomeridianum [amole, amole lily, common amole lily, soap lily, soap plant] southern Oregon to southern California. #[Editor] common names: amole and soap plant, also applied to species of Yucca [yucca]. #[Appearance] Amole lily is a perennial herb, growing from large, dark brown, heavily coated, hairy bulbs,

with a soapy, cream-colored, mildly onion-scented pith, nearly leafless flowering stalks, and growing up to about three feet tall. Leaves are mostly basal, elongated, linear to lanceolate, with smooth surfaces, smooth wavy margins, parallel veins, and pointed tips. Flowers are large, thin-stemmed, slightly aromatic, apparently solitary and scattered along the stalk [actually loose panicle], white, pink or bluish; with six long, erect, thin stamens; and six, unfused, long, linear, spreading, downward curving, persistent petals, each having a greenish or purplish mid vein. Fruits are rounded capsules with three compartments. Seeds are small, black, and round, with 1-2 per compartment. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] The main species is Chlorogalum pomeridianum. It can be found growing on hillsides in southern California. The bulbs resemble a large Allium cepa [onion] covered with lots of Cocos nucifera [coconut] hair. They contain a saponin called chlorogenin, which stuns or kills fish, but it leaves the flesh edible. The best way to store the bulbs is to put them upside down in some moist sand in a box, or store them in a plastic bag in the refrigerator. Chlorogalum is anti-fungal. It’s main value is as a wash for fungal skin problems like seborrhea, cradle crap, scalp tineas, barber’s itch, smelly dandruff, rashes under a beard or eye brows – and so on. It’s basically a good anti-fungal soap when used externally, but it’s somewhat toxic internally. Use it without any other regular soap in the affected area until the condition clears up. Cucurbita foetidissima [buffalo gourd or calabazilla] can be used in a similar manner. To increase the anti-fungal effect, add a tablespoon of fresh leaf tincture of Thuja plicata [arbor vitae], or Cupressus arizonica [arizona cypress], or else a cup of strong tea made from Mahonia [oregon grape] roots, into the mix while making the soapy water. Always make a fresh batch of shampoo each time you use it, because the soap quickly loses its effectiveness. It can also be used for mange and similar skin infections in dogs or cats, although the cats will object to the smell – and baths in general. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh bulb, grated, 2-4 tablespoons, placed in cheese cloth, rubbed into a froth in a cup of warm water; for skin wash, hair shampoo, or clothes. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 25, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 38, Mountain West Revision: 29, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 7, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13 #[Other References] Grieve: 770, Moerman: 117-18, Sturtevant: 162.

Cichorium intybus CHICORY / BLUE DAISY / CHICORÍA
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 7 species; Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Cichorium intybus [bachelor buttons, blue daisy, blue dandelion, chicoria, chicoría, chicory, common chicory, coffee weed] Europe, naturalized in North America. #[Editor] related species: Cichorium endivia, is common garden endive; Spanish name: chicoria or chicoría, also applied to: Taraxacum officinale [dandelion]. #[Appearance] Chicory is a perennial herb, erect and branching, growing up to three feet tall, with a long, deep, tap root. Leaves are simple, with rough surfaces, basal or alternate; basal-leaves are large, lanceolate to spoon-shaped, with short stems, dentate (toothed) or lobed margins, and pointed tips, somewhat resembling Lactuca [wild lettuce] leaves; stalk leaves are much smaller, alternate, lanceolate to oblong, stemless, eared at the base, clasp the stalk, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous, light blue to purplish-blue sometimes white to pinkish; peripheral ray florets appear to be petals, shortened, with five teeth at apex; central disc florets, only about 10-15; grouped together in long-stalked, axillary or terminal heads; heads usually solitary or sometimes in a loose group of two or three flowers. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), striated, five-angled, smooth,

shortened at apex, beakless; not forming a dandelion-like puff-ball. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Chicory, and also species of Tragopogon [goat beard, salsify], have basic properties and medicinal uses very similar to Taraxacum officinale [dandelion]. Essentially, these three herbs are used as a diuretic to alleviate sodium retention, and also to stimulate bile secretions in constipation without irritating the liver. We will cover the details when we get to dandelion. G The roots, collected in spring, can be split, dried, roasted, and powdered. They can mixed with coffee, or used alone as a coffee substitute. The diuretic effects remain after the roasting. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, strong decoction, 3-6 fluid ounces, up to four times a day. NOTE – same usages as for Tragopogon [goat beard, salsify]. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 54, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 294, Mountain West Revision: 80, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Angier (1): 56, Angier (2): 87, Boulos: 61, Duke + Ayensu: 161, Grieve: 197, Hutchins: 88, Holmes: 492, Jain + DeFilipps: 160, Lust: 155 (#97), Millspaugh: 364 (#93), Moerman: 120, Meyer: 29, Morton: 919, Mabey: 44, Potter: 74, Rodale: 85, Shih-Chen: 107, 229-30, Sturtevant: 167, Willard: 208, Wyk + Wink: 100, 404.

Cicuta douglasii WESTERN WATER HEMLOCK
Conioselinum gmelinii WESTERN HEMLOCK PARSLEY
Conium maculatum POISON HEMLOCK
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genera] [a] Cicuta; 8 species; north temperate zone; [b] Conioselinum; 10 species; temperate Europe, temperate Asia, and North America; [c] Conium; 6 species; temperate Europe and temperate Asia (3), southern Africa (3); some species naturalized in North America. #[Species] í Cicuta douglasii [beaver poison, cow bane, douglas water hemlock, water hemlock, western water hemlock], Alaska, British Columbia, western Alberta, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, California, northern Mexico; í Cicuta maculata [beaver poison, child bane, common water hemlock, cow bane, musquash root, water hemlock, wild parsnip], North America; í Conioselinum chinense [eastern hemlock parsley, hemlock parsley], = Athamanta chinense (in part), eastern Canada to Ontario, eastern United States to Minnesota, Nebraska, and Louisiana; í Conioselinum gmelinii [gmelin hemlock parsley, hemlock parsley, pacific hemlock parsley, western hemlock parsley], = Athamanta chinense, (in part), = Selinum pacificum, = Conioselinum chinense var. gmelinii, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California; í Conium maculatum [hemlock, poison hemlock, spotted hemlock, wild hemlock], Europe, Asia, Canada, United States (except Florida). #[Editor] common name: hemlock, also applied to Tsuga canadensis [hemlock spruce]; common name: parsley, also applied to: Lomatium dissectum [biscuit root, desert parsley], and: Petroselinum crispum [common parsley]; common name: poison, also applied to: Angelica venenosa [poison angelica], Piscidia piscipula [jamaican dog wood] = fish poison tree, and species of Toxicodendron [poison oak] = poison ivy and poison oak. #[Appearance] In general, these three plants and Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate], are all large umbels. They have the following characteristics in common, so you can’t really tell them apart by these traits. They’re all perennial herbs; with large, hollow stems; sometimes growing up to six feet tall. Leaves are alternate, compound (oddly pinnate), and hairless; with numerous leaflets or lobes, deeply incised margins, and pointed tips; lower leaves usually long-stemmed, upper leaves usually stemless. Flowers are small, white, compound, and symmetrical; with five sepals;

five petals; and five stamens (alternating with petals); grouped together in umbellets; umbellets in turn grouped together in loose, many-stemmed, erect, spreading umbels. Fruits are smooth, prominently ribbed, flattened on the sides, non-bristly, ovoid to spherical, schizocarps (double, partially fused, one-seeded, compartments, each splitting open at maturity). G The only real differences are as follows. [a] Cicuta douglasii [water hemlock], has non-aromatic roots; stems without purple spots; fruits without wings; very poisonous; usually growing near marshes or running water. [b] Conioselinum chinense [hemlock parsley], has non- aromatic roots; stems without purple spots; fruits with wings; non-poisonous; usually growing on dry ground. [c] Conium maculatum [poison hemlock], has non-aromatic roots; stems with purple spots; fruits without wings; very poisonous; usually growing near marshes or running water. [d] Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate], has very aromatic roots; stems without purple spots; fruits without wings; stems without purple spots; non-poisonous; usually growing on dry ground. G So, if the roots don’t smell like osha, don’t use the plant – and very carefully wash off your shovel or knife, just in case. #[Herbal Properties] analgesic, anodyne, anti-spasmodic, and sedative. But, why risk it? #[Class] Conium [poison hemlock], and (Cicuta) [water hemlock], are both highly poisonous. Conioselinum [hemlock parsley], despite it’s name, isn’t poisonous, but it has no useful medicinal properties. All three plants are members of the Apiaceae or parsley-carrot family. Poison hemlock was supposedly the plant used to execute Socrates way back in ancient Greece. Conium [poison hemlock], and Cicuta [water hemlock], have both been used medicinally – in very, very small doses, but I tend to leave them alone. For herbalists, they don't really fit anyone very well. They make you feel numb all over, and then you stop breathing. Even so, it’s a very good idea to be able to recognize these three plants in the field, because they can easily be mistaken for other commonly used medicinals in the same family, especially Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate]. We’ll probably see both Conium and Cicuta in Arkansas. We saw Conioselinum on Signal Peak. [#[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] alkaloids, conhydrin, coniine, gamma-coniceine, methyl-coniine, myrcene, N-methyl-pseudo- conhydrin, piperidine alkaloids, poly-acetylenes, pseudo-conhydrin, and volatile oil. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – highly poisonous; dangerous even in moderate amounts. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 184, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 187, 351, Alvarez: 113, Boulos: 180, Felter: 319, Grieve: 391, Jain + DeFilipps: 129, Lust: 316 (#350), Millspaugh: 265 (#68), Moerman: 130, Meyer: 98, Potter: 141, Sturtevant: 188, Wyk + Wink: 404, 406.

Cimicifuga racemosa BLACK COHOSH / BUG BANE
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 12 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Cimicifuga americana [american black cohosh, american bugbane, mountain black cohosh, mountain bugbane, summer black cohosh, summer cohosh], Appalachian mountains. í Cimicifuga arizonica [arizona black cohosh], central Arizona {threatened}; í Cimicifuga cordifolia [heart-leaved black cohosh], Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee; í Cimicifuga elata [tall black cohosh], Oregon, Washington and British Columbia; í Cimicifuga laciniata [cut-leaved black cohosh], Oregon, Washington {threatened}; í Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh, black snake root, bug bane, common black cohosh, rattle top, snake root] = Actaea racemosa, = Macrotys racemosa, eastern North America. #[Editor] common name: bane, also applied

to: Actaea rubra [bane berry, cohosh], Apocynum [dog bane, canadian hemp], Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane, horse weed], and Hyoscyamus niger [hen bane, fetid night shade], and Pluchea camphorata [marsh flea bane]; Latin name derived from: cimex = a bug, and: fugere = to drive away. Common name: cohosh, also applied to Caulophyllum thalictroides [blue cohosh], and species of Actaea [bane berry], Actaea alba [white cohosh], and Actaea rubra [red cohosh]. see also: snake root, in cross reference. Former generic name: macrotys, now used correctly only as a common name. #[Appearance] Black cohosh is a tall, erect, thin-stemmed perennial herb; with thick, creeping, knotty-scarred, tuberous rhizomes (dark gray-brown outside, and creamy-white inside), and flowering stalks growing up to eight feet tall. Leaves are large, pinnately compound (ternate-grouped in threes; sometimes further divided); terminal leaflets ovate to oblong, short-stemmed, often dissected or lobed in threes, with serrated (saw- toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, without petals, with five sepals resembling petals, which quickly fall off; grouped together in long- stemmed, showy, terminal (sometime branching) racemes. Fruits are dry, oval, several-seeded follicles (each opening at maturity along only a single front suture). Seeds are horizontal, in two rows, smooth, and flattened. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Black cohosh is a bigger plant than it’s relative Actaea [bane berry]. They frequently grow near each other. It’s a very useful plant. The roots are anti-inflammatory, peripherally vaso-dilating, anti-spasmodic, sedative, and estrogenic. The leaves have the same properties, except they aren’t estrogenic. The roots contain a drug called cimicifugin, which is used to treat uterine disorders and rheumatism. G As an anti-inflammatory, black cohosh helps with dull aching congested tissues, muscles with rheumatoid or myalgia distress – heaviness and aching weakness – especially in the legs, hips, abdominal muscles, and neck. It’s for dull aches, not sharp pains; it’s for venous inflamation, not arterial; it’s for congestive and cool situations, not red-hot. G As a peripheral vaso-dilator, black cohosh helps disperse blood out to the surface, increase membrane secretions, decrease peripheral blood vessel constrictions, slow and strengthen the pulse, and decrease (slightly) arterial blood pressure. It does so especially in the skin, kidneys, lungs, and intestinal mucosa. Small frequent doses are best, especially for adrenalin stress types. These effects are all good for the onset stages of labile hyper-tension. Black cohosh is for early functional imbalance, not later stages of pheo-chromo-cytomas or kidney failure. It helps lower the thermostat in a functional imbalance, not rebuild a furnace which has contracted an organic disease. G As an anti-spasmodic, black cohosh helps ease regular spasmodic cramps in tubular muscles. In women, this means uterine and fallopian cramps, or cramps which accompany slow, spotty menstruation. Due to it’s skin vaso-dilating properties, black cohosh helps increase the organizing secretions during menstruation – the fluids that add volume, prevent coagulation, and inhibit bacteria. In men, it also help decrease pain in the seminal vessels. It lessens or stops the pain of orchitis, and cramps due to excessive ejaculation or extended arousals (the so-called, semi-mythical, blue balls). It also helps alleviate, abdominal cramps from over-eating, and from eating with emotional tension. Also sleeplessness caused by gall-bladder or urinary-bladder pains. G As a sedative, black cohosh works best for sleeplessness caused by cramps, aches, pains, and headaches. It combines well with Valeriana [valerian] – which is a central nervous system sedative, but it also stimulates circulation and respiration. Since black cohosh sedates the blood vessels and lungs, the two herbs work better together than either herb does alone. G As an estrogenic, the root compounds in black cohosh don’t directly effect uterine or breast tissues. Instead, the hypo- thalamus in the brain interprets them as an estrogen metabolite, and it sends messages to the pituitary to lessen the surges of luteinizing hormone (LH), even

though ovarian estrogens aren’t actually present. This result is very useful for women in menopause who have hot flashes associated with decreased ovarian estrogen. The LH surges from the pituitary are futile attempts to induce increased ovarian function – which of course isn’t possible. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Cimicifuga [black cohosh] makes a strong fluid- extract. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy. Fresh rhizomes and roots, tincture, 1:2, 10-25 drops; dried rhizomes and roots, tincture, 1:5, 80% alcohol, 10-25 drops; dried rhizomes and roots, powdered, in capsules, #00, one or two; all forms, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 74, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Christopher: 397, Duke + Ayensu: 531, Felter: 466, Grieve: 211, Hutchins: 45, Hoffmann: 171, Holmes: 436, Kloss: 206, Kadans: 97, Lust: 124 (#53), Millspaugh: 37 (#11), Moerman: 121-2, Meyer: 18, Mabey: 100, Potter: 83, Tierra (1): 107, Tierra (2): 229, Wyk + Wink: 101, 404.

Cinchona calisaya QUININE BARK / PERUVIAN BARK
#[Family] Rubiaceae, coffee-madder family. #[Genus] 40 species; Andes to Costa Rica, and cultivated. #[Species] í Cinchona calisaya [copalquin, jesuit bark, malaria bark, peruvian bark, quina, quinine bark, yellow quinine], Andes, cultivated in India and western Africa; í Cinchona ledgeriana [gray quinine, ledger quinine], Andes, cultivated in India, China and Philippines; í Cinchona officinalis [brown quinine], Andes, cultivated in India; í Cinchona succirubra [red quinine], = Cinchona pubescens, Peru to Costa Rica, cultivated in India and China. #[Editor] common names: copalquin and quinine, also applied to: Hintonia latiflora [copalquin]; a related genus: Coutarea, with seven species from Mexico to Argentina, has similar uses; common name: quinine bush, applied to: Cowania mexicana [cliff rose] and Garrya wrightii [silk tassel]. #[Appearance] Cinchona species are small, ever green, tropical trees and shrubs, requiring acid soil. The bark is spongy, with a slight odor, a very bitter astringent taste, and various colors (yellow, red, brown, gray); strips peel off without harming the trees. Leaves are simple, opposite, elliptical to obovate (pear-shaped), short- stemmed, often downy below and smooth above, with a prominent mid-vein, smooth margins, and sometimes rounded or usually pointed tips. Flowers are aromatic, white to rose-pink, red to purplish, with five fused, tubular, silky, petals, flared and hairy-fringed at lobe tips; grouped together in terminal panicles. Fruits are drooping, ovoid to cylindrical or spindle-shaped capsules, opening downward from the base. Seeds are numerous and flat, with circular wings. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Cinchona is used primarily for malaria. In small amounts, its also used to suppress non-malaria fevers, and as a bitter tonic to stimulate poor appetite. It’s available here for purchase, although malaria is very rare in our area. Unfortunately, malaria has become somewhat resistant to quinine, and second or third generation anti-malarial agents are often needed. Quinine poses a problem in that the difference between a therapeutic and a toxic amount is very slight. It’s intensely bitter and somewhat dangerous. Even a moderate amount can cause ringing in the ears, red eyes, dizziness, head aches, diarrhea, fatigue, and temporary or permanent deafness. It increases the tendency to gout, and it decreases the ability to see green and blue. If necessary, this is a plant which is probably best used under the direction of a qualified physician, and prepared pharmaceutical doses of refined alkaloids are probably better than the crude herb. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Protozoa which cause malaria have a particular life cycle in which they

intermittently populate and then lie dormant. Cinchona [quinine] interferes with one phase of the cycle. The pyrogen response or nocturnal fever of malaria can also be reduced with Aristolochia [snake root]. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; otherwise, use with care. Dried bark, cold infusion, 1-2 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 36, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Christopher: 442, Duke + Ayensu: 560-561, Felter: 303, 589, Grieve: 153, 631, Hoffmann: 211, Jain + DeFilipps: 519, Kloss: 294, Lust: 306 (#335), Meyer: 94, Morton: 857, Mabey: 108, Martinez: 266, Oliver-Bever: 34, Potter: 76-77, Quisumbing: 899-900, Shih- Chen: 107, Wyk + Wink: 102, 405.

Cinnamomum camphora CAMPHOR / ALCANFOR
#[Family] Lauraceae, laurel family. #[Genus] 350 species; eastern and southeastern Asia, India, Australia, South Pacific islands, tropical North and South America. #[Species] í Cinnamomum camphora [alcanfor, camphor, common camphor], India, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Japan, southeastern Asia, Indonesia. #[Editor] common name: camphor, also applied to: Heterotheca subaxillaris [camphor weed], and Pluchea camphorata [marsh flea bane] = camphor weed; see also: Cinnamomum verum [cinnamon] in next entry. #[Appearance] Camphor is obtained from tall, tropical, ever green trees, growing up to 150 feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, ovate to oblong, leathery, short- stemmed, with reddish new leaves that turn shiny dark green above and a dull light green below, three prominent veins arising at or near the base, smooth margins, pointed tips, and a strong camphor smell when crushed. Flowers are tiny, numerous, yellow to cream, and covered with fine grayish hairs; grouped together in axillary panicles. Fruits are dark blue, olive-sized, oblong-ovoid, somewhat dry berries. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Camphor is used medicinally primarily as a respiratory stimulant, and externally as a counter- irritant. It’s an inhalant to treat colds, flu, fevers, pneumonia, lung inflammations and lung congestion. G The pleasant, cooling sensation in the nose and lungs is caused by stimulation of cold receptors in the mucous membranes. G Externally, an oil distilled from the wood is used as a counter-irritant for rheumatic conditions and muscle aches. G Camphor also stimulates the circulatory system, and it has been used for diarrhea and intestinal upsets. G This is one of several herbs used as an insect repellant. Others include: Cedrus atlantica [cedar], Cymbopogon citratus [lemon grass], Hedeoma [american penny royal], Lavandula angustifolia [lavender], and Mentha pulegium [penny royal]. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – use with care; can be toxic in large doses; for children under two years of age, use small inhalant amounts (too large a dose can cause respiratory arrest). Camphor is available in prepared nasal ointments, inhalant solutions, and chest rubs. Use them as directed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 112, Alvarez: 49, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 652, Bremness: 48, Battaglia: 290, 318, Duke + Ayensu: 388, Felter: 266, Grieve: 155, Hughes: 106, Holmes: 338, Jain + DeFilipps: 377, Kadans: 82, Lad + Frawley: 108, Manandhar: 151, Mabey: 76, Potter: 58, Shih- Chen: 87-88, Tierra (2): 361, 396, Wyk + Wink: 104, 405.

Cinnamomum verum CINNAMON / CANELA / CASSIA

#[Family] Lauraceae, laurel family. #[Genus] 350 species; eastern and southeastern Asia, India, Australia, South Pacific islands, tropical North and South America. #[Species] í Cinnamomum cassia [canela, cassia cinnamon, chinese cinnamon] = Cinnamomum aromaticum, China, Japan, Vietnam, Laos, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico, South America, widely imported; í Cinnamomum tamala [indian cassia, indian cinnamon, nepal cinnamon, tamala] northern India, Nepal, Himalayas, Myanmar (Burma); í Cinnamomum verum [canela, cassia, cinnamon, common cinnamon] = Laurus cinnamomum, = Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), India, Indonesia, southeastern Asia, Philippines, cultivated in tropics. #[Editor] see also: Cinnamomum camphora [camphor] in previous entry. #[Appearance] Cinnamon and cassia are obtained from small to medium, tropical, ever green trees, growing up to 30 feet tall (Cinnamomum verum) or 50 feet (Cinnamomum cassia), each with shedding pieces of bark called quills. Leaves are simple, opposite (Cinnamomum verum) or alternate (Cinnamomum cassia), ovate to oblong, leathery, short-stemmed, with bright orange new leaves (Cinnamomum cassia), becoming shiny-dark green above and dull-light green below, with three prominent veins arising at or near the base, smooth margins, and somewhat rounded (Cinnamomum cassia) or pointed (Cinnamomum verum) tips. Flowers are tiny, numerous, yellow to cream, and grouped together in axillary panicles. Fruits are red (Cinnamomum cassia) or purple (Cinnamomum verum), olive-sized, oblong-ovoid, somewhat dry berries. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Cinnamon is used as a spice and flavoring in cooking, but it also has several medicinal properties. Three grades of cinnamon quills are available in commerce. The thinnest flaky quills usually come from Sri Lanka; thicker quills come from Thailand and Indonesia, and semi-concave hunks of bark come from China. G The main medicinal value of cinnamon is as a hemo-static and astringent for mild, sub-acute conditions of the mucosa. Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd's purse] is best for acute conditions, cinnamon for moderate conditions, and Conyza canadensis [flea bane (canadian)] for mild conditions. Only the bark is hemo- static; cinnamon oil isn’t. The subtle tannins found in cinnamon bark don’t go into the oil. G Cinnamon bark oil is a disinfectant. It can be applied topically. Cinnamon leaf oil can be used with a liquid detergent like pine sol. G In the United States, the oil obtained from Senna alexandrina [senna] and from Cinnamomum verum [cinnamon] are used interchangeable. G The tincture of cinnamon requires some glycerin. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Cinnamon tastes good, is astringent, hemo-static, and good for sub-acute, irritable mucous membrane conditions. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried bark, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces; dried bark, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol and 5% to 10% glycerin, 20-50 drops; either form, up to four times a day; essential oil, 2-5 drops, in capsule, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 24, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 112, Alvarez: 100, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 34, 433, Bremness: 48, Battaglia: 184, 319, Duke + Ayensu: 388, Dastur: 55 (#76), Felter: 304, Grieve: 168, 169, 202, Hoffmann: 181, Holmes: 335, Jain + DeFilipps: 379, Kloss: 179, Kadans: 92, Lad + Frawley: 111, Manandhar: 153, Mabey: 76, Potter: 63-64, 77-78, Reid: 81 (#2), Reid: 116 (#92), Rodale: 90, Shih-Chen: 107-10, Tierra (1): 90, Tierra (2): 155, 245, Wyk + Wink: 103, 105, 405.

Cirsium undulatum PLUMED THISTLE / CARDO SANTO #[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family.

#[Genus] 250 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Cirsium undulatum [cardo santo, plumed thistle, wavy-leaved plumed thistle, wavy-leaved thistle], = Carduus undulatus, = Cnicus undulatus, Michigan to British Columbia, south to northern Mexico. #[Editor] common name: cardo santo, also applied to species of Argemone [prickly poppy]; common name: thistle, also applied to: Argemone platyceras [prickly poppy] = thistle poppy, Centaurea benedicta [blessed thistle] = holy thistle, Salvia carduacea [thistle sage], and Silybum marianum [milk thistle]; other medicinal thistles include: Carthamus tinctoria [saf flower], and Cynara scolymus [artichoke]. #[Appearance] Plumed thistle is a biennial herb, with white densely woolly stems, and tuberous roots. Leaves are large, simple, alternate, stemless or clasping, spiny-prickly, woolly beneath and less woolly above, lanceolate to oblong, with rough dentate (toothed) or pinnately lobed and wavy margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, numerous, tubular, rose to purple (rarely yellow-ocher), with five narrow fused petals; peripheral ray florets absent; central disc florets grouped together in usually large, solitary, terminal heads; with prickly tipped, woolly, bract-like (leafy) appendages beneath. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one-seeded), oblong to obovate (pear-shaped), smooth, flattened, with numerous plume-like bristles at tips. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] The roots are used to ease childbirth, control bleeding, as an intestinal astringent for diarrhea, and to relieve ear aches and head aches. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – this plant is apparently safe, but related thistles contain small amounts of toxic alkaloids; don’t use it for more than four consecutive days. Dried roots, strong tea or strong decoction, 2-4 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 27, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 53, Kindscher: 234, Moerman: 123.

Citrus aurantifolia LIME / LIMA
#[Family] Rutaceae, citrus-rue family. #[Genus] 20 species; southern and southeastern Asia to eastern Australia; some species widely cultivated in California, Florida, southern Europe, northern Africa, Brazil, West Indies, etc. #[Species] í Citrus aurantifolia [common lime, lima, lime, lime fruit, lime tree], as above. #[Editor] common name: lime, and: lime tree, also applied to: Tilia occidentalis [linden]. #[Appearance] Limes grow on ever green, shrubs or small trees, up to 13 feet tall; with slender, solitary, axillary, short, sharp, c inch spines; and smooth, grayish bark. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong-ovate to elliptical, glandular-dotted, glossy green above and paler below, with narrow wings on short stems, finely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, and aromatic; with cup-shaped, short-toothed sepals; and oblong, curved, fleshy petals; grouped together in short-stemmed, few- flowered (3-10), axillary racemes. Fruits are rounded to slightly oblong berries, with somewhat nipple-shaped at tips, characteristically lime-green in color turning yellow-green when ripe, with thick, slightly rough skin. Seed are white to light gray, smooth, hard, elliptical; growing within segmented pulp sections; pulp light green, very acid. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] The fresh leaves are pounded, soaked in water, and the cold infusion drunk for head aches. A warm infusion of fresh leaves is used for stomach aches, fevers accompanied by jaundice, and in smaller doses for vomiting during bilious fevers. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh leaves, cold infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, one or two times (head ache); fresh leaves, warm infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, two or three times (stomach

ache, fever/jaundice) or sipped, as needed (vomiting/bilious fevers). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Ayensu (1): 230, Ayensu (2): 164, Alvarez: 181, Bremness: 47, Battaglia: 224, Grieve: 476, 485, Honychurch: 84, Jain + DeFilipps: 533, Kay: 135, Morton: 373, Manandhar: 156, Martinez: 447, Potter: 172, Quisumbing: 448, Shih-Chen: 117, Schultes + Raffauf: 404, Wyk + Wink: 107.

Citrus aurantium ORANGE / NARANJO
#[Family] Rutaceae, citrus-rue family. #[Genus] 20 species; China, southern and southeastern Asia to eastern Australia; some species widely cultivated in California, Texas, Georgia, Florida, southern Europe, northern Africa, Brazil, West Indies, etc. #[Species] í Citrus aurantium [bitter orange, common orange, naranjo, naranjo clavo, orange, orange fruit, orange oil, orange peel, orange tree, seville orange], as above; í Citrus bergamia [bergamot orange], = Citrus aurantium var. bergamia, = Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia, Mediterranean, and cultivated; í Citrus sinensis [chinese orange, sweet orange], China, and cultivated. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Oranges grow on small ever green trees, up to 35 feet tall, with sharp thorns, and smooth grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple, alternate, oval to ovate, glandular-dotted, glossy green above and paler below, with wide wings on short stems, minutely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, aromatic, solitary or in small clusters, with five cup-shaped sepals, and five curved fleshy petals. Fruits are nearly spherical, characteristically orange-colored, berries, with thick rough skin, and hollow section at core. Seed are white to light gray, growing within segmented pulp sections. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] In New Mexico, orange flowers are made into a relaxing tea drunk before going to bed. They are sometimes mixed with Matricaria [camomile], Illicium [star anise], or Tilia [linden]. A tea is also made from the leaves to reduce fevers. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried flowers, simple tea, as needed; dried leaves, simple tea, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 59, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 165, Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 336, 338, Boulos: 155, 200, Bremness: 46, Battaglia: 236, 248, Duke + Ayensu: 571, Felter: 233, Grieve: 601, Holmes: 657, Jain + DeFilipps: 533, Kay: 135, Lust: 298 (#321), Morton: 374, Manandhar: 156, Mabey: 110, Martinez: 436, 460, Oliver-Bever: 47, Potter: 205, Quisumbing: 449, Reid: 127 (#116), Shih-Chen: 19, 111-117, Sturtevant: 174, Schultes + Raffauf: 404, Tierra (2): 255, Wyk + Wink: 106, 107, 405.

Citrus limon LEMON / LIMON
#[Family] Rutaceae, citrus-rue family. #[Genus] 20 species; southern and southeastern Asia to eastern Australia; some species widely cultivated in California, Florida, southern Europe, northern Africa, Brazil, West Indies, etc. #[Species] í Citrus limon [common lemon, lemon fruit, lemon peel, lemon tree, limon], as above. #[Editor] common name: lemon, also applied to: Cymbopogon citratus [lemon grass], Melissa officinalis [lemon balm], Mentha aquatica [water mint] = lemon mint, Monarda citriodora [lemon bee balm], Ocimum basilicum [basil] = lemon basil, and Pectis angustifolia [lemon weed, limoncillo]. #[Appearance] Lemons grow on small ever green trees, up to 20 feet tall, with sharp axillary spines; smooth gray trunk bark, greenish younger branches, and

purplish twigs. Leaves are simple, alternate, oval to ovate, glandular-dotted, glossy green above and paler below, with winged short stems, serrated (saw- toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white (tinged with pink or pale purple), aromatic, axillary, solitary or two in a cluster, with cup-shaped sepals, and curved, fleshy petals. Fruits are rounded to ovoid berries, with a nipple-shaped tip, characteristically lemon-yellow in color, with thick slightly indented skin. Seed are white to light gray, growing within segmented pulp sections. Pulp is pale-yellow, sour, and acidic. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Lemons were used to treat scurvy, long before vitamin C was discovered. The juice was sometimes incorrectly called “lime” juice, which resulted in the nick name “limey” being applied to British sailors. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] Generally, lemon peel is used to treat the stomach; in particular, fermentation, indigestion, and acute intestinal cramps, and also any other disorders in which stomach distress is a secondary symptom, i.e. arthritis, gall bladder pain, etc. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh peel, simple tea, as needed; fresh peel, pinch added to other teas and remedies for flavor. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 54, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Bremness: 46, Battaglia: 221, 236, Duke + Ayensu: 572, Felter: 446, Grieve: 474, Holmes: 538, Jain + DeFilipps: 535, Kadans: 145, Kay: 135, Lust: 252 (#250), Meyer: 72, Manandhar: 156, Oliver-Bever: 47, Potter: 169, Shih-Chen: 117, Sturtevant: 175, Wyk + Wink: 107, 405.

Citrus x paradisi GRAPE FRUIT / TORONJA
#[Family] Rutaceae, citrus-rue family. #[Genus] 20 species; southern and southeastern Asia to eastern Australia; some species widely cultivated in California, Florida, southern Europe, northern Africa, Brazil, West Indies, etc. #[Species] í Citrus x paradisi [common grape fruit, grape fruit, toronja], = Citrus maxima [pomelo, shaddock] Citrus sinensis [sweet orange], as above. #[Editor] The symbol indicates this species is a hybrid between the pomelo and sweet orange; similar common name: toronjil, applied to: Cedronella canariensis [canary balm], Melissa officinalis [lemon balm], and Mentha aquatica [water mint]. #[Appearance] Grape fruits grow on small ever green trees, usually about 20 feet tall, rarely 40 feet, with smooth grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple, alternate, oval to ovate, glandular-dotted, glossy green above and paler below, with short-stems without wings, minutely serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and somewhat pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, aromatic, axillary, solitary or in small clusters (2-5), with four cup-shaped sepals, and four fleshy petals. Fruits are large, spherical, yellowish-orange berries, with thick, slightly indented skin. Seeds are white to light gray, growing within segmented pulp sections. Pulp is white, pale-yellow, pink, or red (depending on cultivar), sour to somewhat sweet (red colors usually sweetest), and acidic. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] An extract made from fresh grape fruit seeds and fresh grape fruit pulp is very bitter, and it acts as an immuno-stimulant. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Quercus [oak] bark and Citrus paradisi [grape fruit] rind will clarify the quality of blood capillaries and diminish the inflammatory response. G Iris versicolor [blue flag] and Citrus paradisi [grape fruit] juice would help set up the pancreas. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] fresh seeds and fresh pulp, extract, 100% glycerin, 1-4 drops, in 8 fluid ounces water, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Battaglia: 210, Jain +

DeFilipps: 535, Wyk + Wink: 107.

Clematis ligusticifolia VIRGIN BOWER / TRAVELER’S JOY
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 300 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Clematis columbiana [columbia river virgin bower, columbia virgin bower], = Clematis pseudoalpina, western United States (except California and Nevada), North and South Dakota, Texas; í Clematis crispa [crispy-leaved virgin bower, swamp leather flower], Florida to Texas, Virginia to Missouri; í Clematis hirsutissima [arizona hairy virgin bower, hairy virgin bower], western United States (except California and Nevada), South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma; í Clematis lasiantha [coyote rope, pipe-stem virgin bower, woolly-flowered virgin bower], California; í Clematis ligusticifolia [barba de chivo (beard of the kid), clematis, leather flower, oshá-leaved virgin bower, traveler joy, travelers joy, traveler’s joy, virgin bower, virgins bower, virgin’s bower, western virgin bower], British Columbia to Manitoba, south to Oklahoma, New Mexico and northern Mexico; í Clematis occidentalis [purple virgin bower western blue virgin bower], = Clematis verticellaris, eastern Canada, northeastern United States to Minnesota and North Carolina; í Clematis pauciflora [barba de chivo, rope-vine virgin bower, small-flowered virgin bower], California; í Clematis viorna [leather-flowered virgin bower, vase vine], Ontario, Pennsylvania to Missouri, Georgia to Arkansas; í Clematis virginiana [devil’s darning needles, virginia virgin bower], eastern and central North America; í Clematis vitalba [white virgin bower], Europe, introduced from California to British Columbia. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Clematis ligusticifolia is a trailing or climbing, vine-like, perennial herb, with smooth stems, somewhat woody at the bases, and dioecious (male and female flowers located on separate plants). Leaves are pinnately compound, and opposite; with thin, twisting-clasping, tendril-like stems; leaflets are usually five (sometimes seven), oblong-ovate to lanceolate, short-stemmed, with lower pair usually separated from upper leaflets, dentate (toothed) margins, rounded bases, and pointed tips. Flowers are symmetrical, with no petals and four woolly sepals (resembling petals); male flowers are solitary, drooping, bell-shaped, pale-mauve to light-purple, with numerous stamens; female flowers are clustered, erect, white to cream-colored, with numerous pistils becoming long, plume-like, persistent, white styles, and grouped together in leafy, hairy-stemmed, panicles. Fruits are achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one- seeded), with downy hair. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Okay, this is Clematis. The above-ground plant parts, fresh or dried, are used medicinally, either as a tincture or tea, but the dried plant is more practical. Clematis works in particular for classic migraine head aches, especially in people for whom vaso-constrictors don't work very well. It’s a vaso-dilator which diffuses inflammation and disperses blood. Some people have a nervous affectation in which they get vaso-constriction in the brain lining. (Raynaud's syndrome is similar: stress conditions or cold set up vaso-constriction in the hands). G With temporal mandibular joint problems, inflammation can affect the trigeminal nerve pathway and set up a trigger point. Migraines are a nerve pathway phenomenon. The more a nerve pathway is used, the stronger and more dominant it becomes. The more migraines a person has, the easier it is to get migraines. Adrenalin rushes, low blood sugar, allergies, and stresses can all initiate migraines. Making the migraine less painful is a way of reeducating the habit. G The initiation of a migraine is the vaso-constriction, or involuntary stress cramp of a small blood vessel in the brain lining, which temporarily deprives that area of blood. It’s almost always accompanied by a visual disturbance – such as little sparks or spots in front of the eyes, or sometimes dizziness. G About 80% of

the time, one gets a visual symptom; about 15% of the time, one feels nausea, and sometimes neither. G The aura is the precursor. When tissues in the brain lining are cramped and deprived of blood, they secrete inflammatory hormones and histamines. After a while, the constriction relaxes, blood returns to the blood- deprived tissues, the tissues are hyper-toxic and inflamed, and the head ache starts. G Vaso-constriction usually occurs because of sympathetic and para- sympathetic constriction, not from local nerves. The central nervous system uses a quarter of the body's blood sugar, and it produces a quarter of its carbon dioxide. However, the brain is the body's hottest and most expensive organ. Because the brain has such a rapid rate of metabolism, its response is particularly drastic when deprived of blood. After an hour or more, capillaries start to leak blood plasma and blood proteins. Extra-circulatory, starch-based gels start to dissolve or break down in the presence of too much blood protein or albumin. Albumin mixes with the gel, edema forms, and the edema has no where to go. Cerebral-spinal fluid (already under pressure) then pushes the brain up against the skull, which creates an impenetrable wall of pain. The larger the cramped area in the brain lining, the greater the edema, and the longer the migraine endures. Some people have cluster head aches with cumulative migraines. The aura is the external neurologic symptom of the internal vascular cramp. G For the aura stage, a few plants quickly get into the blood stream if taken orally. Pulsatilla vulgaris [pulsatilla] contains easily absorbed aromatic camphors which quickly get to the brain, disperse blood, and loosen the cramp. Pulsatilla gives a lift, but it shouldn’t be used everyday. It has similar constituents as Clematis, and it can be used in a similar manner. G The standard approach for migraines is caffeine and Ustilago maydis [corn smut, corn ergot] derivatives. The two hour inflammatory period can be constricted with caffeine from Coffea arabica [coffee], Paullinia cupana [guarana bean], or Cola nitida [kola nut]. If the fluid can be dispersed laterally with Clematis, the edema won't occur. If the initial visual disturbance and cramp cannot be turned around, the head ache will follow. Two hours into the migraine head ache there is so much inflammation under so much pressure that edema results. G Generally, there are two types of vaso-constrictors – caffeine or theophylline as in chocolate, or artery vaso-constriction as in Vinca major [peri winkle] which also inhibits inflammation. When vaso-constrictors don't help, sometimes vaso-dilators will. G Clematis is effective in the inflammatory stage of the migraine. It opens up vessels in the brain lining and helps disperse the inflammation. Clematis isn’t rapidly absorbed in the mouth or aromatic. It must be absorbed into the blood stream through the stomach. By that time, the aura is gone, and one has the head ache. So, Clematis won’t arrest the aura. It’s an herb for the first hour during the inflammatory stage. You get aura, inflammation, and then edema. Nothing can touch the edema. G People who get chronic migraines often get their energy from stress patterns. They manipulate themselves, and a migraine is an occasional side effect or price. If you rely on vaso-constrictors for migraine head aches without changing basic patterns, the migraines occur more frequently, and eventually vaso-constrictors won't work because they suppress inflammation. Their drug effect wears off. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Recently dried herb, standard infusion, 2-6 fluid ounces, up to two times a day; recently dried herb, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-40 drops, up to three times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 58, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 20, Pacific West: 294, Mountain West Revision: 86, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Grieve: 206, Kloss: 323, Lust: 384 (#460), Moerman: 124, 125, 126, 516, Tierra (2): 234, Willard: 94, Wyk + Wink: 405.

Cleome serrulata ROCKY MOUNTAIN BEE PLANT
#[Family] Brassicaceae [/Cruciferae], mustard-cabbage family, ~Capparidaceae, caper family. #[Genus] 150 species; tropics and sub-tropics. #[Species] í Cleome serrulata [bee plant, cleome, guaco, mountain bee plant, rocky mountain bee plant, skunk weed], Canada, United States (except southern states from Arkansas to Virginia). #[Editor] common name: guaco, also applied in southern Mexico to several toxic species of trees and vines in genera Mikania (Asteraceae), and Aristolochia [snake root] (Aristolochiaceae). #[Appearance] Bee plant is an erect, branching, annual herb, with smooth stems. Leaves are alternate, compound (trifoliate), lower short-stemmed, upper nearly stemless; three leaflets are stemless, lanceolate to linear, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are showy, white or rose-magenta, symmetrical, with thin stems, and four short-clawed, cross-shaped, petals; grouped together in elongated, long- stemmed racemes, with linear bracts (leafy appendages). Fruits are stemmed, linear, elongated, cylindrical capsules, with constrictions at intervals, stipules (leafy appendages) at stem bases, one compartment, pointed tips, and many seeds. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Rocky Mountain bee plant is a small non-toxic annual herb. The dried herb is powdered, mixed with Nicotiana [tobacco] and enough water to make a paste, and applied externally to insect bites and painful skin eruptions. The dried herb is also boiled in water with a nail as a simple tea, and used for anemia and thin blood. The seeds are edible. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried herb, as above. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios: 46, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Curtin: 93-95, Dunmire + Tierney: 29, 80, 182-184, Kindscher: 235, Moerman: 126, Mayes + Lacy: 12-13.

Coffea arabica COFFEE
#[Family] Rubiaceae, coffee-madder family. #[Genus] 90 species; tropical Africa, cultivated in tropics. #[Species] í Coffea arabica [arabian coffee, coffee, coffee beans, java, joe, mocha, etc.], = Caffea arabica, tropical Africa, widely cultivated in tropics. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Coffee comes from small, ever green, shrubs or trees, with slender smooth trunks, growing to about 30 feet tall in the wild, but kept much shorter when cultivated. Leaves are simple, opposite, smooth and shiny, dark green above and paler below, elliptical to ovate-oblong, about six inches long and three wide, with short stems, prominent veins, smooth somewhat wavy margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, white, symmetrical, aromatic, short-lived (1-2 days), with five narrow petals; grouped together in dense, axillary, clusters at the leaf bases. Fruits are small, oblong to round, fleshy berries, with smooth red skins (or sometimes yellow or purple), and usually two seeds (called beans). Seeds are elliptical, gray-brown (dark brown after roasted), convex on one side, flat on the other, with long side furrows, and thin paper covers (removed prior to roasting). #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Coffee, of course, is used as a stimulant due to its caffeine content, but it is also a diuretic. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Coffea arabica [coffee] may be used as a fluid extract. G Coffea arabica [coffee] is used as an enema for a good short-term procedure to draw out sodium through the colon without irritating the myenteric plexus or the para-sympathetics as do many cathartics. It would be a safe, passive, non-toxic sodium leacher for a person who is border line {azotemic}?, borderline auto-toxic, and {pre-eclampsia}? A pregnant woman wouldn’t want the reflex of an enema. G Caffeine is predominantly a sympatho-mimetic, and it is also used to treat migraines. Coffee

has both sympathetic and para-sympathetic implications. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roasted beans, freshly brewed black coffee; dried roasted beans, cold infusion; either form as an enema, 4-12 fluid ounces, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 6, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 10. #[Other References] Ayensu (2): 161, Alvarez: 97, Felter: 256, 257, Grieve: 210, Kadans: 96, Morton: 859, Potter: 82-83, Quisumbing: 901, Rodale: 94, Sturtevant: 183-84, Wyk + Wink: 108, 405.

Cola nitida KOLA / KOLA NUTS
#[Family] Sterculiaceae, chocolate-karaya family. #[Genus] 125 species; tropical Africa, cultivated in tropics. #[Species] í Cola acuminata [abata kola, gurru nuts], tropical Africa; í Cola anomala [bamenda kola], tropical Africa; í Cola nitida [cola, cola nuts, common kola, common kola nuts, kola, kola nuts], = Cola vera, tropical Africa, cultivated; í Cola verticillata [owé kola], tropical Africa. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Cola nuts grow on tropical, ever green trees, reaching to about 50 feet tall. Leaves are large, simple, alternate (sometimes whorled), shiny, leathery, oblong to ovate, with smooth margins, somewhat rounded tips with a small point at the apex. Flowers are pale tan-yellow, with inner reddish- purple streaks and lines, and five, unfused, star-shaped sepals which appear to be petals (true petals are absent); grouped together in axillary clusters. Fruits are large, yellowish-brown, woody-lumpy, compound (divided into five star-shaped fingers) pods; each pod contains 4-12, laterally flattened, seeds, with white, sweet seed-coats, and red, pink or white kernels, which turn dark reddish-brown when dried. Cola acuminata has wider, longer leaves and smaller plain pale yellow flowers. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] The main species are Cola nitida and Cola acuminata. The nuts act as a central nervous system and cardiac stimulant. They contain caffeine (also found in Coffea arabica or coffee) and theobromine (also found in Theobroma cacao or chocolate). They were one of the two original main ingredients in cola-flavored soft drinks – the other being Erythroxylum coca from which cocaine is derived – hence: Coca and Cola. The only other thing you need is sugar. G Medicinally, cola nuts are used for hypo-tension, mild bradycardia, depression, dural head aches which are not migraines but inflammation of the brain lining, auto-toxic head aches, and dull, aching, throbbing pain. These are hang-over type head aches, pre-menstrual head aches, bad food head aches, and head aches of the brain lining due to blood toxicity. G Cola nitida is a good sensible herb for low blood pressure and slow pulse in a kidney deficient person. When taken with a little Panax ginseng [chinese ginseng], it’s good for someone with low energy but basically sound blood vessels. It’s a better tonic than coffee. It has broader effects, and it’s not so speedy. Cola stimulates skeletal muscular tissue more than coffee. It’s good in capsules, tincture, or tea. It’s good for people with poor sympathetic strength or exhausted adrenals. G That state doesn't arise from adrenalin stress, but from long term physical depression, mono-neucleosis, or a long term illness. Part of the problem is that adrenergic functions haven't been utilized, and the body has been living on itself. The body is in a sympathetic depressed, para-sympathetic dominant state. The adrenals don’t get exhausted from use. Fresh kola nuts contain an adrenergic stimulant called: kola red, which gives both a cardio- vascular and muscular stimulus. It would be especially good for a hyper-thyroidal person, because thyroid excess weakens muscles. G An adreno-cortical stress person has large, weak, hypo-tonic muscles. A thin, gnarly adrenalin stress person has small, strong, hyper-tonic muscles. G Fresh tincture of kola is an impeccable tonic. The fresh or dried kola nuts increase muscle efficiency, giving more muscle

contraction with less calories. Kola nut is also a body mood elevator. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] The fluid extract of Cola nitida [kola nut] would also act as a stimulant. Cola nitida [kola nut] would be a good tonic to give more muscle, respiratory, and cardiac strength. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried seeds, strong decoction, 2-6 fluid ounces, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 13. #[Other References] Ayensu (1): 255, Ayensu (2): 180, Bremness: 50, Felter: 441, Grieve: 458, Hoffmann: 198, Lust: 247 (#241), Meyer: 68, Morton: 550, Mabey: 116, Oliver-Bever: 65, Potter: 163-164, Sturtevant: 184-185, Wyk + Wink: 109, 405.

Collinsonia canadensis STONE ROOT / HORSE BALM
#[Family] Lamiaceae [/Labiatae], mint family. #[Genus] 5 species; eastern North America. #[Species] í Collinsonia canadensis [common stone root, horse balm, rich weed, stone root], as above. #[Editor] common name: stone, also applied to: Juniperus osteosperma [stone-seed juniper], and Sedum stenopetalum [stone crop]; common name: horse, also applied to: Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut], Agastache [giant hyssop] = horse mint, Armoracia rusticana [horse radish], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] = horse fly weed, Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane] = horse weed, Mentha x rotundifolia [apple mint] = horse mint, species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm] = horse mint, and Solanum carolinense [horse nettle]; common name: balm, also applied to: Ceanothus velutinus [red root] = mountain balm, Cedronella canariensis [canary balm], Commiphora gileadensis [myrrh] = balm of gilead, Eriodictyon angustifolium [yerba santa] = mountain balm, Lepechinia calycina [pitcher sage] = wood balm, Melissa officinalis [lemon balm], species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm], Populus balsamifera [poplar] = balm of gilead. #[Appearance] Stone root is a strongly scented, erect, branching, perennial herb, with four-angled (square) stems, growing up to four feet tall; and knobby, gray- brown, very hard, stone-like rhizomes, about four inches long. Leaves are simple, opposite, large, greenish-yellow, ovate to oblong, short-stemmed, with prominent veins, serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are small, opposite, short-stemmed, lemon-scented, and light yellow; each with five, small, fused sepals (three in upper lip, two in lower lip); five, elongated, tubular, fused, unequal petals (four smaller in upper lip, one larger in lower fringed lip), expanded at the throat; and two long stamens extending far beyond the throat; grouped together in racemes; racemes in turn grouped together in loose panicles. Fruits are four, fused, smooth, round, one-seeded nutlets. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Stone root is found from Ontario down to Florida and west to Wisconsin and Arkansas. The herb grows in back washes, moist places by streams, and moist, shady mountain sides. The roots are incredibly heavy. They look like they were made out of stone. The leaves and flowers have a lemon scent. Medicinally, Collinsonia is best as a fresh root tincture. Any form of the dried plant is comparatively very poor. G Collinsonia is good for portal vein congestion. It’s a basic treatment for sluggish, congested veins in the lower half of the body. It’s good for varicose veins, chronic uterine congestion, chronic engorged prostate, and painful, dull urination concurrent with engorgement. It’s useful for cystitis when the whole pelvis is like a peat bog. It’s a venous and portal tonic, useful when the blood can't get up to the liver from the pelvis – the farthest part of the portal system. G Collinsonia is almost specific for large veins, aneurysms, expansions, and vein weaknesses between the valves. Bad diet and sedentary lifestyles tend to produce pelvic congestion with liver deficiency. Stone root acts

as a circulatory tonic for veins that go uphill to valves. G Collinsonia also very useful for phlebitis and hemorrhoids characterized by congestion and aggravated by diet. There are two kinds of hemorrhoids: boggy and sphincter excess. Lower GI deficiency can be boggy and fatty, with ileocecal irritability and oil-slick stuff – or tight and dry. In the second, the descending colon sphincter is too tight. Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut] would be used for the tight sphincter type hemorrhoid, and Collinsonia for the regular, congested type of hemorrhoid which needs portal dilation. G For the person who is pre-menstrual or over- loaded with food who gets hemorrhoids, Collinsonia would be appropriate. For the person who has been doing too much aerobics or weight lifting who gets hemorrhoids, Aesculus [buck eye, horse chest nut] would be appropriate. Two different mechanisms are involved. The transit time through the small intestine should take three or four hours. If it takes eight hours and is hard, slow, and difficult, but still with normal stools, Aesculus [buck eye, horse chest nut] would be the herb of choice to lighten up the rectal back pressure. G Collinsonia isn’t a direct hiatal hernia approach, but would be a decent one. G Stone root acts as a diuretic for people who perspire profusely and have chronic loose stools. It can help with hypo-thyroid where fluid exits via perspiration and other membranes in the intestinal tract, but not via the kidneys. Collinsonia helps increase kidney volume and dry out both inner and outer skin. It doesn’t act as a diuretic for people with kidney deficiency, dry skin, and dry GI. It’s almost specifically for fluid imbalance where outside and inside skins are moist, and the kidneys are dry. Basically, that includes hyper-thyroid stress and occasionally a person with loose stools from bad fat absorption. Essentially fluid redistribution is needed. G Collinsonia may act somewhat like Glycyrrhiza glabra [licorice] to moisten the lungs for people with dry lungs, dry skin, and dry GI. By improving portal congestion and venous blood return, Collinsonia also acts as a tonic to improve lymph return. It would be amicable with herbs like Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower] and Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root]. G Collinsonia is a decent although not outstanding astringent. In that regard, it’s no better than a thousand other herbs. G However, it’s a complex plant. If taken in excess, it has side effects. It may lower blood pressure, increase sweating, and increase peristalsis. It’s a

strong visceral tonic which puts blood into the body center – somewhat like a hint of a histamine shock response. G I wouldn’t recommend stone root for urinary tract stones, although it’s beneficial for urinary tract tone. G Collinsonia is a great medicine for a dull, aching uterus; for an enlarged, painful cervix; for painful and delayed periods; and for benign prostatic hyper-trophy. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] For pelvic congestion, fluid needs to be drained from the pelvic region and portal system. Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo] and Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] are effective for pelvic congestion, not so much in the viscera, but where the lymph tissues, the lymph organs, or the actual lymph pulp are congested. G Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] improves venous blood return. G Many medicines for hemorrhoids and varicose veins speed up the liver's absorption of portal blood or stimulate the ability of the small intestines to digest fats properly. Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] is a good example. Collinsonia is a vaso-constrictor which improves the quality of the portal veins and basically facilitates portal absorption. G In general, herbs to facilitate portal congestion include Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo], Collinsonia canadensis [stone root], small amounts of Veronicastrum virginicum [culver’s root], Euonymus [wahoo], Chelidonium majus [celandine], and Chionanthus virginicus [fringe tree] bark. They help as short-term aids to drain some congested venous blood into the lymph system. G If a person has varicose veins and hemorrhoids, Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] would be helpful. G Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] is primarily a venous medicine – a

good tonic to strengthen the venous system, portal circulation, lower GI, and mucosa. As a mild stimulant to peristalsis, its mainly helps reorganize or tightening up portal circulation. Collinsonia also helps stimulate secretions in the lungs. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh whole plant (root and herb), tincture, 1:2, 20-40 drops, up to three times a day (superior); dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 45-60 drops, up to four times a day (inferior). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Felter: 315, Grieve: 774, Hutchins: 263, Hoffmann: 223, Holmes: 570, Lust: 369 (#438), Millspaugh: 465 (#119), Moerman: 128, Meyer: 122, Mabey: 65, Potter: 259, Tierra (1): 157, Tierra (2): 283, Wyk + Wink: 406.

Commiphora myrrha MYRRH / MYRRH GUM
#[Family] Burseraceae, myrrh-frankincense family. #[Genus] 190 species; sub- tropical Africa, Madagascar, Arabia to Sri Lanka, Mexico, Central America and South America. #[Species] í Commiphora abyssinica [arabian myrrh, ethiopian myrrh, fadhli myrrh], Ethiopia; í Commiphora africana [african myrrh], tropical western Africa; í Commiphora gileadensis [balm of gilead, balsam myrrh, mecca myrrh], southwestern Arabia, Sudan, Ethiopia; í Commiphora guidottii [biblical myrrh ethiopian m, scented myrrh somalian m], Ethiopia, Somalia; í Commiphora kataf [gum opopanax, kataf myrrh], northern Kenya to southern Arabia; í Commiphora madagascariensis [madagascar myrrh, tanzanian myrrh], eastern Africa; í Commiphora mukul [guggul myrrh, gugulon myrrh mukul myrrh], India, China; í Commiphora myrrha [bdellium, bdellium gum, common myrrh, myrrh, myrrh gum], northeastern Africa, southwestern Asia; í Commiphora wightii [wight myrrh], India. #[Editor] Frankincense comes from species of Boswellia (not covered here), which have some similar medicinal properties, but aren’t entirely interchangeable; common name: gum, also applied to: Acacia senegal [gum arabic], Bursera microphylla [elephant tree (gum)], Eucalyptus globulus [blue gum], Grindelia squarrosa [gum weed], Liquidambar styraciflua [sweet gum], Prosopis julifera [mesquite (gum)], and Styrax officinalis [benzoin (gum)]; see also: balm, balsam, in cross reference. #[Appearance] Myrrh is obtained from thorny, sturdy but often drought stunted, deciduous, shrubs and small trees, with knotted branches, growing to about ten feet tall (rarely twenty), and exuding an aromatic gum or resin from the brown bark, which flows as a yellow liquid and hardens in reddish-brown masses. Leaves are small, alternate, and compound (trifoliate), with one large terminal leaflet and two smaller lateral leaflets (sometimes absent); with smooth surfaces, dentate (toothed) margins, and usually pointed tips (some rounded). Flowers are pink to reddish or yellow. Fruits are solitary, beaked, yellow, and grooved on one side. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Commiphora myrrha is the most commonly used species. Medicinally, myrrh has two basic purposes: gum problems and stimulation of white blood cell proliferation. G For gingivitis and receding gums, generally accompanied by puffiness and episodes of gum inflammation, you need a good mouth or gum tincture. It would include a disinfectant gum, a functional stimulant, and a strong astringent. The disinfectant gum could be Styrax officinalis [benzoin] gum, Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] gum, or Bursera microphylla [elephant tree] gum. The functional stimulant could include Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal], Anemopsis californica [yerba mansa], or Myrica cerifera [bay berry]. A strong astringent could be Krameria [rhatany], Geranium [cranes bill], or Quercus [oak] bark. G Myrrh is disinfectant which contains oils that bind with the muco-epithelium of the gums. As a vaso-dilator

and astringent, Myrica cerifera [bay berry] stimulates blood supply to the tissues. It’s hot and cold at the same time. Bursera [elephant tree] is basically the same as myrrh. The gum tincture would act as a bitter tonic to increase the secretion of saliva. G The second purpose of myrrh is to stimulate white blood cell proliferation. A woman having chronic fatigue syndrome or a retro-virus, inflamed lymph nodes, tiredness, and deficient number of white blood cells, could take Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Echinacea [cone flower], and Ceanothus [red root]. She could use an alterative syrup to promote the excretion of waste products from the body resulting from stimulation of immuno-logic responses. Elevated uric acid, elevated cholesterol, and dull achy joints are very typical of retro-viruses. G She should take Ceanothus [red root] for viscous blood. Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] and Echinacea [cone flower] are good start up herbs for any slow viruses, HIV (), or Epstein-Barr to stimulate white blood cell synthesis. If the person has a poor digestive tract, it would be good to stimulate both upper and lower GI. Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] with Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], or with Aristolochia [snake root], would be good for low vitality. G Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] may be taken to release neutrophils from the bone marrow, and thereby protect the blood. The number of neutrophils increase, but the neutrophil stem cells remain in the bone marrow. Those which go out into the blood stream are clones. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], Bursera microphylla [elephant tree] and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] cause rapid replication of common blood leukocytes. G Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] gum, Bursera microphylla [elephant tree] gum, and Styrax officinalis [benzoin] gum would be helpful to relieve the pain of mouth and gum sores that aren't necessarily chronic, including herpes sores, chancre sores, stomatitis sores, and so on. G Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] might be contra-indicated for auto-immune conditions. Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] and Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] stimulate the response of innate immunity and the proliferation of macrophages which are the intermediate between innate and acquired immunity, but they won't stimulate proliferation of lymph cells. The acquired immunity is the source of the auto-immunity. G Myrrh is disinfectant, astringent, and hot. It makes an excellent mouth wash for gum conditions. Some benzoin constituents bind with and strengthen the gum skin. Myrrh and Myrica cerifera [bay berry] are the two best herbs for the teeth. The worse the gums are, the better myrrh works. G For viral infections, try Echinacea [cone flower], Ligusticum porteri [osha, lovage, chuchupate], Lomatium dissectum [biscuit root], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi]. G Myrica cerifera [bay berry] works better than Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] for moderate or chronic gum conditions because of it’s stimulating heat and astringency. Myrica cerifera [bay berry] stimulates cold conditions, while myrrh tightens up acute conditions. However, myrrh is special because it stimulates white blood cell proliferation. It’s an immuno-stimulant which increases the number of circulating neutrophils in the blood stream within twenty-four hours. The blood will be cleaner. G One side effect, however, is that myrrh sometimes activates allergies in an acute state. Therefore, don't use myrrh with an active allergy. It’s a good immuno-tonic for deficient immunity, but not for normal or excess people. It stimulates white blood cell proliferation which speeds up immuno-logic responses to a new confrontation. It’s best used as a systemic medicine when the body is under microbial confrontation – such as bacteria, funguses, and viruses – or if one is exhausted, and the white blood cell energy is very low. With a stuffy nose or hyper-sensitivity, it doesn't necessarily mean one is immuno-suppressed. One should probably treat that as a liver condition, and stimulate liver function.

Perhaps, also take a mild decongestant. G Myrrh can be used during chemo- therapy with serious white blood cell count depressions, unless the treatment is for Hodgkin’s or the lymphatic system, where you need to suppress lymphatic cancer. Myrrh counteracts the side effects of the chemo-therapy. Every chemo- therapy or radiation treatment seriously depresses white blood cell counts and circulation. These cells are less differentiated than other blood cells; they are more affected by the treatments. Myrrh helps increase the white blood cell count. It isn’t a universal tonic. If used in a poly-pharmacy formula, it needs support from other herbs like Ceanothus [red root] and Fouquieria splendens [ocotillo], as well as herbal irritants. G Inununo-stimulant herbs like Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Echinacea [cone flower], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi] don’t help the liver. G Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] helps proliferate and release neutrophils, but it doesn’t seem to aggravate local inflammation induced by mast cells or basophils. Myrrh seems to facilitate neutrophil and macrophage responses which enable an infection to stay locally contained. G Bursera microphylla [elephant tree] gum is a viable North American substitute for Commiphora myrrha [myrrh] gum from Africa, and for Styrax officinalis [benzoin] gum from Europe and Asia. These three herbs contain the same basic substances – aromatic resins which stimulate the initial inflammatory response of mast cells and basophils – a desirable response for immuno-suppression, but not for an asthma condition. G Myrrh, elephant tree, and benzoin gums help relieve mouth and gum sores, including herpes, chancres, and stomatitis. G For an immuno-suppressed person whose basic life energy is intact, give Commiphora and Echinacea [cone flower]. For a dull person with depressed life energy, first give Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and then add Commiphora and Echinacea. Also, give some nutrients with the Baptisia. If too weak physically, first give Astragalus membranaceus [huang chi], then Baptisia, and then Commiphora and Echinacea. G Polygala senega [seneca snake root, milk wort], Commiphora myrrha [myrrh], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo], and Aristolochia [snake root] all stimulate macrophages in an innate immunity defense response. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried gum/resin, tincture, 1:5, 95% alcohol, 5-20 drops; dried gum/resin, in capsules, #0, one or two; either form, up to three times a day; also, dried gum/resin, tincture (as above), diluted with water, for topical use or as a mouth wash/ gargle, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Bensky + Gamble + Kaptchuk: 407, Battaglia: 233, Duke + Ayensu: 215-16, Drummond + Coates-Palgrave: 14, Dastur: 61 (#84), Felter: 482, Grieve: 78, 571-572, Hoffmann: 207, Hughes: 128, 130, Holmes: 676, Jain + DeFilipps: 204, Kloss: 288, Lust: 288 (#305), Lad + Frawley: 131, 172, Mabey: 33, 36, Oliver-Bever: 197, Potter: 198, Rodale: 396, Shih-Chen: 61, 62, Tierra (1): 141, Tierra (2): 278, Wyk + Wink: 69, 111, 252, 406.

Condalia lycoides LOTE BUSH / TECOMBLATE
#[Family] Rhamnaceae, buck thorn family. #[Genus] 18 species; sub-tropical North and South America. #[Species] í Condalia globosa [bitter condalia, bitter lote bush, bitter snake wood], California and Arizona; í Condalia lycoides [abrojo, blunt-leaved lote bush, condalia, crucillo, desert lote bush, lote bush, lote wood, gray thorn, grey thorn, snake wood, tecomblate, white crucillo, wolf berry lote bush], = Condalia obtusifolia, = Rhamnus obtusifolia, = Ziziphus lycoides, = Ziziphus obtusifolia, = Ziziphus obtusifolia var. obtusifolia, southern California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, northern Mexico; í

Condalia mexicana [mexican blue wood, mexican lote bush], southern Arizona, northern Mexico; í Condalia spathulata [spoon-leaved lote bush] = Condalia warnockii, New Mexico, southern Texas. #[Editor] common name: bitter, applied to: Condalia globosa [lote bush] = bitter condalia, Hymenoxys richardsonii [bitter weed], Hyssopus officinalis [hyssop] = bitter hyssop, Picrasma excelsa [quassia] = bitter wood, and Solanum dulcamara [bitter sweet]; many other plants are used as bitter tonics. #[Appearance] Lote bush is a deciduous, usually spiny, intricately branched, desert shrub or small tree. Leaves are simple, alternate, stemmed, ovate to elliptical; with two, tiny, deciduous stipules (leafy appendages) at the base; delicate veins, smooth margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are small, cream to greenish-white, symmetrical, axillary, and often solitary; with 4-5 sepals: somewhat fused at the base, usually deciduous (persistent in Condalia globosa); 4-5 petals: clawed and hooded (absent in Condalia globosa); and 4-5 stamens: opposite the petals, borne on a small disc in the flower throat; sometimes the flowers are grouped together in bunches of two or three. Fruits are berry-like drupes: fleshy, mealy, one-seeded, ovoid, dark blue to brown or reddish-purple, with a small point or beak at the tip. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] The genus Condalia is related to Rhamnus [buck thorn], and to Ziziphus [jujube]. Some species have been moved back and forth among the three groups. I prefer to keep our species in Condalia – so they don’t develop an identity crisis. Most of the berries are a little mealy but tasty, except for those of Condalia globosa which are intensely bitter. G With a little luck from erosion, you’ll find a few exposed roots at the side of a shrub. Clip these off close to the main vertical stems, and pull them up (as much as possible) away from the plant. It’s a hardy plant; you won’t hurt it. G Fresh roots are chopped up, peeled or grated, boiled, and used for soap. The soapy suds make a useful hair wash for scalp sores, tinea capitatis, and seborrhea. The effect can be increased by adding in some Sapindus drummondii [soap berry], or some freshly grated Yucca elata [soap tree yucca] root. G Lote bush roots are also chopped up, dried, and then boiled as medicine. The dried roots act as an astringent and anti-septic, with an additional mildly expectorant effect. A strong decoction is used for skin sores, scrapes, friction blisters, abrasions, and wind burns. It decreases the pain and some inflammation, while also cleansing and disinfecting a wound. In the waning days of bronchitis, the strong decoction loosens up tough bronchial mucus. The tea is used as an eye wash – mixed into an isotonic solution (Ω teaspoon salt in one pint warm water) – to help remove inflammation from conjunctivitis and sore eye lids. If you have hay fever or rhinitis, you can snuff, sniff, or snort a tea spoon of the tea from your palm up into your sinuses. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots and dried bark, strong decoction, 2-4 fluid ounces, up to four times a day; or, used topically, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 36, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Curtin: 181-182, Moerman: 130, Morton: 498, Sturtevant: 187, 188.

Conopholis alpina ALPINE BROOM RAPE
Conopholis americana AMERICAN BROOM RAPE
Epifagus virginiana VIRGINIA BROOM RAPE
Orobanche ludoviciana LOUISIANA BROOM RAPE
#[Family] Orobanchaceae, broom rape family. #[Genus] Conopholis: 2 species, Canada and United States to Panama; Epifagus: 1 species, eastern and central North America; Orobanche: 150 species, tropics, sub-tropics and temperate zones. #[Species] í Conopholis alpina [alpine broom rape, alpine cancer root,

broom rape, cancer root, mexican broom rape, mexican cancer root], = Conopholis alpina var. mexicana, = Conopholis mexicana, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Mexico, Central America; í Conopholis americana [american broom rape, american cancer root, broom rape, cancer root, squaw root] = Orobanche americana, eastern North America to Manitoba and Iowa; í Epifagus virginiana [beech drops, broom rape, pine drops, virginia broom rape], = Orobanche virginiana, eastern North America to Ontario, Wisconsin, Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas; í Orobanche ludoviciana [broom rape, louisiana broom rape, western broom rape], western Canada to Manitoba, western and United States (except California) to Virginia, Tennessee, Texas, and northern Mexico. #[Editor] Botanists have recently switched several genera and numerous species into the broom rape family, mostly from the Scrophulariaceae or fig wort family. These new members are only partial root parasites and do have chlorophyll; Michael spoke of the family as having only parasitic members which made no chlorophyll – technically no longer correct; Michael also lumped the four species listed above from three genera (Orobanche, Conopholis, Epifagus) as essentially equivalent medicinally; common name: broom, also applied to: Cytisus scoparius [scotch broom] and Gutierrezia sarothrae [broom weed]. #[Appearance] Broom rapes are small, root-parasitic, fleshy, perennial herbs, lacking chlorophyll, somewhat resembling pine cones, and usually about six inches tall. Leaves are entirely absent or usually reduced to small alternate scales. Flowers are asymmetrical, variously colored (white to violet); with five persistent, pointed sepals; five tubular, two-lipped, petals (upper lip two-lobed; lower lip three- lobed); and four stamens; grouped together in dense terminal spikes, or loose terminal rosettes. Fruits are capsules. Seeds are numerous and very small. NOTE Conopholis alpina is yellowish-white to orange, like a pine cone, but more thin and erect, usually grows on Quercus [oak] trees. Conopholis americana is yellowish-white, like a pine cone, but more rounded and squat, also grows on oaks. Epifagus virginiana is reddish-brown, not cone-like, with erect flowering stalks, usually grows on Fagus [beech] trees. Orobanche ludoviciana purple- brown to mauve, like a pine cone, but hairy-downy, usually grows on Juniperus [juniper] trees. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] All species in the broom rape family are parasitic [sic]. Most species are quite interchangeable medicinally. None make chlorophyll [sic]. Several similar plants, Orobanche ludoviciana and Conopholis alpina grow in desert canyons. Epifagus virginiana or beech drops and Conopholis americana or squaw root grow back east. All are frequently called broom rape. G Until you get to know the broom rapes, they can be confused with: Corallorhiza [coral root] in the Orchidaceae [orchid family], thin and erect, with wide-spaced, orchid-like, three lobed flowers, and roots with a symbiotic fungus, but not attached to any host plant (see above); and also with: Sarcodes sanguinea [snow plant] in the Pyrolaceae [shin leaf family], thick and dark red, found only in California, and not medicinal. These two plants are usually found in conifer forests. G After you pick broom rape, cut it up into pieces, and dry it. I usually go down to the host root and get the large tap-stalk. If you find a group of plants, pick the ones furthest from the host tree, so you don’t sever the roots on which the outer plants are living. I usually pick about one out of every four plants, and leave the rest. G The dried plant, as a tincture or tea, works as an astringent, anti-inflammatory, and sedative – useful for giardia, diarrhea, food poisoning, sleeplessness, irritability, and congestion. It helps to relieve joint and muscle pains in some osteo-arthritis where the inflammation causes poor sleep. The herb is almost totally devoid of toxicity and is amicable for small children and old folks. G Epifagus virginiana [beech drops] used to be a favorite treatment for people who had excessive secretions, couldn't sleep, and had a lot of sub-acute, chronic, inflammatory, or congested response to

tuberculosis. It was also used for cancer of the stomach, although it isn’t really an anti-cancer agent. It has a bitter taste. It acts as an astringent in external washes for wounds, cuts and abrasions. #[Field Notes] [Arizona] Orobanche mexicana or broom rape is a flesh-colored parasite which makes no chlorophyll and forms rings of interconnected colonies. Most parasites have to be gathered carefully because they will get moldy. You need to pull up the plant, slice it into quarters, and dry it lying side-ways in flats . The dried plant as a tea or powdered for capsules works best. G It’s not a strong herb, and everything in it seems to be water soluble. The herb is mildly sedative, astringent, and a systemic refrigerant. It’s good for fever and restlessness. It’s not a diaphoretic. As an astringent, it doesn’t shrink mucosa, but it seems to cool by means of vaso-constriction or tightening of the capillaries. When given internally, it is mildly cooling if a large body of tissues, such as the intestinal tract, uterus, or lungs are inflamed and engorged. It’s also cooling for an allergic reaction such as hives, or for a viral infection. The hotter you are, the more of cooling it is. It’s a predictable medicine. G The Chinese use their species as an aphrodisiac because it was supposed to have arisen out of the sperm spilled on the ground by a holy stallion. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Whole plant, standard infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces, applied topically, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 42, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 61, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 17, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 27. #[Other References] Grieve: 93, Hutchins: 31, Lust: 114 (#38), Moerman: 162, 315, Meyer: 14.

Convallaria majalis LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY
#[Family] Liliaceae, lily family. (unrestricted), ~Convallariaceae, lily-of-the- valley family. #[Genus] 3 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Convallaria majalis [common lily-of-the-valley, lily-of-the-valley], Europe, eastern North America, Oregon, Washington, Montana, Utah. #[Editor] common name: lily-of-the-valley, also applied to: Maianthemum racemosum [false solomon seal] = false lily-of-the-valley. #[Appearance] Lily-of-the-valley is a hairless, colonial, perennial herb; with leafless, elongated, flowering stalks; horizontal rhizomes; numerous, small, fibrous roots; spreading by stolons (runners); and several, large, sheathing scales at the stalk base. Leaves are simple, nearly basal, erect, oval-oblong to elliptical, usually only two blades (sometimes three), widest at the center, narrow and sheathing at the base, with faint veins, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are white, symmetrical, fragrant, nodding, bell-shaped to spherical; with long, thin, curved stems; six, short, curved, deciduous, lobes (i.e. three somewhat shorter sepals, and three nearly identical petals); six stamens; grouped together in one-sided, long-stemmed, terminal, racemes. Fruits are red, spherical, pulpy, few-seeded berries. Seeds are nearly spherical. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Convallaria majalis is a strong cardiac tonic, glycoside stimulant, calcium blocker, and calcium amplifier. It’s stronger than Apocynum [dog bane] and weaker than Digitalis purpurea [foxglove]. It is not quite in our turf. We have enough agents like Peniocereus greggii [night-blooming cereus], Crataegus [haw thorn], and Apocynum [dog bane] for functional cardiac problems. We also have Veratrum [green hellebore], Gelsemium [yellow jasmine], and Aconitum columbianum [uncured monks hood] to modify fever responses. Convallaria is an out and out heart medicine, and it’s not quite predictable. Viscum album [mistle toe] is a more sensible cardio- vascular sedative which isn’t in the same league as Convallaria. The cardiac glycosides produced by Digitalis purpurea [foxglove] and Convallaria majalis affect the ability of the heart to depolarize itself. They alter the charge of the heart

muscle. We don't want to do that. We want to affect the para-sympathetic and sympathetic adrenergic information sent to the heart so the heart can be what it is and do what it does. Basically, the heart needs to have proper nutrients. So, you should know about lily-of-the-valley, but the chance of ever encountering an appropriate use for it is probably very slim. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; otherwise, use with great care. Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 5-20 drops; recently dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 5- 20 drops; either form, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Allen + Hatfield: 326, Felter: 321, Grieve: 480, Hoffmann: 200, Holmes: 263, Kloss: 252, Kadans: 145, Lust: 255 (#254), Meyer: 73, Mabey: 81, Potter: 171, Tierra (2): 360, Wyk + Wink: 112, 406.

Conyza canadensis CANADIAN FLEA BANE / HORSE WEED
#[Family] Asteraceae [/Compositae], aster-sunflower-composite family. #[Genus] 60 species; tropical, sub-tropical and temperate zones. #[Species] í Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane, canadian horse weed, common canadian flea bane, flea bane, horse weed], = Erigeron canadensis, = Leptilon canadensis, North America, Mexico, West Indies, etc. #[Editor] common name: flea bane, also applied to: Pluchea camphorata [marsh flea bane]; common name: bane, also applied to: Actaea rubra [bane berry, cohosh], Apocynum [dog bane, canadian hemp], Cimicifuga racemosa [black cohosh, bug bane], Hyoscyamus niger [hen bane, fetid night shade], and Pluchea camphorata [marsh flea bane]; common name: horse, also applied to: Aesculus hippocastanum [horse chest nut], Agastache [giant hyssop] = horse mint, Armoracia rusticana [horse radish], Baptisia tinctoria [wild indigo] = horse fly weed, Collinsonia canadensis [stone root] = horse balm, Mentha x rotundifolia [apple mint] = horse mint, species of Monarda [wild oregano, bee balm] = horse mint, and Solanum carolinense [horse nettle]. #[Appearance] Canadian flea bane is a common (vague, drab, nondescript) annual herb (some other species perennial); with slender, erect, tall, usually hairy stems, often much branched near the top, and occasionally reaching eight feet tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, and usually downy; lower leaves are often notched, spoon-shaped, stemmed, with smooth or dentate (toothed ) margins, and pointed tips; upper leaves are usually not notched, linear, stemless, with smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are tiny, somewhat whitish to yellowish; peripheral ray florets are very small, very short, female only, (sometimes absent), which barely resemble tiny petals; central disc florets are, small, tubular, male and female, and less numerous than the ray florets; grouped together in numerous, small, composite heads, with bell-shaped bracts (leafy appendages) below; heads in turn grouped together in terminal racemes or panicles. Fruits are narrow, flattened achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one- seeded), with numerous fragile hairs or bristles at the tip. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Canadian flea bane is a roadside weed that smells somewhat like pine and lemon. The aromatics do the medicinal work. The recently dried plant makes the best medicine, and the tea is the best form to use. A tincture contains alcohol which could irritate membranes. The best way to harvest the herb is to pick an ample quantity, dry it whole in paper bags, crush it, put it in zip-lock bags, and store it in a cool place. G Conyza canadensis is a hemo-static used for chronic mucous membrane bleeding in the lungs, uterus, and intestinal tract. For inflammation and bleeding, one would generally use Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd's purse]. For frequent, acute, persistent bleeding, Cinnamomum verum

[cinnamon] can be recommended. However, for chronic bleeding, as in ulcerative colitis, Conyza canadensis is the most effective way to stop the bleeding. It’s use is strictly for chronic irritation that led to bleeding. G Any tissue that bleeds in the fashion for which Conyza canadensis is appropriate is the result of unceasing irritation and unremitting stress, whether in the stomach, cervix, descending colon, or lungs. The bleeding oozes, the pain is dull, and the ache occurs in cold, boggy tissue. The herb isn’t for a cut, abrasion, or bacterial infection in hot, torn tissues. Although you can stop the bleeding with Conyza canadensis, you still have to deal with the cause of the irritation. The factors include excess stomach secretions, chronic imbalance in vaginal flora, bad mouth flora, or chronic lung dryness due to allergies, stress, or environ-mental pollution. G You can stop the bleeding in dysentery with Rheum palmatum [rhubarb], Cinnamomum verum [cinnamon], Althaea officinalis [marsh mallow], and Capsella bursa-pastoris [shepherd’s purse] because you have a case of acute bleeding in the colon. But, if you’re constantly angry or stressed, and you have diarrhea and blood in the feces, that’s chronic and ulcerative inflammation of the colon, which can lead to cancer. Conyza canadensis is the only herb that works consistently on ulcerative colitis. G A lot of chronic diseases come out of a person's image, pride, and persona. People get tied into what’s wrong with them, and they don't want to let go. Ulcerative colitis is one of those conditions. People with ulcerative colitis tend to be small, chunky, and seem to smile a lot. The lower half of their mouth smiles, and the upper half frowns. There’s a deep-seated ambivalence – a surface cheerfulness hiding a very thinly disguised and pervasive fear. Prissiness is also a characteristic. G Canadian flea bane is also useful for diarrhea, with profuse sweating, and excessive production of slightly irritating urine. G Navajos used the finely powdered leaves (without flowers) snuffed into the nostrils for acute hay fever accompanied by profuse nasal drainage and sore itchy eyes. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] Conyza canadensis [canadian flea bane] has a distinctive smell, somewhat like Solidago canadensis [golden rod]. The dried plant is used for a tea. The herb is a hemo-static for colitis and urinary tract irritation. Capsella bursa- pastoris [shepherd’s purse] is used for more acute conditions, while Conyza is used for chronic, congested, edemic, boggy conditions. It’s the only herb that works for ulcerative colitis, where the inflammation has gone from congestion, to edema, to blistering, and ulceration. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Canadian flea bane is used for sub-acute bleeding, congested mucosa, injury, rupture, damage, tissue tearing, and ulcerated colitis caused by constant, chronic irritation. G Many Salvia [sage] species, and Conyza canadensis helps as an anti- secretory which is cooling to the skin. G Arctium lappa [burdock], Taraxacum officinale [dandelion], and Conyza canadensis [flea bane (canadian)] help skin excesses. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Recently dried flowering herb, standard infusion, o ounce herb in 2-4 fluid ounces water, one a day; or up to four times a day, for coughs. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 22, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 295 –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 10, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 17. #[Other References] Duke + Ayensu: 165, Felter: 360, Grieve: 320, Holmes: 418, Jain + DeFilipps: 71, 160, Kloss: 241, Kindscher: 97, 236, Lust: 234 (#219), Millspaugh: 317 (#80), Moerman: 166, Meyer: 101, Morton: 921, Manandhar: 168, Potter: 117, Willard: 214, Wyk + Wink: 406.

Copaifera officinalis COPAL / COPAIBA BALSAM
#[Family] Fabaceae [/Leguminosae], pea-bean-legume family, ~Caesalpiniaceae, brazil wood family. #[Genus] 30 species; tropical North and South America (25), tropical Africa (4), southeastern Asia (1). #[Species] í

Copaifera officinalis [copaiba, copaiba balsam, copaiba oil, copal, copal balsam, copal oil, medicinal copal], Puerto Rico, tropical North and South America. #[Editor] common name: balsam, also applied to: Balsamorhiza sagittata [balsam root], Commiphora gileadensis [myrrh] = balsam of gilead, Impatiens balsamina [jewel weed] = garden balsam, Liquidambar styraciflua [sweet gum] = liquid-ambar balsam, Myroxylon balsamum [balsam] = balsam of peru, = balsam of tolu, Populus balsamifera [poplar] = balsam poplar, Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium [false cud weed] = white balsam, Tsuga canadensis [hemlock spruce] = canadian balsam. #[Appearance] Copal resin comes from various species of small, tropical, ever green trees, growing to about 65 feet tall; the wood contains pockets of a yellow-brown, pungent, bitter resin. Leaves are alternate, compound (evenly-pinnate), and long-stemmed; leaflets (4-14) are obovate (pear-shaped), short-stemmed, with numerous translucent dots, smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are showy, symmetrical; with four white sepals; petals absent; and ten white stamens; grouped together in slender, branched, hairy panicles. Fruits are oval legumes (pods), with oval seeds. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] It is often difficult to get copaiba oil, but if you have some, it has properties equivalent to Piper cubeba [cubeb pepper] oil. Copaiba oil is very aromatic. It has been used to treat gonorrhea and dropsy, and in these cases, it is often combined with Piper cubeba [cubeb pepper], and Santalum album [sandal wood]. G The resin is also used as a stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, anti-septic, carminative, and laxative. It’s a good remedy for chronic catarrh and bronchitis. It’s also used for leucorrhoea (vaginal discharges), chronic cystitis, diarrhea, and hemorrhoids. If taken in excess, the resin can cause drastic purging, nausea, vomiting, choking, bloody urine, and fever. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Essential oil, 5-10 drops, in capsule, taken with food; or, used topically, diluted with three parts ethanol before applying. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Felter: 323, Grieve: 221, Morton: 304, Mors + Rizzini + Pereira: 102, Potter: 89-90, Schultes + Raffauf: 236, Sturtevant: 188, Wyk + Wink: 406.

Coptis trifolia GOLD THREAD / CANKER ROOT
#[Family] Ranunculaceae, butter cup family. #[Genus] 15 species; northern temperate and arctic zones. #[Species] í Coptis laciniata [cut-leaved gold thread, oregon gold thread], Washington, Oregon, northwestern California; í Coptis occidentalis [idaho gold thread, western gold thread], Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana; í Coptis trifolia [canker root, common gold thread, gold thread, mouth root, vegetable gold, yellow root, three-leaved gold thread], Alaska, Canada, Oregon, northeastern United States to Minnesota and North Carolina. #[Editor] see cross reference for common names: gold and golden; common name: thread, also applied to: Thelesperma megapontamicum [green thread]; common name: yellow root, also applied to: Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal, yellow puccoon]. #[Appearance] Gold thread is a low-growing, ever green, perennial herb, with leafless flowering stalks, very thin, thread-like, bright yellow, rhizomes/roots. Leaves are basal, compound (trifoliate), and long- stemmed; leaflets (3) are rounded to wedge-shaped, shiny above and duller below, short-stemmed, somewhat three-lobed, with serrated (saw-toothed) margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are usually solitary, small, white, star-shaped, and long-stemmed; with 5-7 white, spreading, deciduous sepals (resembling petals), and 5-7 greenish-white, club-shaped petals (resembling stamens). Fruits

are beaked follicles (each opening at maturity along only a single front suture), with 4-8 seeds. Seeds are smooth and shining. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Gold thread is a common plant found all across the northern hemisphere. It spreads out like Fragaria [straw berry], and it likes cold, damp, rich soils where you might find Actaea [bane berry], Ligusticum [osha, lovage, chuchupate], Angelica [un-cured angelica], Vaccinium [blue berry], or even Valeriana [valerian]. It prefers mountain bogs, deep forests, moist thickets, and swamps. The herb is used in Chinese medicine. The fresh, whole plant tincture most effectively uses the plant’s available constituents. The primary alkaloid is called coptine, which belongs to the same group as berberine and hydrastine – found respectively in Berberis vulgaris [bar berry] and Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal]. G If taken in excess, gold thread can be toxic during transit through the GI, irritate the transverse colon, and cause loose stools and burning diarrhea. G In proper doses, Coptis is an excellent stimulus to regenerate muco-epithelial membranes in chronic or sub-acute, congested conditions, which have gone to the point of ulceration. Although the surface of an ulceration is congested, there’s always an inflammatory aspect underneath. As a medicine, gold thread relates to both aspects, and it’s also rather anti-septic. The effect is mostly topical, and liquid forms can be applied in fairly concentrated amounts to the surface area. G As a strong tea or gargle, gold thread would help acid stomatitis, chronic heartburn, herpes sores, stomach ulcers, esophageal ulcers, cold sores, mouth sores, and any other ulceration down as far as the stomach. It’s used for pemphigus – ulcerative degeneration of mucous membranes in the mouth – which make it difficult to swallow and breathe. G Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal] acts as a metabolic and local stimulant. It works through the blood stream and by being excreted through the mucosa. Golden seal has a deeper effect than Coptis, and it works anywhere in the mucosa, but golden seal isn’t nearly as good as Coptis for muco-epithelial ulceration. G Basically, Coptis works topically in the upper GI down to the pyloric sphincter of the stomach. Below the stomach, gold thread gets absorbed into the blood stream. Hydrastis [golden seal] is excreted through the mucous membranes as a waste product, but Coptis [gold thread] is excreted as a waste product by the kidneys. Coptis works in the bladder and urethra and has a different channel of activity. Coptine and berberine have similar effects on the liver. Coptine and berberine are excreted in the urine. Hydrastine effects the blood stream locally and comes out through the mucosa systemically. Coptis has a local effect and comes out of the blood through the urine. G Coptis must be used topically for vaginal or rectal irritation. For the intestinal tract and urinary tract, it can be swallowed. It’s taken as a tincture for chronic ulcerative urethritis and ulcerative cystitis. G Berberine group herbs tend to be slightly hypo-glycemic. They increase liver metabolism of proteins and fats. They may help a heavy, but not terminal, drinker turn to something more substantial than candy bars and coffee. Gold thread helps treat the ulcers, alcohol gastritis, esophageal irritability, and bursting blood vessels caused by drinking. Distilled alcohol or hard liquor dehydrates the stomach, cause ulcers, and quickly moves to the liver. It’s likely to cause liver cirrhosis. In alcoholics and various types of ulcerative gastritis, the stomach lining starts to digest itself . G Vodka is a hyper- tonic which dehydrates the stomach lining and decreases its ability to secrete mucus to protect it from gastric secretions. A salty hyper-tonic agent throws excess sodium into the intestinal tract, and it acts as an anhydrotic in the blood stream to make the blood denser. Portal blood gets thicker because much of the fluid normally sent to the portal system is thrown into the small intestine in response to stomach dehydration. The person gets dehydrated and the pancreas gets exhausted. G Beer and wine are bitter. They produce a lot of pancreatic stress, stimulation and secretion. They make the pancreas less able to respond to

hyper-tonic stress. They make liver absorption rates slower. Beer and wine drinkers tend to have pancreatitis, particularly from drinking poor quality wine. Cheap wine contains a lot of sugar and irritating metabolites which are both acid and alkaline. Chronic pancreatitis amounts to an over-worked pancreas with an acid-alkaline imbalance. Wine is more destructive {than beer} in terms of chronic pancreatitis. The {alkaline} in the pancreas form stones from over-concentration and dehydration, and they block exits. Acute pancreatitis amounts to common duct blockage, and the self-digestion of the pancreas by its own pepsin. It is fatal. G In the small intestine, the presence of trypsinogen makes trypsin. Even a molecule of trypsin getting into the pancreas can trigger a cascade of trypsin synthesis. When trypsin inoculates the pancreas, the pancreas dissolves itself. An impaired pancreatic drainage, or a chronic, boggy, inflammatory pancreatic condition is exaggerated by poor portal circulation. Coptis in the blood stream gives better circulation and increased fluids in the small intestine. That makes it easier for the pancreas to drain its venous blood into the liver. G A salve can be made from gold thread leaves. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] When a sub-acute, long-standing congestion is located above the liver in the stomach, esophagus, or duodenum, you would want to use Coptis trifolia [gold thread]. It can be bought commercially; it is cultivated in China, and it isn’t so over-picked like Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal]. Coptis works like golden seal in many respects, although its effects are quite confined to the upper intestinal tract mucosa. G Coptis contains non-yellow alkaloids which resemble golden seal constituents in their actions, but they don't enter the blood stream to be excreted through the mucosa like those in golden seal. The liver cools down the effects of Coptis. Because Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal] is hot to all mucosa, if a woman were pregnant and wanted astringent action in the mouth but not in the uterus, she would do better to use Coptis trifolia [gold thread] as a gargle. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh whole plant (roots and herb), tincture, 1:2, 30-60 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 30-60 drops; either form, used internally, up to three times a day. Also, either tincture, diluted with water, used topically, as needed; or dried roots, strong decoction, not diluted, used topically, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 139, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Felter: 324, Grieve: 361, Kindscher: 277, Lust: 211 (#177), Moerman: 130, Meyer: 54, Potter: 132, Wyk + Wink: 113.

Corallorhiza maculata CORAL ROOT / CRAWLEY ROOT
#[Family] Orchidaceae, orchid family. #[Genus] 15 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Corallorhiza odontorhiza [autumn coral root, eastern coral root], eastern and central North America; í Corallorhiza maculata [coral root, crawley, crawley root, spotted coral root, summer coral root, western coral root], Alaska, Canada, United States (except Florida to Kansas), northern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Coral root is a brown, purple, reddish, or yellowish perennial herb; saprophytic (living on dead organic matter) or a root parasite (without chlorophyll); with dark brown, toothed, branched, coral-like rhizomes; and leaf-less flowering stalks, usually less than one foot tall. Leaves are entirely absent or reduced to a few sheathing basal scales. Flowers are asymmetrical, orchid-like (one lower lip, two side spurs, two upper petals, and a third upright spur behind the flower), usually the same color as the plant stalk; with narrow sepals and petals (nearly alike, except petals are swollen at the base); and four, soft, waxy pollinia (pollen masses). Flowers grouped together (3-20) on terminal racemes. Fruits are brown, oval, drooping, reflexed capsules. Seeds are numerous

and microscopic. Corallorhiza odontorhiza has flowers without spots, and lower lip one-lobed; Corallorhiza maculata has whitish flowers with red-purple spots, and lower lip three-lobed. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Corallorhiza or coral root is a fairly common orchid. It has a distinctive smell which resembles Cypripedium [ladies slipper] – another orchid. It is a parasitic plant found in shady, moist canyons, in rotting pine needles, in symbiosis with a fungus. The roots grow in a coral-like formation. The plant bears bright, coral-red flowers in June or July. G As a rule, orchid species are over-adapted. They depend on very limited factors for their survival, and they tend to grow in small ecological niches. G The whole plant can be used medicinally, and the fresh plant yields the most medicine. However, gathering the herb is hard work, and the yield is limited. The fresh or dried herb is prepared as a hot tea, or the tincture is given in hot water. Start with 60 to 90 drops in hot water. It’s a strong, efficient, non-toxic, alterative diaphoretic. You need a fair amount. G It works in an exaggerated fashion – like Asclepias tuberosa [pleurisy root], and Asclepias asperula [inmortal]. It acts as a drug substance to the sympathetic cholinergic response. It directly stimulates glands, like the sweat glands, which are sympathetic cholinergic. Coral root has little systemic effect, and it’s not irritating. The body isn't set up for strong para- sympathetic responses. It’s set up for adrenergic responses. G A broad spectrum para-sympathetic discharge response makes the body feel strange. Coral root won't give a premature diaphoresis in a slow onset fever. The quicker the onset, the quicker the diaphoresis. Coral root is a drug stimulus to the sympathetic sweating mechanism, and it works as a nerve synergist. It’s cooling to the liver, and it’s useful for liver excess. G Coral root is a strong diaphoretic used for post- partum fevers. It is the strongest diaphoretic herb available which has little or no drug effect. In a uterine infection, coral root eliminates waste products, and disperses calories through evaporation, while not interfering with the disease response. The herb is alterative because it helps extend the healing response by keeping homeostasis possible during the fever. With a short-term, rapid onset febrile response, mastitis, or a sudden onset uterus infection after a home or hospital birth – coral root can be used as first aid for the woman before getting medical attention. G Medical attention is necessary, because child birth fever can be fatal. After delivery, the uterus and breasts are filled with many white blood cells. In those areas, the blood supply is very reactive to any post-partum invaders, and the body can quickly induce a strong inflammatory response. Coral root sweats out the quick systemic fever. Following diaphoresis, one feels more calm and relaxed. Generally, coral root induces deep relaxation and sleep. #[Field Notes] [McMillan] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh roots, tincture, 1:2, 30-90 drops; dried roots, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 30-90 drops; either form, in hot water, once a day. Also, dried roots, cold infusion, 3-6 fluid ounces, reheated, once a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 63, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 295, Mountain West Revision: 94, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Felter: 322, Grieve: 233, Hutchins: 104, Kloss: 235, Lust: 163 (#108), Moerman: 131-2, Meyer: 35, Potter: 95-96.

Coriandrum sativum CORIANDER / CILANTRO
#[Family] Apiaceae [/Umbelliferae], parsley-carrot-umbel family. #[Genus] 3 species; Mediterranean, southwestern Asia, widely cultivated. #[Species] í Coriandrum sativum [cilantro, common coriander, coriander], as above, introduced in Quebec and Ontario, United States (variously, from Massachusetts to Washington, Florida to California). #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Coriander is a

slender, aromatic, hairless, annual herb, with thin stems. Leaves are generally in two forms; lower leaves are basal or alternate on the stems, compound (pinnate or twice pinnate); leaflets (usually seven) are ovate to obovate (pear-shaped), with serrated (saw-toothed) or lobed (usually seven) margins, and pointed tips; upper leaves are alternate, compound (pinnate or twice pinnate); leaflets with very, narrow, linear, lobed segments. Flowers are asymmetrical, white to rose-pink; sepals are unequal in size, lanceolate, and prominent; petals are white, very unequal in size; grouped together in a loose umbellet (small umbel) with peripheral petals of individual flowers enlarged – making the larger petals resemble ray florets in an Asteraceae [/Compositae] or aster-sunflower- composite family flower head; umbellets in turn grouped together in axillary or terminal umbels; with a few narrow bracts (leafy appendages) below. Fruits are nearly spherical, tan-yellow, hairless, dry, and hard, with slender ribs. Seeds are small and concave. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Coriander is good in curries and masalas. It is basically a good carminative. In that regard, it acts like Pimpinella anisum [anise], Lavandula angustifolia [lavender], and Nepeta cataria [catnip]. Of all the carminatives, Elettaria cardamomum [cardamom ] is the best. Coriander seeds are sometimes given (like an after dinner mint) to help settle the stomach. You can also make a tincture. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Carum carvi [caraway] seeds and Coriandrum sativum [coriander] are mildly anesthetic. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried seeds, tincture, 1:5, 65% alcohol, 10-20 drops, as needed; also, a few seeds, chewed, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Alvarez: 113, Boulos: 180, Battaglia: 286, Curtin: 73-74, Duke + Ayensu: 82, Dastur: 63 (#88), Felter: 325, Grieve: 221, Hoffmann: 183, Jain + DeFilipps: 120, Kloss: 236, Lust: 164 (#109), Lad + Frawley: 114, Meyer: 32, Morton: 644, Manandhar: 170, Mabey: 120, Martinez: 99, 561, Potter: 90, Quisumbing: 687, Rodale: 125, Shih-Chen: 127, Sturtevant: 191-2, Tucker + Debaggio: 213, Tierra (1): 91, Tierra (2): 219, Wyk + Wink: 47, 114, 406.

Cornus canadensis BUNCH BERRY / DWARF DOG WOOD
#[Family] Cornaceae, dog wood family. #[Genus] 65 species; 4 left after splitter’s feeding frenzy; north temperate zone, especially Europe and Asia, rare in Africa and South America. #[Species] í Cornus canadensis [bunch berry, bunch berry dog wood, canadian dog wood, canadian bunch berry, common bunch berry, cracker berry, dwarf cornel, dwarf dog wood, pigeon berry, pudding berry], northeastern Asia, Alaska, Canada, northern United States (Virginia to Oregon), south to California, Colorado and New Mexico. #[Editor] common name: pigeon berry, also applied to: Phytolacca americana [poke weed]. #[Appearance] Bunch berry is a low-growing, perennial herb (all other Cornus species are shrubs or small trees); with a single flowering stalk; slender, horizontal, woody, rhizomes; and small roots; reaching to only about six inches tall. Leaves are simple, whorled (4-6 just below the flower head), short-stemmed, over-lapping (occasionally paired), oval to obovate (pear-shaped), bright green above, lighter green below; with prominent pinnate main veins arising at leaf base (apparently parallel), branched and netted in between; with characteristic, white, rubbery, thread-like, strings of latex sap between the veins; smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous (usually ten, but apparently solitary), light- green to yellowish or purplish, stemless; each with four tiny sepals and four tiny petals; grouped together in a short-stemmed, head (apparently the center of a single flower); with four, white bracts (leafy appendages which appear to be

petals) below; usually appearing before the leaves. Fruits are spherical, bright red, berry-like drupes, grouped together in a spherical clusters, each with smooth, two- seeded stones. Pulp is edible but bland. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Seattle] Cornus canadensis has the same constituents as Cornus florida [dog wood], only they are stronger. The bitter constituents, {comic acid}? and the glycoside {corvine}? are similar to (although not as effective as) salicylic acid, and they don’t create allergic reactions over time. For a person having osteoarthritis, a salicylate will be the most sensible remedy. However, after years of salicylates, the person might become allergic to the albumin carriers of the salicylic acid in the blood stream. Salicylic acid is a prostaglandin inhibitor. Prostaglandin made in the stomach controls inflammation. In joints, the same prostaglandin stimulates inflammation. Therefore, taking aspirin relieves joint pain but causes gastritis. {Comic acid}? is not as strong as salicylic acid, and it has a different transport mechanism in the blood stream. It’s a good anti- inflammatory for a person who’s become allergic to salicylates. It’s also a lot safer than other alternatives. The dried herb could be used as a simple tea. Each person's response to {comic acid}? is different. A rounded teaspoon per cup might be needed to give the equivalent of one aspirin. The berries with raisins can be used to make wine. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, stems and bark, cold infusion or standard infusion, 3-6 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. Same dosages as for Cornus florida [dog wood] and Cornus sericea [red osier] (see below). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 95, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Angier (1): 44, Moerman: 134, Sturtevant: 192, Willard: 158.

Cornus florida FLOWERING DOG WOOD / CORNEL
#[Family] Cornaceae, dog wood family. #[Genus] 65 species; 4 species after splitter feeding frenzy; north temperate zone, especially Europe and Asia, rare in Africa and South America. #[Species] í Cornus florida [arrow wood, common dog wood, cornel, dog wood, eastern dog wood, eastern flowering dog wood, flowering dog wood, white dog wood], = Benthamidia florida, = Cynoxylon floridum, Ontario, eastern and central United States, to Kansas, Texas and northeastern Mexico. #[Editor] –. #[Appearance] Dog wood is a deciduous shrub or small tree, with very rough bark, reaching to about forty feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, stemmed, oval to ovate, brighter green above, lighter green below; with prominent pinnate main veins arising at leaf base (apparently parallel), branched and netted in between; with characteristic, white, rubbery, thread-like, strings of latex sap between the veins smooth margins, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous (usually ten, but apparently solitary), light-greenish to yellowish, stemless; each with four tiny sepals, and four tiny petals; grouped together in a short-stemmed, head (apparently the center of a single flower); with four, large, white bracts (leafy appendages which appear to be petals) below; usually appearing with or before the leaves. Fruits are spherical, bright red, berry- like drupes, each with smooth, two-seeded stones. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] –. #[Field Notes] [Arkansas] The bark, leaves and stems of Cornus florida [dog wood] are used medicinally as an aspirin substitute for osteo- arthritis. For the management of long term inflammation and pain in osteo- arthritis, aspirin and its friends are still the best approach. Some people take responsibility for self-treatment, respond well to aspirin, but have an allergy to it, and they also have an allergy to Populus [aspen] bark. As a substitute, they could try Cornus florida [dog wood] bark, or Magnolia [magnolia] bark, or dog wood

leaves and stems. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, stems and bark, cold infusion or standard infusion, 3-6 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. Same dosages as for Cornus canadensis [bunch berry] (see above) and Cornus sericea [red osier] (see below). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Felter: 325, Grieve: 122, Hutchins: 111, Lust: 175 (#127), Millspaugh: 280 (#71), Moerman: 134-5, Meyer: 37, Potter: 42.

Cornus sericea RED OSIER / RED DOG WOOD
#[Family] Cornaceae, dog wood family. #[Genus] 65 species; 4 after splitter feeding frenzy; north temperate zone, especially Europe and Asia, rare in Africa and South America. #[Species] í Cornus sericea [common red osier, red dog wood, red osier, red osier dog wood, red willow], = Cornus stolonifera, = Swida sericea, Alaska, Canada, northern United States, to New Mexico, Arizona and California. #[Editor] common name: willow, applied especially to species of Salix [willow], and also to: Baccharis salicifolia [seep willow], Chamerion angustifolium [fire weed] = willow herb, Chilopsis linearis [desert willow], and Cornus sericea [red osier] = red willow. #[Appearance] Red osier is a deciduous shrub, with bright red to purplish, hairless stems and twigs, reaching to about ten feet tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, short-stemmed, oval-ovate to lanceolate, bright green above and below; with prominent pinnate main veins arising at leaf base (apparently parallel), branched and netted in between; with characteristic, white, rubbery, thread-like, strings of latex sap between the veins; smooth margins, rounded bases, and pointed tips. Flowers are numerous (50-60), white, nearly stemless; each with four tiny sepals, four tiny petals, and four bracts (leafy appendages) below; grouped together in a short-stemmed, terminal cymes. Fruits are spherical, usually white, berry-like drupes, grouped together in spherical clusters, each with a smooth, one-seeded, variable-shaped stone. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Red osier has a low level of salicylates, and it is devoid of most side effects. The roots, stems, and bark are used medicinally. The leaves can also be used, but they are a little less effective. Like Magnolia [magnolia], a person who is allergic to salicylates use this herb. Cornus sericea provides a certain amount of prostaglandin inhibition and decreased joint inflammation. Its aspirin-like effects are enhanced when given with other herbs like Harpagophytum procumbens [devil’s claw]. The bark is a mild intoxicant with a pleasant taste. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried roots, stems and bark, cold infusion or standard infusion, 3-6 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. Same dosages as for Cornus canadensis [bunch berry] and Cornus florida [dog wood] (see above). #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 295, Mountain West Revision: 218, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Gilmore: 56, Millspaugh: 288, Moerman: 134, 135, 136, 137, Sturtevant: 193, Willard: 159.

Corydalis aurea GOLDEN SMOKE / SCRAMBLED EGGS
#[Family] Papaveraceae, poppy family, ~Fumariaceae, fumitory family. #[Genus] 400 species; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Corydalis aureus [common golden smoke, golden corydalis, golden smoke, scrambled eggs], = Capnoides aureum, Alaska, Canada, western and northern United States. #[Editor] Depending on the botanist and his cyclic mood swings, the genera:

Dicentra [bleeding heart] and Corydalis [golden smoke], are first placed in the same genus, and then they are not, much like the ever-changing placements of Mahonia [oregon grape] and Berberis [bar berry]; common name: golden, also applied to: Hydrastis canadensis [golden seal], Hymenoxys hoopesii [golden sneeze weed], Potentilla fruticosa [cinque foil] = golden hard hack, Senecio aureus [golden rag wort], Solidago canadensis [golden rod], Vancouveria chrysantha [golden inside-out flower], Verbesina encelioides [golden crown beard]. #[Appearance] Golden smoke is a small, clumpy, often colonial, early flowering, leafy, winter annual or biennial herb; with branching, spreading, somewhat succulent stems; small roots; and usually growing to about six to twelve inches tall. Leaves are alternate, compound (pinnate), mostly stemmed, bluish-green to bluish-gray; leaflets (5-7) roughly elliptical, but with deeply dissected/cleft margins, and abruptly pointed tips. Flowers are small, asymmetrical, bright yellow, short-stemmed, tubular at the base, somewhat inflated; with four, fused petals (forming two lobes and one spur near the apex); grouped together in loose, short, few-flowered racemes. Fruits are elongated, linear, bean-like, capsules (called pods), with alternating constrictions and expansions. Seeds are small, shiny, numerous, somewhat smooth but with faint veins. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Like Dicentra [bleeding heart], Corydalis [golden smoke] has a very complex pharmacology, with dozens of alkaloids – including corydaline, corypalmine, and protopine – and also possibly bulbocapnine, recently tested and used in standard medicine. For us, this means we can combine a very small amount of the dried plant tincture with a specific herbal sedative like Scutellaria [skull cap] or Valeriana [valerian] and help to relieve nervousness and hysteria – manifested in trembling, shaking, and twitching. In too large a dose, golden smoke causes these same symptoms, but in a formula or combination, golden smoke is very effective. It’s supposed to inhibits the aggregation of platelets, but I have not observed this effect. It’s safer to use than the related Dicentra species. If someone were using a lot of anti- oxidants and blood-thinning supplements (like garlic, vitamin E, CoQ-10, MSM, or aspirin), the addition of golden smoke might cause nose bleeds and really poor blood coagulation. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] CAUTION – do not use during pregnancy; do not use during any organic disease; do not use concurrently with neurological medications; otherwise, best used in small frequent doses or in a formula. Dried herb, tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10-15 drops, up to four times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West: 65, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision: 96, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 8, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Moerman: 138, Mayes + Lacy: 112.

Cowania mexicana CLIFF ROSE / QUININE BUSH
#[Family] Rosaceae, rose family. #[Genus] 5 species; southwestern United States and Mexico; sometimes included in Purshia with 2 species, or with 7 seven species, if expanded. #[Species] í Cowania mexicana [cliff rose, mexican cliff rose, quinine bush], = Cowania stansburiana, = Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana, = Purshia mexicana, = Purshia stansburiana, Idaho, southwestern United States, to central Mexico. #[Editor] common name: quinine, usually applied to species of Cinchona; common name: quinine bush, also applied to: Garrya wrightii [silk tassel]. #[Appearance] Cliff rose is a much branched, erect, leafy, aromatic, ever green shrub, with dark gray shredding bark, and reddish- brown, glandular twigs. Leaves are small but numerous, alternate; a few are simple (undivided), many are compound (palmate); leaflets are thick, leathery,

gland-dotted, usually green and smooth above with white woolly hairs below, roughly obovate (pear-shaped) in outline, but pinnately divided into small, narrow-lobed margins, and rounded tips. Flowers are solitary, showy, and terminal on short branches; with five, over-lapping, ovate, green sepals; five spreading, obovate (pear-shaped), white to cream-colored petals; and numerous stamens. Styles are characteristically elongated, persistent, feathery white plumes; with thin red stalks – very similar to the styles of Fallugia paradoxa [apache plume]. Fruits are furrowed, hairy achenes (small, dry, hard, closed, and one- seeded). #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Two other similar shrubs in the same family – Purshia tridentata [antelope bush] (not covered here), and Fallugia paradoxa [apache plume] (q.v.) have similar properties. NOTE: common name: antelope, also applied to: Asclepias asperula [inmortal] = antelope horns, and Eriogonum [buck wheat bush] = antelope sage. G A tea made from the dried, chopped and boiled leaves and stems makes a soothing cough suppressant, although bitter, which is especially helpful in the early stages of a chest cold, one with a hot drawn sensation, and a dry irritated throat. Drink the tea slowly, gargle a bit, and swallow. G The tea also induces sweating, and softens mucus secretions. It helps with truck driver back aches (ones with a vague need to urinate, defecate, sleep – a strong urge to do – something). G The dried flowers and flower buds, with the bitter green sepals (the calyx) carefully removed, can be added in small amounts to other teas to add a delicate orange-scented fragrance. But, not too many, or the flavor turns bitter. #[Field Notes] –. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] –. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Dried leaves and stems (reddish new growth), simple tea, sipped slowly and gargled, as needed. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West: 34, Los Remedios –, Pacific West –, Mountain West Revision –, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition) –, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) –. #[Other References] Moerman: 139, Mayes + Lacy: 27-28.

Crataegus columbianus COLUMBIA HAW THORN
Crataegus rivularis RIVER HAW THORN
#[Family] Rosaceae, rose family. #[Genus] about 200 species, with over 3000 varieties, sub-species, forms, sub-forms, and hybrids named by splitters; north temperate zone. #[Species] í Crataegus chrysocarpa [fire-berry haw thorn, golden-fruited haw thorn], Canada, northern United States (Oregon to Virginia), Utah, Colorado, New Mexico; í Crataegus columbiana [black haw, black haw thorn, columbia haw thorn, columbia river haw thorn, haw thorn, western black haw, western black haw thorn], Oregon, Washington, Idaho, British Columbia; í Crataegus douglasii [black haw thorn, douglas haw thorn, short-spined haw thorn], = Crataegus brevispina, = Crataegus gaylusaccia, Alaska, Canada (except Manitoba), northern United States (Oregon to Michigan), northern California and Nevada; í Crataegus erythropoda [cerro haw thorn], Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona. í Crataegus laevigata, [smooth-leaved haw thorn], Europe and Asia; Washington; Ontario, Quebec, Wisconsin, Michigan; í Crataegus monogyna [english haw thorn, one-seed haw thorn], Europe, Asia, eastern Canada, northeastern United States to Arkansas; also Alaska to California, Montana and Utah; í Crataegus oxycantha [sharp-thorned haw thorn, two-seeded haw thorn], Europe and Asia, introduced in eastern United States; í Crataegus rivularis [river haw thorn], Idaho and Montana, south to Nevada, northern Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas. #[Editor] This genus is notorious for having adjacent species having many intermediate forms and overlapping habitats; some references combine Crataegus columbiana and Crataegus douglasii. #[Appearance] Hawthorns are deciduous, many-branched,

shrubs and small trees, with strong sharp thorns (Ω to four inches long), and very hard wood. Leaves are simple, alternate, short-stemmed, ovate to elliptical, often not much longer than wide, downy or hairless, with variously serrated (saw- toothed) or shallowly lobed margins, prominent veins, and usually rounded tips. Flowers are small, symmetrical, and numerous; with five fused sepals forming a bell-, urn-, or cup-shaped calyx; five small, white (rarely pink), round, spreading petals; 5-25 stamens; grouped together in many, loose, terminal corymbs. Fruits are small, nearly spherical, drupe-like pomes; variously colored yellow, red, blue, purple or blue-black; with a thin layer of pulp, and nearly filled with 1-5, bony, one-seeded, nutlets. Seeds are erect and flat, with a membranous outer coat. #[Herbal Properties] –. #[Class] Crataegus or haw thorn is well known for treating heart and circulatory problems. A tincture of the fresh berries or fresh flowering twigs are used medicinally. Haw thorn is a coronary artery vaso-dilator, and a cholinergic agent which slows and strengthens heart function. It is used for hyper-tension, related sympathetic tachycardia, episodic hyper-tension, early arterio-sclerosis, and myocardial leakage. It’s counter-indicated in bradycardia, and during the use of beta-blockers or other heart medications. Haw thorn is a good herb for a strong hyper-tensive person – a bull-necked, aging jock – with occasional palpitations, or difficulty in calming down in the evening because the heart beats hard and strong. G It’s also good for episodic hyper-tension in kidney deficient people in their forties and fifties with adrenalin, caffeine, or Nicotiana trigonophylla [wild tobacco, punche] related agitations. Generally, a person in their sixties and seventies, will have generated some organic damage. They probably shouldn’t use Crataegus. G However, Peniocereus greggii [night- blooming cereus] and some dietary changes would help the person over sixty to calm down the brain. #[Field Notes] [McMillan] Crataegus is commonly called haw thorn. The berries hold up well, and they are used in commerce. The flowers and berries are more effective medicinally than the leaves and twigs. The flowers have the greatest potency. The herb works best when fresh. Crataegus is a tonic for cardio-vascular excess. It can be used for rapid pulse, and for most types of essential hyper-tension. It’s a cardiac cholinergic which dilates the coronary arteries by stimulating para-sympathetic enervation. G It slows the pulse, strengthens the heart, and makes the heart better fed and more durable. In treating essential hyper-tension, it is necessary to decrease the stress which induces high blood pressure. When the heart gets insufficient blood – whether from arterio- sclerosis, vaso-constriction, nervousness, or over-work – it beats harder. Insufficient blood to the heart can cause spasms and initiate angina pectoris. Crataegus is nearly heart specific. It doesn't have a great effect on the arteries. G Sometimes, you can use it with Passiflora [passion flower] which acts as an arterial sedative and relaxant. The two herbs used together cover most cases of essential hyper-tension and episodic hyper-tension. Sometimes, it’s good to add peripheral vaso-dilators – like Zanthoxylum [prickly ash], Capsicum annuum [cayenne], Aristolochia serpentaria [virginia snake root], Asarum canadense [wild ginger], Myrica cerifera [bay berry], or Zingiber officinale [ginger] – to dilate various sizes of blood vessels. #[Chemical Constituents] –. #[Physiology] Peniocereus greggii [night-blooming cereus] and Crataegus [haw thorn] help calm down the heart, making it more consistent and efficient. G The flowers and flowering twigs tend to be more hypo-tensive, slightly decreasing cardiac output by stimulating para-sympathetic enervation and acetylcholine type energies in the heart. Haw thorn berries increase coronary vaso-dilation and the quality and quantity of the blood that feeds the heart. The effect is stronger on the ventricles, giving increased power, strength, and food to the major out-pump muscles for which coronary blood supply is most important. G A mixture of Crataegus [haw thorn] and Passiflora [passion flower], or just passion flower itself, gives some

arterial sedation, relaxation and vaso-dilation. Since Passiflora is a moderate arterial sedative, it increases the size of the arteries when they relax in the diastole so the heart doesn't have to push as hard. G Crataegus [haw thorn], Passiflora [passion flower], and Viscum album [mistle toe] all suppress both systole and diastole. G Crataegus [haw thorn] is a para-sympathetic or cholinergic stimulating herb which slows the pulse and dilates the coronary arteries. It’s perfectly safe in any case of cardio-vascular excess, and it’s often appropriate for some types of deficiency. G Like Lobelia cardinalis [cardinal flower], Crataegus [haw thorn] is useful for cardio-vascular excess, and often helpful in cardio- vascular deficiency. #[Medical Usage] –. #[Medical Dosage] Fresh plant (flowers and leaves), tincture, 1:2, 10-30 drops; dried berries, tincture, 1:5, 60% alcohol, 10-30 drops; either form, up to three times a day. Also, dried berries, cold infusion, 1-2 fluid ounces, up to two times a day. #[Moore References] Mountain West –, Desert and Canyon West –, Los Remedios –, Pacific West: 141, Mountain West Revision: 126, Materia Medica (Fourth Edition): 9, Materia Medica (Fifth Edition) 14. #[Other References] Angier (1): 96, Angier (2): 132, Boulos: 153, Duke + Ayensu: 542, Felter: 325, Grieve: 386, Gilmore: 35, Hoffmann: 195, Holmes: 257, Jain + DeFilipps: 508, Kadans: 127, Kindscher: 274, Lust: 214 (#182), Lad + Frawley: 123, Moerman: 139, Mabey: 104, Potter: 138-139, Rodale: 275, Sturtevant: 197, Tierra (1): 129, Tierra (2): 259, Willard: 110, Wyk + Wink: 115, 406.





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